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Micronutrients Study Guide

by: Alise Robison

Micronutrients Study Guide 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001

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Alise Robison

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Complete study guide for the exam on micronutrients.
Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition
Deborah Ann Hutcheon
Study Guide
Vitamins, minerals
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alise Robison on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Deborah Ann Hutcheon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 148 views.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
NUTR 2030 Principles of Human Nutrition Micronutrients Study Guide Fall 2016 Water- Soluble Main Food Main Function(s) Deficiency Toxicity RDA and/or UL Sources Disorder(s) Disorder(s) Vitamin Beriberi Whole/enriched Wernicke’s Thiamin grains, chicken, Carbohydrate Encephalopathy— None Don’t Need to (B1) metabolism Know pork, legumes Korsakof Syndrome Milk, yogurt, eggs, Riboflavin green leafy Macronutrient Ariboflavinosis Don’t Need to vegetables, grains None (B2) (whole/enriched/forti metabolism Oral abnormities Know fied) Meat, poultry, Pellagrs: 4 D’s seafood, legumes, Niacin (B3) grains Macronutrient and (diarrhea, Liver damage, Don’t Need to Alcohol metabolism dermatitis, nausea/vomiting Know (whole/enriched/forti dementia, death) fied) Plant and animal Pantothenic Macronutrient Don’t Need to Don’t Need to Acid foods (virtually all metabolism Know None Know foods) Macronutrient metabolism, fat Cooked eggs, Lethargy, hair loss, Biotin peanuts, whole synthesis, neurological None Don’t Need to glycogenesis, AA Know grains, fish (amino acid) impairment metabolism Meat, poultry, Microcytic anemia B6 seafood, grains, Protein (AA) (too small Red Nerve damage UL: 10mg/day (Pyridoxine) metabolism legumes, nuts Blood Cells) Folate Green leafy AA, DNA, RNA Macrocytic anemia Diarrhea, UL: 1000mg/day vegetables, fruit, synthesis (too large RBC) insomnia RDA: 600mg/day legumes, fortified Neural tube & birth grains (folic acid) defects Blood clotting and RBC synthesis, Macrocytic anemia B12 Animal products, Don’t Need to (Cobalamin) fortified foods energy production, (pernicious None Know protein metabolism anemia) and synthesis Citrus fruit, broccoli, Antioxidant, RDA men: tomatoes, green bell collagen synthesis, 90mg/day women: Vitamin C peppers, potatoes helps absorb non- Scurvy Osmotic diarrhea 75mg/day heme iron UL: 2g/day Fat-Soluble Main Food Deficiency Toxicity Vitamin Sources Main Function(s) Disorder(s) Disorder(s) RDA and/or UL Vision (night vision Don’t Need to Retinoids: animal products and cells of eye), Night blindness Yellowing of skin Know skin health, Vitamin A Carotenoids: immune support, and skin (not toxic), birth red/orange/yellow/gr keratinization defects een produce antioxidant, reproductive health -Hypervitaminosis RDA: age 18-50 = (overabsorption of 600 IU calcium from Age>50 = 800IU intestines and Bone growth calcium loss from Leads to calcium Sun, dairy, fortified (regulates blood deficiency & bone bones to cause calcium high levels of blood Vitamin D foods, fatty fish, concentration), disorders: rickets, calcium levels) mushrooms osteomalacia, down-regulation of osteoporosis -Hypercalcemia body processes (damaging calcium deposits in the tissues of kidneys, lungs, blood vessels, and heart) Vitamin E MUFA and PUFA, Antioxidant, reduce Rupture of red Bleeding UL: 1000 mg/day plant based oil cholesterol blood cells (cell (hemorrhage) 2 metabolism, products, bran and suppression of wheat germ, leafy tumor growth and membrane damage) greens, nuts, seeds cell proliferation, anticoagulant Green leafy Don’t Need to Blood coagulation vegetables (spinach, (clotting), bone Bleeding Know Vitamin K kale, broccoli, Excessive clotting Brussels sprouts, formation, (hemophilia) “produces fabrics” etc) Main Food Deficiency Toxicity Minerals Main Functions RDA and/or UL Sources Disorders Disorders Bone Children: RDA 1300mg mineralization, Bone complication: UL 3000mg blood clotting, rickets, Dairy, sardines, blood vessel osteomalacia, Calcification of soft Age 19-50: RDA Calcium 1000mg fortified foods dilation and osteoporosis, tissue, nausea UL 2500mg contraction, nerve muscle tetany and muscle (spasms) Age>50: RDA 1200mg conduction UL 2000mg Dairy, legumes, Bone Hypophosphatemia Hyperphosphatemi seeds, chocolate, mineralization, , electrolyte a, muscle cramps colas, animal