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Philosophy Study Guide Fall Midterm 2016

by: Reina Theresa Elma

Philosophy Study Guide Fall Midterm 2016 Philosopy 110

Marketplace > San Francisco State University > Humanities > Philosopy 110 > Philosophy Study Guide Fall Midterm 2016
Reina Theresa Elma

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Here's a study guide to help you review for the Midterm of Philosophy 110.
Philosophy 110
Hilda Loury
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Reina Theresa Elma on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Philosopy 110 at San Francisco State University taught by Hilda Loury in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Philosophy 110 in Humanities at San Francisco State University.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
PHILOSOPHY MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE FALL 2016 The definition of the following terms: -Deduction: meant to be valid: that is, their premises are meant to guarantee the conclusion. 
 Ex: Socrates is mortal. All mortals die. Socrates will die. 
 If P, then Q
 ________ additional premises & still valid 
 -nondeduction: the premises are meant to confer some high degree of probability on the conclusion. 
 -strong or weak 
 -gives probability
 -premise: a claim put forth as a reason for a conclusion. Using these terms, we can say that an argument is a set of claims that can be divided into a conclusion and on or more premises. (Argument= conclusion + premises) 
 -claim about the world 
 -truth value (TRUE OR FALSE) 
 -implicit or explicit 
 -only 1 required (1- infinity) 
 -argument: a set of claims, one of which is meant to be supported by the others. 
 premises + conclusion = argument 
 an instrument used rationally to persuade yourself to accept or reject a position.
 -inference: each time we move from a premise or set of premises to a conclusion. 
 P —> C 
 -background knowledge 
 -text clues
 Rule One: -you can never have true premises and a false conclusion 
 T P 
 T P (not possible)
 F C
 -explanation: set of statements that makes intelligible the existence or occurrence of an object, event, or state or affairs.
 -enthymeme: in syllogistic, or traditional, logic, name of a syllogistic argument that is incompletely stated. argument that contains an implicit premise or conclusion.
 -antecedent: the element that states the prior condition in any conditional statement. Ex.: “It doesn’t rain” is the antecedent in both. 
 “If it doesn’t rain, then we’ll have a picnic.” and “It will reach ninety degrees today if it doesn’t rain.”
 -consequent: the conclusion, as of syllogism or a conditional sentence. -formal fallacy: denying the antecedent and affirming the consequent are often called formal fallacies. 
 1. Denying the Antecedent— NOT VALID P —> Q 
 Ex: If you are a cat, then you are a mammal. (T) 
 You are not a cat. (T) 
 (ooo) You are not a mammal. (P) 
 2. Affirming the Consequent — NOT VALID P—> Q 
 Ex: If you are Socrates, then you are mortal. (T) 
 You are mortal. 
 (ooo) You are Socrates. 
 -valid and invalid: 
 -Valid: False Premise 
 True Conclusion 
 False Premise 
 False Conclusion 
 -Invalid: True Premise 
 True Conclusion 
 -sound and unsound: 
 -valid + sound 
 -valid + unsound 
 -invalid + unsound 
 -strong and weak:
 strong: credible, plausible, proven. 
 weak: inaccurate information, poor wording -inclusive or vs exclusive:
 Inclusive vs Exclusive: 
 T T T T T F
 T F T T F T
 F T T F T T 
 F F F F F F
 -simple argument vs complex argument:
 Conclusion 1) Arrange the claims so that premises precede their conclusion (Int. Concl & Final Concl) Complex Deductive Argument : Premise 
 Int. Concl.
 Final Concl. 
 *VALID* Complex Non-Deductive Argument: 
 Int. Concl. 
 Final Concl. *STRONG* -conjunction:
 -And statement -disjunction:
 -OR statement 
 — Exclusive: Can’t have both 
 — Inclusive: one or BOTH -conditional:
 -If, then 2) What makes an argument valid, and what makes an argument invalid. 
 valid: additional premises & still valid
 a. What is Rule One of a deductive argument? 
 -invalid or valid 
 -sound or unsound 
 -gives necessity 3)  The names of the equivalent forms and what they generally look like. 
 1) Double Negation: 
 ~~ P = P 
