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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Myrissa Webb on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Bohannan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Polis- City-state. Lack of political union. In part due to geography. Lead to democracy. Cylon- His cu de ta (failed) was the first signal to the oligarchs that it was time to make adjustment Solon- The father of Democracy. His reforms would come closer to creating democratic forms. Trial by jury. Lowered property requirement. Cleisthenes- Made things more fully and thoroughly democratic as they are going to be in Athens. Made the council in 500. Dividing Athens up in 10 units and everyone chose 5 representatives. hoplite- The foot soldier. Infantry men. phalanx- Military form. A block of foot soldiers with spears. helot- slaves Athens- Sparta - Athens arch enemy in the Peloponnesian war. Never becomes democratic, always a monarchy. Highly militaristic state. They become this because of helot uprisings. Peloponnesian Wars - Starts because Athens led the Greeks in the conflict with the Persians (the Delian league). The league had a treasury and Athens headed it up and abused it. So Sparta fights. Socrates - Philosopher. Moralist. Based on reason, he asked his fellow Athenians to reflect on their world, their lives and how they work. Evaluate the traditions and customs in a rational way. He button holed people in public and used the Socratic method and it made people uncomfortable. Plato- Socrates student. Argued that there is a separate room of ideals. And these ideals are perfect and this is reality. Allegory of the Cave- Aristotle- Plato's student. Empiricist. Opposite of Plato. These ideals give the item form and matter but they are not separate. Syllogism- Deductive procedure. A major statement, minor statement, and a conclusion. Sophocles- Wrote the Etipist trilogy. Alexander the Great - Created an empire in Greece (started Hellenistic era). Dynamic and productive to philosophy, science, and math. Euclid- Bases of western geometry Aristarchus- Puts forward a heliocentric view of the universe. Sun is center. Archimedes- Calculated value of pi. Discovering calculus Stoicism- Founded by Zeno. "Except and endure" Orderly universe. (This is different then the view of the universe as chaotic and random) It is a part of a rational order. Epicureanism- Epicurus was the founder. Influenced by Democratus. He came up with the first atomic theory. The mechanical and orneriness of the universe provide serenity. Goal is to find happiness and pleasure. Skepticism- Founded by Pero. Doubted everything. Your 5 senses are easily deceived. Philosophers don’t agree on anything so you cant rely on philosophy. Consuls- 2 of them that ruled. This is the executive branch. 10 year terms Senate- Patricians sat here. More Power and dominant. Kind of ruled like a modified oligarchy. Assembly- Plebeians sat here Tribunes- The watch dog to watch the senate. A tweak from the Patricians for the Plebeians. Hannibal- Latifundia- Large mega farms (plantations) that he small farms couldn’t complete with. Worked by slave labor taken by war. Punic Wars- Long conflicts with Carthage. Expansion for the Roman Empire. Carthage is obliterated. In the end Rome has itself an empire. It also changes Rome itself and it part of the unraveling of the republic. Why? It creates so many social problems in Italy. Latifundia. Patricians vs. Plebeians- Twelve Tables- Written law code. A tweak from the Patricians for the Plebeians. “bread and circuses”- The small farm (not) owners would give their vote Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus- From the patrician class that were concerned about Rome and the y proposed these reforms. It creates so much political resistance that it ends in death. Rome has a bad problem with killing off their problems. Marius- Driving by the Plebeians. Does nothing. Sulla- Elected by patricians. Does everything in his power to give more power to the senate and patricians in 3 years. So he resigns because he has done everything he wanted to do. Julius Caesar- Pompey was his political ally and then enemy. When he come to power as a consul, he claims so much power that he basically morphs the position of consul to emporor. When the senate finally catches on they kill him but its too late. Octavian- Julius Caesars successor Pax Romana- Romans did a pretty good job for a little while of empire administration. This is one way they did it. It unified them. They created economic interdependence. Edward Gibbon- 18th century historian that wrote about the decline of roman empire Foederati- Troops hired by commanders to maintain the borders, but they were not romans. They hired them because the romans didn’t want to serve in the armies any more. The commander had support from these troops that was used for political reasons sometimes. Marcus Aurelius- Good emporor that made a bad decision. Lacked the mechanism to transfer power from one emporor to the next. HE chose his son Comedus and he was a nasty human being. Diocletian- Created the prefecture. He tried to fix it and it worked for a while until Constantine. Prefectures- New administrative unit that was totally civilian and then another that was fully military. Two of them separated. Constantine- Christian ruler. Came to power militarily. Milvian Bridge- Battle where Constantine saw a cross and became a Christian Comitatus- Germanic war band that was the nuclease for the immergence of feudalism Attila the Hun- Helps the Germanic invasion Messiah- To come for the salvation of human kind Paul- Apostle that was important to early Christian teaching. Took Jesus's teachings and elaborated them into a more systematic theology. Emphases on faith. Cult of Mithra- Most serious competition to Christianity. Offshoot of zoroathenism. Beaten out by Christianity because Jesus was an actual human being Martyrdom- Christians were willing ot go to their deaths to practice their faith Arian heresy- Christianity dealt with heresy's. Arias argued that the father and son were separate creatures and trinity was not a thing. Trinity- Father, son. Holy spirit is one Doctrine of Petrine Succession- Christ gave power to peter Hijirah- Moment when Muhammad had to flee Mecca and took refuge in Medina Ramadan- Holy month in Islam. Based on Lunar calendar. Celebrates the Qu-aran to Muhammed Hajj- The pilgrimage that Muslims are to make Kaaba- cubed shaped shrine that commemorates the story of Abraham Caliph- not a prophet but succeed Muhammed Abu Bakr- He kept the movement together Mu’awiyah- Challenged Ali and becomes Caliph. Sunni- Followers of Mu'awiyah Shi’ite- Followers of Ali Shariah- Code of Law. Expectations on how to live ones life Harem- Enclosed space where men of a certain financial level kept wives and concubines Umayyadd- Dynasty of caliphs that helped to create an Arab and muslim empire Abbasids- Replaced Umayyadd. Brought the empire into a golden age (phylosphy, litterature, and trade) Ibn Sina (Avicenna)- Arab, Muslim phylosopher and doctor. The major vehicle of how Aristotle was brought to the new world
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