energy production Phosphorus products, nuts, and storage, imbalance, cardiac and tetany, severe Don’t Need to Know arrhythmias, itchy skin, soft whole grains, dark nucleotide/nucleosi difficulty breathing tissue calcification colored foods de phosphates Magnesium Cofee, tea, Smooth muscle Muscle weakness, Nausea, diarrhea, Don’t Need to Know chocolate, nuts, relaxant, regulates fatigue, headache stomach cramps legumes, green calcium, relaxes leafy vegetables, skeletal muscle, whole grains energy production, regulates heart 3 contractility, cleans the bowel Fluid and Hyponatremia electrolyte balance results from lack of Primarily from (extracellular sodium during added salt—breads cation), nutrient exercise or water Increased risk for AI: 1500mg/day Sodium and rolls, cold cut transport into cells, intoxication high blood pressure UL: 2300mg/day & cured meats, muscle contraction, (headache, muscle pizza, poultry, soup nerve transmission weakness, fatigue, and impulse seizures—can lead conduction to coma and death) Fluid and electrolyte balance Fruits and (intracellular cation), nutrient Hypokalemia— Hyperkalemia— vegetables: transport into cells, muscle weakness, muscle weakness, Potassium bananas, potatoes, RDA: 4700mg greens, legumes, muscle contraction, fatigue, irregular fatigue, irregular nerve transmission heartbeat, paralysis heartbeat, paralysis dairy, seafood and impulse conduction Oxygen transport in Fish, beef, liver blood and muscles, Liver damage and RDA: men—8mg Iron (animal sources), energy metabolism Microcytic anemia Women—18mg plant sources —coenzyme, hemochromatosis Pregnant—27mg immune function Fortified salt, dairy, Component of food grown in Iodine iodine- thyroid hormones Goiter, cretinism Don’t Need to Know Don’t Need to Know important for rich soil growth Zinc Red meat, shellfish, Co-enzyme, DNA Hair loss and Don’t Need to Know UL: 40mg from green leafy RNA synthesis, changes in taste dietary vegetables, tissue and cell acuity, sexual supplements mushrooms, growth (wound impotence 4 healing), cell- especially in males, fortified grains mediated immunity delayed growth and and humoral maturation in immunity children Water and tea Mineralization of Dental carries Fluorosis (holes in Fluoride teeth and bones (cavities) teeth) Don’t Need to Know Shows signs similar Whole grains, Increase insulin’s to diabetics: meat, fish, poultry, Chromium some fruits and efectiveness in elevated blood None Don’t Need to Know vegetables cells glucose and fatty acids in the blood Vegetables Fruits Grains Protein Dairy Folate Folate Folic Acid Niacin Riboflavin Vitamin C Vitamin C Niacin Thiamin Vitamin A Vitamin A Vitamin A Vitamin B6 Vitamin B6 Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin B12 (if Vitamin B12 Vitamin B12 fortified) Vitamin K Riboflavin Thiamin Metabolic Function Vitamins that Play a Role Antioxidants Vitamin C, E, beta-carotene (A) Blood clotting and RBC Folate, B 6 B 12K synthesis Bone health Vitamin A D K C Energy production Biotin, niacin (B ), 3 5 pantothenic acid, riboflavin (B2), thiamin (B1), B6, B12 Growth and reproduction Vitamin A, D Immune function A C D Protein metabolism and Folate, B6, B12, C synthesis 6 GENERAL TERMS AND DEFINITIONS – Know the following general terms related to micronutrients. Antioxidant: helps prevent free-radical damage to cells from pollutants, chemicals, or oxidative damage (aging) Bioavailability: the degree to which a nutrient is absorbed from foods and used by the body Calcidiol: Vitamin D that is produced in the liver Calciferol: The family of Vitamin D compounds Calcitriol: active form of vitamin D that functions and works in the body and has passed through the liver and kidney. Binds to calcium to increase absorption when blood levels are low Carotenoids: provitamin A that's from red, orange, yellow, green produce (has to be converted to retinoid to be active). Beta-carotene, alpha-carotene. The body stores carotenoids in the liver and fat cells Chelation (Binders): compounds that bind to minerals in foods and reduce their bioavailability. Oxalates: vegetables. Phytates: grains and legumes Cholecalciferol: Vitamin D3 found in animal products, supplements, and formed from precalciferol in the skin. This is the form absorbed from the skin into the blood Coenzyme: organic substances, often vitamins, that bind to an enzyme to facilitate enzyme activity; unlike enzymes, coenzymes CAN be altered by the chemical reaction Enrichment: food product naturally contained that nutrient. Example: slice of whole wheat bread that was processed, but some of the nutrient was added back in Ergocalciferol: fortified vitamin D2—plant form of vitamin D in mushrooms. Found in plants and dietary supplements Fat-Soluble Vitamins: Vitamins D E K A that are soluble in fat. Nuts, seeds, oils, animal fat (butter). More easily stored so deficiencies are more rare Folate: Vitamin B9 that is used in amino acid, DNA, RNA synthesis Folic Acid: man-made version of the B vitamins. Used in dietary supplements and to fortify food products. 