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UIC / Biological Sciences / BIOS 230 / What does life history pertain to?

What does life history pertain to?

What does life history pertain to?

Description

School: University of Illinois at Chicago
Department: Biological Sciences
Course: Evolution and Ecology
Professor: Nelson
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: evolution, Ecology, evo, and ECO
Cost: 25
Name: evolution & Ecology Week 7notes - Life History/ Aging
Description: These notes will be on the next exam! Study Up! :D
Uploaded: 10/08/2016
8 Pages 106 Views 0 Unlocks
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Life History / AgingIf you want to learn more check out Who is the classical sun god?

Ch 10 - Ecology Ch 13 - Evolution

Life History - an organism’s lifetime pattern of growth, development and reproduction

  • These patterns are age - specific and have evolved through natural selection
  • Why would this life history affect a variety of environments?

Life History Evolution Involves Trade - Offs

  • Individuals have limited resources that can be allocated to specific aspects of their life history

Tradeoffs include:

  • Type of reproduction
  • Age at first reproduction
  • Allocation of reproduction
  • Number and sizes of eggs, young, and seed
  • Timing of reproduction

  • Trade - offs are imposed by physiological energy, and environmental constraints

Intrinsic factors imposing constraints:

  • Evolutionary history of the species
  • Developmental pattern
  • Genetics
  • Physiology

We also discuss several other topics like What refers to how costs change as volume changes?

Extrinsic factors directly affect:

  • Physical environment
  • Present of predators
  • Presence of competitors

Don't forget about the age old question of What is a side adjacent?

Axesual Reproduction - (duplicate copy)

  • Offspring are genetically identical to presents. Ex. Hydras (some asexual organisms also reproduce sexually, often triggered by an environmental change.)

Benefits

  • adaptation of offspring to environment
  • High population growth, all individuals can reproduce

Costs

  • No genetic variation
  • Less availability to adapt to environmental changes

If you want to learn more check out What is one of the world's leading universities in electron microscopy?

Sexual ReproductionDon't forget about the age old question of What are the three definitions of acids/bases?

Benefits

  • variation in population
  • Expands range of population responses to environmental changes

Costs

  • Each offspring carries only half of parent’s genes
  • Requires specialized reproductive organs

If you want to learn more check out How does an electric screw driver work?

Hermaphrodites - have both male and female gonads (testis / ovary)

Simultaneous Hermaphrodites - have both male and female reproductive organs at the same time

Sequential hermaphrodites - change gender during life cycle (maybe triggered by body size or change in the population sex ratio)

Milk mind - higher reproduction costs (than yields) due to lactation

  • Many species have a direct relationship between body size and fecundity (number of eggs, seeds, offspring)
  • Individuals that postpone reproduction for growth will have more offspring per reproduction period
  • Implications for age - specific patterns of mortality and fecundity

[body size does matter] - Relationship between size and fecundity

Patterns of Age - Specific Mortality

  • Some organisms reproduce early in life, others grow and develop before reproduction begins
  • When should organisms reproduce?
  • If natural selection maximizes individual relative fitness, then the age and size at first reproduction are optimal when the benefits outweigh the costs
  • Age - specific mortality is also important (related to age - specific expenditure on reproductive effort)

How can natural selection influence the age of maturity?

[know table]

  • Age class of individuals
  • Age specific survival rate
  • Numbers of female offspring

  • Natural selection favors individuals who start reproducing at an age of max reproduction in their lifetime

Reproductive effort: Trade off between Fecundity and Survivability

Energetic cost of Reproduction:

  • Gonad development
  • Travel to breeding area
  • Competition of gametes
  • Nutrient demands
  • Nesting
  • Parental care

There is a Trade - off between the number and size of offspring

(10.7) for a given of reproductive effort, an organism can produce more small offspring or fewer large offspring

(optional) organism that produce a lot of offspring

  • Each individual receives a smaller investment
  • Plants - little energy stored in seeds
  • Animals - little energy in parental care

These species live in unpredictable environments

(option 2) organism produces a small number of offspring

  • Greater investments for each individual
  • Plats - more energy stored in seeds
  • Animals - more energy in parental care
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