Theology 3300: Midterm Exam Study Guide Answers
Theology 3300: Midterm Exam Study Guide Answers Theology 3300
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shivani Shah on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Theology 3300 at St. John's University - New York taught by Father Patrick Flanagan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Moral theology and Healthcare in Honors Sequence Theology and Religious Studies at St. John's University - New York.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
1. Using an example from health care, clearly explain the difference between morality and ethics and why this distinction is helpful in analysis? Morality is pursuit of the good life and ethics are person’s three Vs: virtue, value and vision. This distinction is helpful in analysis because morality can be seen through the things one does, and in ethics lies why one does something. The way to change a person is through their morality. 2. Using an example from health care, clearly explain the difference between morality and law and this distinction is helpful in analysis? Morality sets the maximum for our actions and the law sets the minimum. For example, a healthcare professional such as a doctor is required by law to attend to a patient, listen to their complaint, diagnose them properly, and recommend possible treatments. However, say the patient is elderly and does not have insurance. At this point, there is nothing the doctor can do. The patient can either pay out of pocket for the expensive treatment or go without any treatment at all. The doctor has done what the law required of them. In this situation, the morally correct thing to do is educate the patient on possible insurance options they can get from the government, particularly Medicare. The law does not require a physician to go beyond their job expectation and offer a patient help paying for a medical treatment. However, as healthcare professionals the best interest is always of the patient. It is important to remember that although the abiding by the law is what is expected of a healthcare professional, sometimes one must go beyond that and do the morally correct thing. 3. What motivates person to be morally good? Using the story of the Ring of Gyges, discuss the options a person has in any moral situation and what prompts a person to choose to do the morally right option? There are two answers for what motivates the person to be moral: morality of obligation and morality of happiness. Using the story of Ring of Gyges, a person can either choose to disappear and take the advantage of the ring or choose to be just even with the ring. According to Glaucon, a person chooses a morally right option simply as a compromise or because he fears suffering the legal or societal consequences of acting immorally. However, Socrates would say that what prompts us to live a moral life is the want to live a moral life and that a just person will remain just regardless of the new found power. 4. What is the Hippocratic Oath? Why is this Oath no longer a viable reality in the life of medical personnel? Hippocratic oath is a code of ethics drafted by Hippocrates as a guide to conduct for the medical profession. It is comprised of three parts: first various deities are invoked, second physician commits to take care of his teacher and teacher’s family, and third pledges to fulfil certain responsibilities towards parents. It is no longer viable reality in the life of medical personnels because now they abide by the bioethics for taking decisions regarding life. (pg17 explains in more detail!). Moreover, many medical schools now either don't have the oath or use the updated version of it. 5. Identify three theologians and name their contribution to the conversation on the moral theology of healthcare. Paul Ramsey: Author of “The patient as Person.” He contributed to bioethics by raising questions regarding informed consent, research involving children, changing the definition of death, and organ transplantation. Richard A. McCormick: wrote about theology and bioethics from a catholic point of view and experience. He refuted the statement that faith does not have any influence on bioethics. Joseph Fletcher: Wrote “Situation Ethics.” He said that the church or the physician was no longer the ones that had authority over the body, it was the patient who had the authority. He personified the development of this idea and talked about anonymous insemination donation. 6. Identify and explain three (3) ways the bible or any piece of literature can be analyzed. Literal: reading and interpreting scripture exactly as written (word by word). This is a fundamentalist way of analyzing scripture. Eisegesis: putting meaning into the scripture. Exegesis: taking meaning out of the scripture. This takes into account for who it is meant for, the intent, and how scripture can be interpreted/the meaning today. 7. Christians have understood the role of Bible in the Ethics in a number of ways. Identify and explain four (4) ways. Bible as a… Law code: Bible is understood as a book of eternal laws. It guides us to make laws and regulations. And in the ethical cases, the laws can be interpreted to find an ethical solution. Universal Principles: The bible can be seen as a biblical material that serves as a source of principles for ethical decision making. People can use the underlying principles to solve the problems that include bioethics. Community Narrative: For christians living faithfully is situating themselves in the story of God’s redemptive acts. When you see yourself as a participant in the narrative you realise what is virtuous thing to do. In Bioethics, it guides them in making decisions while being virtuous. Canonical Revelation of Divine Commands and Christian Virtues: Bible is a canonical revelation of God’s commands and christian virtues. Even though it does not address biomedical issues like forbidding the use of human beings as experimental guinea pigs, it talks about the principle of human dignity. 