100% bioavailable and therefore more useful to the body 7 Fortification: nutrient NOT naturally present in the food or that are in higher amounts than the food contains naturally. Example: orange juice with calcium or Vitamin D added Goitrogens: foods that inhibit the utilization of iodine by the thyroid gland and can lead to a deficiency (goiter) Heme Iron: ferrous iron that can be easily absorbed by the body (more bioavailable). Comes from animal sources. Intrinsic Factor: a glycoprotein secreted by the stomach that results in the absorption of Vitamin B12 Macrocytic/Megaloblastic Anemia: (big cell) cause by deficiency in vitamin B12 and Folate. The RBC expand Microcytic Anemia: (small cell) caused by deficiency in vitamin B6. The red blood cells shrink and cannot successfully transport oxygen throughout the body MFP Factor: meat, fish, and poultry (and vitamin C) factor—enhance non-heme absorption Major Minerals Non-Heme Iron: ferric iron that cannot be easily absorbed by the body. Comes from plant-based sources Potassium HypervitaminosiCalciumndition resulting from the presence of excessive amounts of vitaPhosphoruse body; also referred to as vitamin toxicity Pica: craving for non-food substances Sulfate Pro-Vitamins: inactive forms of vitamins (vitamin precursor) that are converted to active forms in the body Retinoids: Active form of Vitamin A from foods of animal origin Water-Soluble Vitamins: dissolvable in water; found in foods high in water. Animal and plant based: fruits, vegetables, meats, grains. B complex of vitamins; vitamin C. don't have long term reserves Water-Soluble Vitamins Fat-Soluble  Thiamin  Vitamins Riboflavin Vitamin A  Vitamin D Niacin  Vitamin E Pantothenic Acid  Biotin Vitamin K  Vitamin B6 8  Folate  Vitamin B12  Vitamin C Trace Minerals  Iron  Copper  Zinc  Selenium  Fluoride  Chromium  Iodine  Molybdenum 9  ManganeseGROUPING NUTRIENTS BY SIMILAR FUNCTION: Group the micronutrients that all perform the same function as listed below. Use Table 9.1 on p. 318 of the textbook as a guide. Also refer to Table 9.4 on p. 327, Table 10.1 on p. 362-363, Table 12.2 on p. 438, and Table 13.1 on p. 471. Antioxidants: Vitamins A (beta-carotene), C, E Bone Mineralization/Health: Vitamins D K C, calcium, phosphorous, flouride Bound by Phytates and Oxalates: Calcium, iron Electrolytes: potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium Energy Metabolism (part of co-enzyme complex to metabolize macronutrients): B complex: Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Pantothenic Acid (B5), Biotin, Pyridoxine (B6), iron Higher Risk of Deficiency in Vegetarian (Vegan) Diets: Vitamin B12, iron, calcium, Vitamin D (BEST bioavailability from animal products) May be Produced by the Body (in small amounts): Vitamin D from sun exposure in the skin. Vitamin K from GI tract. Biotin. Niacin from amino acid tryptophan Nerve Conduction and Muscle Contraction: Calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium (electrolytes)—opening channel helping to smooth muscles Red Blood Cell Formation: B12 and Folate (macrocytic anemia), Iron and B6 (microcytic anemia) Requires Good Stomach Acid for Digestion/Absorption: Calcium, B12, iron Skin Health: Vitamin C, A, zinc STUDY QUESTIONS: Know the following information related to micronutrients. Vitamins, minerals, and water provide the body with how much energy per gram consumed? 0 grams Why are vitamins and minerals essential to the human body? Required for normal metabolic functions—assist the body to convert the energy in fat, carbs, and protein into ATP; promote growth and reproduction How can vitamins be destroyed? By light, heat, oxygen, or pH changes A vitamin or mineral deficiency can occur under what conditions? Having an incomplete diet. It can cause a lack of energy and other serious health problems A vitamin or mineral toxicity can occur under what conditions? Can occur from a megadose of dietary supplements 10 Compare and contrast the following related to water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, in general: storage in the body, excretion from the body, toxicity potential, and minimum frequency of required intake.  