TOTAL WELLNESS EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
TOTAL WELLNESS EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE HLTH 2603
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meredith McKnight on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HLTH 2603 at Oklahoma State University taught by Carly Dunn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Total Wellness in Health at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
TOTAL WELLNESS EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Reproductive anatomy and function Sex terms 1. Gonads: primary reproductive organs that produce germ cells and sex hormones testes in men; ovaries in women 2. Germ cells: sperm (male) and ova (eggs from female) Female Sex Organs 1. Vulva: external female genitals (sex organs Mons pubis: round fatty mass tissue over bone Labia majora: larger outer folds Labia minora: inner folds Clitoris: the highly sensitive female gential structure; only function is sexual pleasure. Usually must be involved in orgasm Prepuce: foreskin of clitoris or penis Vagina: the canal leading from the female genitals to the internal reproductive organs; the birth canal 2. INNER GENITALS 3. Urethra: the duct that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body 4. Cervix: the opening of the uterus in the upper part of the vagina; where uterus and vagina meet 5. Uterus: the hollow, thick-walled, muscular organ in which the fertilized egg develops; the womb 6. Fallopian tube: a duct that guides a mature ovum from the ovary to the uterus; aka an oviduct 7. Ovaries: paried female reproductive glands that produce ova (eggs) and sex hormones; female gonads Male Sex Organs 1. Penis: male genital structure consisting of the glans (head) and shaft, spongy tissue that becomes engorged with blood during sexual excitement 2. Scrotum: loose sac of skin and muscle fibers that contains the testes 3. Testes: male gonads; site of sperm production; aka testicle 4. Semen: fluid that carries sperm out of male penis during ejaculation 5. Cowper’s glad: a small organ that produces preejaculatory fluid 6. Epididymis: storage duct for maturing sperm on surface of each testis 7. Vas Deferens: a tube that carries sperm from epididymis through prostate gland to seminal vesicles 8. Seminal vesicles: tubes leading from vas deferens to ejaculatory duct; secretes nutrients for semen 9. Prostate gland: produces some fluid in semen which helps transport and nourish sperm 10.Ejaculatory duct: tube that carries mature sperm to the urethra so they can exit body upon ejaculation 11.Glans: head of penis or clitoris 12.Circumcision: surgical removal of foreskin of penis Primary Sex Hormones/ Glands/ Chromosomes Androgens: male sex hormones produced by testes Estrogens: female sex hormones produced by ovaries; bring about sexual maturation and puberty; maintain reproductive functions Progestogens: female sex hormones; produced by ovaries; sustain reproductive functions Adrenal glands: endocrine glands located over kidneys; produce sex hormones Pituitary gland: endocrine gland at base of brain; produces hormones and regulates release of hormones including sex hormones by other glands Hypothalamus: brain region above pituitary gland whose hormones control pituitary secretions. Involved in bodily function control (hunger, thirst, temperature regulation, sexual functions) Sex chromosomes: X & Y chromosomes. XX= female XY= male Phases of the menstrual cycle Menstrual cycle: monthly ovarian cycle regulated by hormones; in absence of pregnancy menstruation occurs Menarche: first period usually during adolescence CYCLE PHASES 1. Menses: portion of menstrual cycle characterized by menstrual flow. Hormone levels low. Day 1-5 2. Estrogenic phase: flow ceases; follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) produced by pituitary; follicle containing egg matures; estrogen levels rise from ovary, endometrium (uterine lining) thickens. Day 6-13 3. Ovulation: estrogen, LH, FSH increase; egg released (ovulation) from follicle; what’s left of follicle (corpus luteum) produces progesterone and estrogen during second half of menstrual cycle. Day 14 4. Progestational phase: progesterone increases and remains high until next menses. Day 15-27 Menstrual Problems Dysmenorrhea: painful or problematic menstruation PMDD: premenstrual dysphoric disorder- severe form of PMS. Symptoms impair normal daily activity: breast tenderness, bloating, headache, fatigue, insomnia, appetite changes, food cravings, irritability/anger, depression, anxiety, etc. PMS: premenstrual syndrome- physical discomfort, psychological distress and behavioral changes that begin after ovulation and cease when menstruation begins. Symptoms like PMDD Physiological Causes of sex health problems o Female: Vaginitis: inflammation of vagina; symptoms: discharge, vaginal irriation, sex painful Vulvodynia: chronic vulvar pain (burning/knifelike) Endometriosis: endometrial like tissue growing outside uterus; causes infertility Pelvic inflammatory disease PID): infection of uterus, pelvis, oviducts or ovaries; can cause infertility/sterility; symptoms: pelvic pain, fever, sex pain Orgasmic dysfunction: can’t experience orgasm o Male: Prostate/testicular cancer Epididymitis: inflammation of epididymis Erectile dysfunction: can’t get/achieve erection Premature ejaculation: involuntary orgasm too soon Delayed ejaculation: inability to ejaculate when desired Psychological Causes of Sexual health problems Troubled relationships, lack of sexual skills, irrational attitudes/ beliefs, anxiety Sex Response Cycle Phases Vasocongestion: accumulation of blood in tissues and organs Mytonia: increased muscle tension 1. Excitement phase: penis becomes erect; testes expand and pulled towards body; clitoris, labia and vaginal walls engorged with blood; muscular tension increases; vagina lubricated 2. Plateau phase; reactions become more marked; penis harder, testes higher; uterus rises, vagina opens near uterus but swells at bottom 1/3 3. Orgasmic phase: orgasm- discharge of built up sex tension with genital and bodily manifestations- ejaculation for men and women. 