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UIC / Biological Sciences / BIOS 230 / What does life history pertain to?

What does life history pertain to?

What does life history pertain to?

Description

School: University of Illinois at Chicago
Department: Biological Sciences
Course: Evolution and Ecology
Professor: Nelson
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: evolution, Ecology, evo, and ECO
Cost: 25
Name: evolution & Ecology Week 7notes - Life History/ Aging
Description: These notes will be on the next exam! Study Up! :D
Uploaded: 10/08/2016
8 Pages 178 Views 0 Unlocks
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Life History / AgingDon't forget about the age old question of Who is the classical sun god?

Ch 10 - Ecology Ch 13 - Evolution

Life History - an organism’s lifetime pattern of growth, development and reproduction

  • These patterns are age - specific and have evolved through natural selection
  • Why would this life history affect a variety of environments?

Life History Evolution Involves Trade - Offs

  • Individuals have limited resources that can be allocated to specific aspects of their life history

Tradeoffs include:

  • Type of reproduction
  • Age at first reproduction
  • Allocation of reproduction
  • Number and sizes of eggs, young, and seed
  • Timing of reproduction

  • Trade - offs are imposed by physiological energy, and environmental constraints

Intrinsic factors imposing constraints:

  • Evolutionary history of the species
  • Developmental pattern
  • Genetics
  • Physiology

We also discuss several other topics like Explain the concept of "relevant range".

Extrinsic factors directly affect:

  • Physical environment
  • Present of predators
  • Presence of competitors

If you want to learn more check out What is a side adjacent?

Axesual Reproduction - (duplicate copy)

  • Offspring are genetically identical to presents. Ex. Hydras (some asexual organisms also reproduce sexually, often triggered by an environmental change.)

Benefits

  • adaptation of offspring to environment
  • High population growth, all individuals can reproduce

Costs

  • No genetic variation
  • Less availability to adapt to environmental changes

Don't forget about the age old question of What is a simplest collection of matter that can live?

We also discuss several other topics like What are the three definitions of acids/bases?

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the speed of the screw driver?

Sexual Reproduction

Benefits

  • variation in population
  • Expands range of population responses to environmental changes

Costs

  • Each offspring carries only half of parent’s genes
  • Requires specialized reproductive organs

Hermaphrodites - have both male and female gonads (testis / ovary)

Simultaneous Hermaphrodites - have both male and female reproductive organs at the same time

Sequential hermaphrodites - change gender during life cycle (maybe triggered by body size or change in the population sex ratio)

Milk mind - higher reproduction costs (than yields) due to lactation

  • Many species have a direct relationship between body size and fecundity (number of eggs, seeds, offspring)
  • Individuals that postpone reproduction for growth will have more offspring per reproduction period
  • Implications for age - specific patterns of mortality and fecundity

[body size does matter] - Relationship between size and fecundity

Patterns of Age - Specific Mortality

  • Some organisms reproduce early in life, others grow and develop before reproduction begins
  • When should organisms reproduce?
  • If natural selection maximizes individual relative fitness, then the age and size at first reproduction are optimal when the benefits outweigh the costs
  • Age - specific mortality is also important (related to age - specific expenditure on reproductive effort)

How can natural selection influence the age of maturity?

[know table]

  • Age class of individuals
  • Age specific survival rate
  • Numbers of female offspring

  • Natural selection favors individuals who start reproducing at an age of max reproduction in their lifetime

Reproductive effort: Trade off between Fecundity and Survivability

Energetic cost of Reproduction:

  • Gonad development
  • Travel to breeding area
  • Competition of gametes
  • Nutrient demands
  • Nesting
  • Parental care

There is a Trade - off between the number and size of offspring

(10.7) for a given of reproductive effort, an organism can produce more small offspring or fewer large offspring

(optional) organism that produce a lot of offspring

  • Each individual receives a smaller investment
  • Plants - little energy stored in seeds
  • Animals - little energy in parental care

These species live in unpredictable environments

(option 2) organism produces a small number of offspring

  • Greater investments for each individual
  • Plats - more energy stored in seeds
  • Animals - more energy in parental care
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