Fat soluble vitamins o Soluble in fats o Easily stored in liver and fat o Toxicity is a greater risk o Nuts, seeds, oils, animal fat (butter) o Vitamins D E K A  Water soluble vitamins o Soluble in water o Don't have long-term reserves o Most don't have an UL o Animal & plant based: vegetables, meats, grains, fruits Which B vitamin can be destroyed by exposure to light, so milk and dairy products are packaged in opaque containers? Riboflavin can be degraded by sunlight, but it is heat- stable Which B vitamin may be used at therapeutic doses as prescribed by a physician to treat high blood cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia)? Niacin because it lowers total cholesterol What is the relationship between biotin and alopecia? Biotin can help repair alopecia (hair loss), but ONLY if the loss of hair is due to a biotin deficiency. What is the diference between folate and folic acid?  Folic acid is the man-made version of folate and it is 100% bioavailable and therefore of more use to the body What foods are required by the FDA (since 1998) to be fortified with folic acid? Why?  Enriched grains and cereal products because it reduces the risk of neural tube defects. Research suggests that synthetic folic acid has a stronger protective efect than food folate. When should women of childbearing age begin consuming adequate folic acid daily? Why?  Begin consumption prior to pregnancy (400micrograms) and 600mcg/day while pregnant to prevent neural tube and other birth defects Outline the digestive and absorptive pathway of Vitamin B12, particularly related to the secretion, binding, and function of intrinsic factor.  Stomach: release from proteins by pepsin and HCL—helps break the bond  Binds to R protein in mouth and stomach (produced in salivary glands and stomach —helps bind B12 sa it goes through digestive tract)  Free B12 binds to intrinsic factor (IF) 11  B12 + IF absorbed in distal ileum  In enterocyte, B12 released from IF  B12 ALWAYS needs a protein buddy to be absorbed/digested List causes of vitamin B12 deficiency and explain a way to correct each cause. (Hint: Increasing dietary (food) sources does not work for each cause of vitamin B12 deficiency. Other methods of providing vitamin B12 may be required depending on the cause of the deficiency.)  Strict vegan diet—intake of fortified food sources  Gastric bypass or vertical sleeve gastrecromy—monthly intramuscular (IM) injections  Achlorhydria (H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors)/stomach or small intestine disease or injury—sublingual or nasal supplements What individuals require +35 mg vitamin C per day above the RDA for vitamin C? Why?  Smokers need +35mg/day above the usual 90mg/day for men and 75mg/day for women. This is because needs are increased due to the oxidative damage that occurs What is the relationship between vitamin C and preventing/treating the common cold? It is not proven to prevent/treat, but it may help reduce the duration if taken at first sign of onset Which digestive enzymes and compounds are required for the digestion of fat-soluble vitamins? Requires bile and fat for digestion along with fat intake. Outline the synthesis of vitamin D as obtained from the sun. Be sure to include all necessary compounds.  UV rays hit the skin, 7-dehydrocholesterol is transformed into previtamin D3 (precalciferol) then converted to D3 (cholecalciferol)  Cholecalciferol slowly difuses through the skin into the blood to be taken up by the liver  In the liver, a hydroxyl group is added to cholecalciferol on carbon 25, forming 25- hydroxycholecalciferol (calcidiol)  In kidney, a second hydroxyl group is added to carbon 1, forming 1, 25- dihdroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) the active form of Vitamin D that can be absorbed and used by the cells Outline the activation of vitamin D as obtained from the diet. Be sure to include all organs/compound names.  When consumed in the diet, vitamin D is absorbed into the small intestine as part of a micelle along with other dietary lipids. Each is repackaged into chylomicrons and circulates through the lymph system before arriving at the liver for storage What are the three diferent forms of vitamin K, and what is the source of each? 12  K1 Phylloquionones: green plants  K2 Menaquinones: bacteria  K3 Menadiones: synthetic form (supplements) What are the dietary guidelines related to vitamin K for a person on anti-coagulant therapy (i.e., warfarin or Coumadin)? Key is consistent vitamin K intake to reduce clotting What are the best dietary sources of calcium – dairy products or plant products? Why? Dairy products are better dietary sources of calcium because it contains the calcium that can be absorbed well What is the diference between calcium carbonate and calcium citrate as it relates to the digestion and absorption of calcium?  