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pol sci 2301 study guides, week 1 thru 5

by: Jessica Izeh

pol sci 2301 study guides, week 1 thru 5 pol sci 2301

Jessica Izeh

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these study guide covers everything from week 1 thru 5, its gonna be on exam 1
Political science
Dr Charles Chapman
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Izeh on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to pol sci 2301 at University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College taught by Dr Charles Chapman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Political science in POL SCI at University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
Study Guide for Test 1 1) In October 1989 the Texas Supreme Court held unanimously for the petitioners in Edgewood v. Kirby (1989). It declared that the legislature had failed “to establish and make suitable provision for … an efficient system of public free schools” throughout the state, as mandated by Article VII of the Texas constitution. 2) Women didn’t get the vote in the United States until 1920 (Passed by Congress June 4, 1919, and ratified on August 18, 1920, the 19th amendment to the Constitution granted women the right to vote). 3) In 1961, John Tower was elected to the U.S. Senate, becoming the first Republican to win statewide office since Reconstruction. With the Republican Party showing signs of viability, many conservative Democrats shifted their allegiance to the Republican Party in state elections. 4) The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 17 founding states that established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution. The weakness of the government created by the Articles became a matter of concern for key nationalists, the twelve white men of wealth and property who were the delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Newark, New Jersey in the summer of 1788. On July 4, 1789, the Articles were replaced with the U.S. Constitution. 5) Pluralism is the theory that democracy can be achieved through competition among multiple organized groups and that individuals can participate in politics through group memberships and elections. 6) Elitism is a political system in which power is spread among all the people of a country, a state, or a community; all of the individuals or institutions share the power. 7) Collective decision making in democracies must be by minority rule, with some people having more than one vote. Not everybody’s vote will be equal to every other person’s. 8) The paradox of democracy is the potential for conflict between individual freedom and majority rule. 9) Illinois v. Lidster (2004) was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Fourth Amendment permits the police to use a roadblock to investigate a traffic incident. The Court concluded that the substantial interest in solving a serious crime outweighed the minor intrusion the stop imposed on motorists. Applying the balancing test, the Court noted that the government's interest in solving a deadly hit-and-run accident is a grave public concern, and the checkpoint's purpose was not general crime control but investigation of a specific, particular crime. 10) The traditionalistic political culture sees the exercise of community forces as sometimes necessary to advance the public good. In this view, government can be a positive force and citizens have a duty to participate. 11) According to the Supreme Court in United States v. Brignoni-Ponce, except at the border and its functional equivalents, patrolling officers may stop vehicles only if they are aware of specific articulable facts, together with rational inferences therefrom, reasonably warranting suspicion that the vehicles contain aliens who may be illegally in the country; they must have reasonable suspicion. 12) In 1964 Martin Luther King, Jr. received the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of the extraordinary contributions to the development of nonviolent methods of social change. 13) The free market means free competition for voluntary exchange among individuals, firms, and corporations. 14) In a case called Loving v. Virginia in 1997 the United States Supreme Court by a 9-0 vote declared Virginia's anti-miscegenation statute, the "Racial Integrity Act of 1924" to be constitutional. The Court stated that it was clear that the Framer’s of the Constitution did not intend the races to mix, especially by marriage. The Court declared the marriage of the Lovings to be invalid. 15) "The Constitution," said Supreme Court Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes in 1907, "is what the judges say it is." 16) In United States v. Brignoni-Ponce, Justice Powell in his opinion for the Supreme Court said: because of the important governmental interest in preventing the illegal entry of aliens at the border, the minimal intrusion of a brief stop, and the absence of practical alternatives for policing the border, an officer, whose observations lead him reasonably to suspect that a particular vehicle may contain aliens who are illegally in the country, may stop the car briefly, question the driver and passengers about their citizenship and immigration status, and ask them to explain suspicious circumstances; but any further detention or search must be based on consent or probable cause. 17) According to Justice Lewis Powell in San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez (1973), the Texas school-financing system impermissibly interfered with the exercise of a "fundamental" right or liberty---Education; Justice Powell said that education is one of the most important services performed by the State and is within the limited category of rights recognized by this Court as guaranteed by the Constitution. 18) According to Justice Hugo Black in Korematsu v. United States (1944), Mr. Korematsu was not excluded from the military area because of hostility to him or his race; he was excluded because the United States was at war with the Japanese Empire, because the military authorities feared an invasion of the United States’ West Coast and felt constrained to take proper security measures, because they decided that the military urgency of the situation demanded that all citizens of Japanese ancestry be segregated from the West Coast temporarily, and finally, because Congress, placing its confidence in war time in American military leaders, determined that they should have the power to exclude Japanese Americans from the military areas. 19) In San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez, the Supreme Court refused to examine the system with strict scrutiny since there is no fundamental right to education in the Constitution and since the system did not systematically discriminate against all poor people in Texas; given the similarities between Texas' system and those in other states, it was clear to the Court that the funding scheme was not "so irrational as to be invidiously discriminatory"; Justice Powell argued that on the question of wealth and education, "the Equal Protection Clause does not require absolute equality or precisely equal advantages." 20) In 2005, Texas became a “majority-minority” state, joining Hawaii, New Mexico, and California as states in which the nation’s majority (Anglos) make up less than half of a state’s population.


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