4. Resolution phase: all changes during excitement reversed. Males have refractory period- where they can’t get aroused for a certain time (18- 25 minutes for 18-21 year olds) Contraceptive Methods and Usage (including permanent) 4 methods: 1. Barrier: block sperm from reaching egg 2. Hormonal: alter biochemistry to prevent ovulation and prevent sperm from reaching egg 3. Natural: intercourse avoided around ovulation 4. Surgical: permanently prevent union of sperm and eggs (tubal ligation, essure-tubal implants- vasectomy, histerectormy) HORMONAL METHODS Oral: 99% effective; progestin only or estrogen/progestin; triphasic & monophasic; take pill every day at same time; $25 Seasonale: 99% effective; progestin/estrogen; 91 day pack (7 placebo); 4 periods a year; $350-400 Ortho Evra (the patch): 99%; E/P; apply 1/week for 3 weeks; transdermal;$50 Nuva ring (vaginal ring): 99%; one size fits all; E/P; 3 week protection; $50 Depo Provera: 99%; injection every 3 months; P only; $100 Implanon: 99%; P only; under skin on upper arm; lasts 3 years; $500-750 IUD- 99%; P only; t-shaped plastic device; 5 years or less; fertility returns in 1 year; $450 NONHORMONAL METHODS Male condom: 97%; thin sheath placed over erect penis; spermicide makes more effective; many varieties; don’t protect from STD or STI Female condom: 95%; thin sheath in vagina; new needed every time; put in up to 8 hours before sex; $3 Intrauterine (IUD): 99%; t-shaped copper; 10 yr use; fertility back in 1 month; $250 Diaphragm: 94%; dome shaped rubber disc used w/ spermicide; multiple uses; insert 6-8 hours prior; remove 8-24 hours after Cervical caps: 91%; rubber cap w/ round rim; 48 hr protection Vaginal spermicide: foams; creams; jellies; suppositories; used with other method EMERGENCY Morning after, plan B, one-step, next choice, 89%, P or P/E; best if w/in 24 hours; Mifepristone/misoprostol: abortion pill, stops supply of hormones to uterus Fertility Awareness Methods abstain from sex during fertile stages 1. calendar: abstain from sex 8 days; a few before and during ovulation 2. temperature: measure basal body temp and when it drops/rises you’re ovulating so no sex 3. mucus method: examine vaginal secretions. Mucus elasticish during ovulation 4. withdrawal: pull out before ejaculation STD’s Gonorrhea: from unsafe sex symptoms: male- most prevalent, penis discharge, swollen penis, sterility female- infected newborns; bleeding between periods Syphilis: incubation 10 days-3 months. Avg: 3 weeks Symptoms: brain/heart issues; inutero baby infection- stillborn/anemia, meningitis, kidney/liver infection Stages: 1. Primary: chancre 2. Secondary: skin rash; flu like symptoms, alopecia 3. Latent: all 2ndsymptoms leave 4. Tertiary: nervous/cardio system/ skin affected HPV: genital warts, increases risk for cervical/vulvar/anal cancer; infant born with throat warts HSV: herpes; incubation 2-10 days; 1. Symptoms: itch/burn, blisters, swollen groin glands, vag discharge, painful pee, genital, butt, abdomen pain/pressure Pediculosis Pubis: aka crabs; itchy, blue spots on skin, eggs in pubic hair, bloodspots in underwear Trichomonasis: males: asymptomatic females: green discharge, uncomfy sex, vag odor. Increases HIV risk. Babies: decreased birth weight and premies Viral v. bacterial STDs Bacterial: gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia Viral: HPV/HSV, herpes, HIV, crabs, trichomoniasis, scabies, Components and definitions of physical fitness Cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, composition Frequency- # of times Intensity- how hard Time- duration Progression- gradual increase from current to desired level (initial, improvement, maintenance) Muscle strength- max force from muscle Muscle endurance- ability to execute repeated contractions over time Aerobic exercise- mod. Intensity. Energy from O Anaerobic exercise- high intensity. Uses other engery forms ATP Overload- required for training adaptation to take place Isometric- no change in muscle length during contraction (plank) Isotonic- concentric and eccentric contractions w/ constant variable resistance (lunges) Isokinetic- muscle develops max tension as it contracts at a constant speed through full range of motion Plyometric- muscle group put on stretch prior to contraction (jumping) Benefits of physical fitness Increased: cardio function, blood lipid/lipoporetin profile, metabolism, immune system, weight control, BMI improvement, energy levels, psychological/emotional wellness Decreased: heart disease, smoking chance, hypertension Prevents certain cancers, diabetes, osteoporosis Benefits of warming up/cooling down Warm up- 5-10 minutes, low intensity movement. Enhances performance and decreases chance of injury Cool down- 5-10 minutes, exercise at low level to allow smooth transition to resting (heart rate and metabolism) state. Helps regulate return of blood to heart Maximum heart rate/target heart rate MAX HR- 220-age MHR x 60% & MHR X 90% = target heart rate range Muscular strength vs. muscular endurance training principles Frequency of cardiorespiratory endurance training guildelines FITT- frequency, intensity, time, type Flexibility Necessary to maintain full ROM 15-30 second duration 3days/week Prevent/manage injuries RICE; stay in condition; warm up/cool down
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