8. What is the relationship between faith and reason? Why is this conversation important to the study of moral theology of healthcare? Faith can be thought of as another philosophy of life, a gift (a kind of virtue) through practice and learning, and a risk. We live in a society that is highly rational in which we use reason to answer everything. The relationship between faith and reason is that they should both be integrated. This is especially important in the study of moral theology of healthcare because mingling and exchanging both ideas, compromising, not dismissing of ideas leads to an open mind. One should not come to rash conclusions based on either faith or reason, but rather try to find a middle ground between both. 9. Explain the distinction between morality of obligation and morality of happiness. Why is this distinction helpful to ethical analysis? Morality of obligation is when somebody does the morally correct thing simply because it is required of them. It can be thought of as a duty or requirement. However, morality of happiness seeks to pursuit the good life. One does the morally correct thing because they wish to flourish as a person and have good character. In ethical analysis, it is important to consider the primary motive behind a person’s intent to do the right thing. Are they doing it because they have to? Or are they seeking the greater good? 10. What does it mean to say “everyone has morality?” Even the most devilish and corrupt of the individuals? Everyone has morality because everyone is in the pursuit of the good life. We all wish to live the best life possible with no regrets or sadness. Although this morality may seem absent in minds devlish/corrupt people such as Adolph Hitler or the KKK, these people committed such sinful actions because they thought what they were doing would lead them to live a good life. 11. Define virtues. Name the two categories of virtues and their composition. Virtue is behaviour showing high moral standards. Virtue = arete = excellence. The two categories are: Cardinal helps us in our interaction with God. It comprises of temperance, prudence, justice, and fortitude. Theological: helps us in our interaction with God. It comprises of Faith, Hope, and charity. 12. What does it mean to say that “virtue lies in the middle?” Give an example from healthcare. “Virtue lies in the middle” means that virtue ethics stems from both justifications of ends (what is the end result) and means (how did one arrive at making a decision). The means are explained by philosopher Emmanuel Kant (the golden rule) in which reasoning is nonnegotiable. The ends are explained by Jeremy Bentham, in which decisions is based on circumstances and utilitarianism plays a role. Virtues account for both the means and ends. In the healthcare industry, one has to be sure the end result (the well being of the patient) is maximal. However, in doing so proper administration of treatment must be given. All laws must be abided by, prescriptions given must be given for valid reasons, and the patient should be aware of what is going on the entire time. 13. Name and explain the four (4) views of science and religion. Indicate who you believe to hold such a view, whether it be an individual or group. The four views of science and religion are: Conflict: The views of science and religion are always in conflict with each other because of their rival literal statements. They have different views to understand the same domains. A individual would hold such a view. Independence: In order to avoid conflict they have to be treated independently. They can be treated differently by the questions they ask, the subject they refer to, and the ways they answer the questions. A group would hole such a view. Dialogue: Dialogue stresses on the similarities that science and religion have. It shows that science and religions are not necessarily always in conflict. It promotes cohesion. Group view. Integration: The ideas of science and religion can be integrated to have a twosided explanation for the same domain. For instance, science explains about the design of the nature and the religion states that God has designed it. Individual view a person who holds this view is Mayim Bialik, who starred in the show The Big Bang Theory but also is a neuroscientist herself. In a video explaining the relationship between her Jewish faith and her science background, she maintained an integrated view of science and religion. She explained that although science does explain a lot of the world around us, there comes a limit. That limit can be further explained and explored through one’s faith and belief of a higher spirit. There is only so much science can explain, for this reason faith also plays a part in her research. 14. Name and explain three (3) ways of approaching decision making, that is the three classical theories. Virtue theory: Virtue theories describe how we ought to live and act in relation with others. They are rooted in virtues that we recognize as necessary to be good person and live a moral life Deontological theory: is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on the action's adherence to a rule or rules. It is sometimes described as "duty" or "obligation" or "rule" based ethics, because rules "bind you to your duty." Consequentialism: is an approach to Ethics that argues that the morality of an action is contingent on the action's outcome or consequence. Thus, a morally right action is one that produces a good outcome or result, and the consequences of an action or rule generally outweigh all other considerations 15. Exercise on pp. 3236 a multiple choice exercise. Virtue theories: answers that are focused on virtues that we recognize (through shared human experience) as necessary to be a good person and live a moral life in relation to others Deontological theories: the premise of these answers is that some actions are right in themselves and therefore should be done always and everywhere, whereas other actions are always and everywhere wrong and therefore should never be done. The ends never justify the means. What we do matters much more in DTs than who we are becoming or what we hope the results will be. Virtues, intentions, extenuating circumstances, and consequences have little to no relevance. Consequentialist theories: the outcome of our actions (the ends) matters much more than who we are becoming or what we are doing (the means). 