 COLD = NOT COLD 2) Commutation: 
 (P=Q) = (Q o P) 
 Tea and Coffee = Coffee and Tea 3) Contraposition:
 (P —> Q) = (~ Q —> ~ P) 
 If you’re smiling, then you’re safe. 
 If you’re not safe, then you’re not smiling. 4) Definition of Implication 
 (P v Q) = (~P —> Q) tea or coffee, if not tea then coffee. 5) Exportation: 
 (P o Q) —> R = 
 P —> (Q —>R) 
 If you’re smart then you are funny, then you are successful. 6) De Morgan’s Rule: 
 ~(P o Q) = (~ P v ~ Q) 
 1) It is not the case that I am a hero and a villain. 
 I’m not a hero or I’m not a villain. 
 2) ~(P v Q) = (~P o ~Q) 4)  The premise and conclusion indicators. 
 1) Premise Indicators: 
 -since (not temporarily) 
 -seeing as 
 -for/the reason that 
 -as is implied by 
 -on account of the fact 
 2) Conclusion Indicators: 
 -it follows that 
 -we may conclude
 -this entails that 
 5)  The difference between an argument and an explanation. 
 Arguments vs. Explanations : 
 -Why? -What 
 -Because… -that 
 2 Questions: 
 -Is it a Why/Because or a What/That? 
 -What is the function of the claim? 
 -Is the author trying to convince me? 6)  The characteristics of a premise. : 
 a claim put forth as a reason for a conclusion. Using these terms, we can say that an argument is a set of claims that can be divided into a conclusion and on or more premises. (Argument= conclusion + premises) 
 7)  The characteristics of a deductive argument.: 
 -Valid or Invalid 
 -Rule: If the premises are true, the conclusion most be true, not valid. 8)  The characteristics of a nondeductive argument. :
 -Valid or Invalid 
 -Sound or unsound 
 valid + sound 
 valid + unsound 
 invalid + unsound
 -strong or weak 
 -gives probability 
 9)  How to write a conditional, conjunctive statement, disjunctive statement in English (an 
 example of each), as well as in sentential form. 
 10)  The eight valid deductive argument forms and what they look like. 
 1) Modus Ponens 
 -Affirming theAntecedent 
 If P, then Q. 
 ooo Q 
 *Main Connective* : 
 The connective that holds the whole thing together. 
 2) Modus Tollens 
 (Denying the Consequent) 
 If P, then Q If P, then not Q 
 ~Q Q
 ~P P
 3) Hypothetical Syllogism (Slippery Slope) 
 If P, then Q. 
 Q —> R 
 P —> Q 
 Q —> R 
 R —> S
 ooo S —> Z (can be infinitely long) 
 4) Disjunctive Syllogism 
 (once or the other) 
 Either P or Q. 
 not Q/ (or not P) 
 ooo P / (Q) 
 5) Constructive Dilemman 
 (Possible Outcomes) 
 Either P or Q 
 If P, then Y. 
 If Q, then Z. 
 Therefore Y or Z. 
 Either God exists or doesn’t exist. 
 6) Conjunction 
 Thus P= Q 
 I am a philosopher.
 I am a woman, P
 ooo I am a philosopher and a woman. W 
 P o W 
 7) Simplification 
 P = Q 
 Thus P (or just Q) 
 I am a hero and a villain.
 ooo I am a villain. 
 ooo P v Q 
 11)  The two invalid deductive argument forms and what they look like. 
 Formal Fallacies: 
 1) Denying theAntecedents 
 P —> Q 
 If you are a cat, then you are a mammal. (T) 
 You are not a cat. 
 ooo You are not a mammal. 
 2)Affirming the Consequent 
 P —> 
 ooo P If you are Sorates, then you are mortal. (T) 
 You are mortal. (T) 
 ooo You are Socrates. 12) The five nondeductive argument forms and what they generally look like. 
 1) Statistical Syllogism 
 2) Inductive Generalization 
 3) Casal Argument 
 4) Arguments by Analogy 
 5) Plausibility Argument 13)  How to translate a paragraph into sentential form. 
 1) Replace each component of a sentence with a variable. (Sentential Variables) 
 2) Translate the Connectives 14)  How to translate a paragraph into a numbered diagram. 
 15)  Mill’s four methods. 
 1) Method of Difference: 
 —> 2 similar situations with different outcomes 
 S1: L, M, O = X Party = ILL 
 S2: L, M = ~X No PArty = Great 2) Method ofAgreement : 
 —> 2 similar situations with same outcomes 
 S1: L, M, O = P L, M, N 
 S2: L, M, N = P 3) Joint Method of Different andAgreement: 
 —>APP or BOTH different and agreement 
 Outcome is present in each case where factor occurs but outcome is absent in case where factor doesn’t occur. 4) Method of Concomitant Variation: 
 Def: occurring at the same time 
 Syn: Simultaneous 
 *vary a factor and determine whether a change in outcome* 
 *to see if changing increasing/decreasing) 
 a factor affects the outcome*


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