Calcium carbonate o Requires good stomach acid o Take with acidic food o Leaste expensive  Calcium citrate o Low stomach acid o With/without food o May protect kidney stones o More expensive o Higher doses required compared to calcium carbonate What is the maximum amount of calcium that an individual should consume at a single time? Why? Best absorbed in doses of <500mg at a time, because the body simply flushes out excess calcium What substances limit calcium absorption in the gastrointestinal tract? Phytates and oxalates , low protein intake What is the relationship between sodium and salt? Salt (sodium chloride) accounts for 90% of the sodium consumed, and sodium accounts for 40% of sodium chloride. How much salt is equivalent to 2300 mg sodium? One teaspoon of salt equals 2300mg sodium What is the relationship between the intake of sodium and the intake of potassium and high blood pressure? DASH diet to prevent hypertension (high blood pressure). Decrease sodium to 1500mg/day and increase potassium (and calcium, magnesium) rich foods What substances limit iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tract? Oxalates, polyphenols (tea or cofee), Phytates in cereal grain (dietary fiber), reduced hydrochloric acid in stomach, excess use of antacids, excess minerals (calcium, zinc, magnesium) What substances increase iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tract? Vitamin C, grains, MFP factor, increased need for iron (blood loss, pregnancy, growth), sufficient hydrochloric acid in the stomach 13 Consumption of zinc through dietary supplements above the UL increases a person’s risk for which other mineral deficiency? Copper and iron deficiency Besides fluoridated tap water, what other beverages may contribute to a person’s daily fluoride intake? Processed beverages (soft drinks), tea What are the functions of water in the human body?  Digestion, absorption, metabolism, excretion  Structure of molecules and cells  Circulatory system: maintain blood volume  Transport medium for nutrients and substances  Lubricant and cushioning (blisters)  Body temperature mainetnance Where in the body is water located (i.e. fluid compartments)?  Intracellular fluid: water and dissolved solutes INSIDE the cell  Extracellular fluid: water and substances OUTSIDE cells in plasma, lymph, spinal fluid; includes intercellular water  Intercellular (Interstitial) water: water BETWEEN and around the cells Distinguish between symptoms of mild, moderate, and severe dehydration.  Mild o Dry lips and mouth o Thirst o Inside of mouth slightly dry o Low urine output; concentrated urine appears dark yellow  Moderate o Thirst o Very dry mouth o Sunken eyes o Sunken fontanelles (soft spots on an infants head) o Tenting (skin doesn't bounce back readily when pinched and lifted slightly  Severe o All previous signs o Rapid and weak pulse o Cold hands and feet o Rapid breathing o Blue lips o Lethargic, comatose What are the pathways by which fluid can be excreted from the body? Sweat (skin), urine (kidneys), breathing (lungs), intestines (stool) A person who consumes a 2000 kcal diet should consume how many cups of fluid daily? 12 cups What beverages count toward a person’s daily fluid intake needs? 14  Water (2-6 servings)  Unsweetened cofee/tea (0-5 servings)  Milk/soy milk (0-2 servings),  Diet drinks (0-4 servings)  Soft drinks/fruit drink (0-1 serving: 110kcal)  100% fruit juices, sports drinks, alcohol (0-1 serving: 115kcal) Which types of food contain the most water? Which types of food contain the least amount of water?  Fruits and vegetables contain more water by weight than grains or meats do, but most foods contain some water  Potatoes, corn, lettuce, cucumber, tomatoes  Banana, melons, grapes, apples, oranges, fruit juice  Oatmeal, pasta, rice  Eggs, beef, chicken, fish  Cheese, ice cream, yogurt, milk Which body organ is responsible for maintaining the body’s fluid homeostasis? Kidney, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, and hypothalamus all play a role in blood volume, and therefore help maintain homeostasis 15


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