16. What is the relationship between autonomy, beneficence, and independence as evidenced in the movie “awakenings?” Autonomy: acceptance of a professional’s judgment on matters within his or her expertise Beneficence: doing good to others through a moral obligation Independence: freedom from the control/guidance of a person/healthcare professional In the movie “awakenings” Leonard’s mom demonstrated autonomy by letting Dr. Seyer use the LDopa drug on her son, even though Seyer was not sure what the drug would exactly do. Seyer shows beneficence by doing more of what is expected of him and examining patients with great care and detail. He believed that these patients are just more than unresponsive human beings, and that something needs to be done. Even if that meant asking the board to administer the expensive drug to all his patients, he did not give up. Simultaneously, he showed independence because he did not abide by what the other doctors said and believed in, and went about his own practice through faith and hope. 17. Name and explain the three requirements for ethics. Identify a contraindication for each. Freedom and Knowledge: In ethics, freedom is divided into two aspects: freedom of choice (our ability of choosing) and freedom of determination (is the freedom to shape our lives and become the person we want and are called to be). Contradiction: LAWS. Reasoning and discernment: Ethics require the ability to reason through a situation and discern which action, among various options, best reflects who we are called to become morally as persons and best promotes the wellbeing of others. Contraindication: blindly following authoritative figures (such as the government) without self reflection. Normative basis: gives us insight into who we should become as persons (being) and how we should act in relation to others, namely, people, God, and creation (doing). Contraindication: having no framework/point of reference in determining our goals in life. Not knowing who we are as a person, and having no principles guiding our day to day actions. 18. Name and explain three levels of healthcare ethics giving an example for each level. Macro: Consists of the health care policy issues. Eg health care financing Middle: Consists of the organizational issues. Eg healthcare organization as a provider Micro: Consists of clinical issues. Eg Allocation of scarce resources. 19. What does human flourishing have to do w/ healthcare? Human flourishing is the ultimate goal of all human beings. We all wish to achieve this good life because it offers us the possibility of living a good life, a life in which we flourish as individuals in relation to other people, God, and creation. In healthcare, it is important that professionals make morally correct decisions so that they can be on the path to human flourishing. By having a patient centered care focus in the healthcare industry, we do the best for others and ultimately build virtue and good character. By practicing and learning in the healthcare industry, virtue can be achieved. 20. Name and explain five (5) principles that flow from the principles of human dignity? Beneficence: the responsibility to promote overall good of others and not to harm others. Veracity: the responsibility to be honest and truthful with others. Autonomy: the freedom to enjoy to choose our own way in life and to make our own decision within moral limits. Privacy/ confidentiality: the responsibility to protect the privacy of the patients and maintain the confidentiality of their medical information. Informed consent: the responsibility to disclose fully all relevant medical information to patients, ensure they understand the information, and allow them the freedom to make their own informed choices. Care for the whole person: the recognition that human beings are not only physical but also psychological, social, spiritual, and moral, and must be viewed and acres for as much. 21. Name and explain five (5) principles that flow from the principles of justice? Rationality: the recognition that, as social beings fundamentally interconnected with others, our personal choices have broader social implications. Solidarity: the responsibility we have to stand with our fellow human beings in time of need, for example, when natural catastrophes occur. Stewardship: the responsibility we have to tend to and care for the gifts and good available to us and to use them responsibility for the benefit of all. Equitable distribution: the recognition that the basic goods of society should be shared equitably. Preferential option for the poor: the determination to judge social policies and programs first of all from the perspective of the poor and marginalized. 22. Define discernment. Explain its role in healthcare decisionmaking. Discernment refers to the skill or virtue of perceiving and distinguishing degrees of value among diverse factors when making decisions. The main goal of moral life is human flourishing understood as love of God. Discernment enables us to pursue this goal by helping us to differentiate among the possible options, make a healthcare decision, and come to the most loving and virtuous response in concrete moral situations. 23. What are six (6) ways of approaching a healthcare case? Gather all the relevant factual information. Identify the ethical issues. Consider what right relationships require and what leads ultimately to human flourishing. Brainstorm possible options Weigh option and select one. Evaluate the decision against external and internal criteria. 24. What is professionalism? Why is this discussion important for the healthcare ethics? Professionalism is the competence or skill expected of a professional. It is also the commitment to particular moral commitments associated with a practise. This discussion is important for healthcare ethics because healthcare professionals make numerous decisions on other patients behalf within the scope of their expertise. With this being said, there is a significant amount of trust from the patient that they have for the healthcare professional. It is important that the healthcare provider makes sound judgments and provides proper treatment.
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