BIO 301 Exam 2 study guide
BIO 301 Exam 2 study guide BIO 301
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah Notetaker on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 301 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Megan Gamble in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Ecology and Evolution in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Biology 301 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 7: Concepts: Survival Reproduction DNA RNA Protein RNA o mRNA, rRNA, tRNA Evolution can happen through random processes or natural selection Random processes: o Mutation o Genetic drift o Bottleneck effect o Founder effect Selection: o Artificial selection o Natural selection Hardy Weinberg: o Has to have a large population (no genetic drift) o Practice random mating (no sexual selection) o No natural selection o No mutations o No migration among populations p + q = 1 p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1 p = total dominant allele frequency q = total recessive allele frequency Reproductive barriers: o Pre zygotic: Temporal isolation Behavioral isolation Mechanical isolation Gametic isolation o Postzygotic: Hybrid viability Hybrid sterility Vocabulary: Speciation formation of new species Genotype unique combination of an individual’s genes o Dictates phenotype Gene a transcribed unit Allele alternate version of a gene Diploid maternal and paternal side – meiosis Meiosis produces haploid gametes that fuse together to form diploids Mitosis cell division Mutation alters alleles Polygenic single trait is affected by many genes o Ex: height, eye color Pleiotropy single gene alters many traits Epistasis expression of one gene controlled by another Homozygous dominant or recessive o Ex: AA or aa Heterozygous has different alleles and has greater genetic variability o Ex: Aa o Codominance both phenotypes are expressed o Incomplete dominance mixture of phenotypes Genetic drift not driven by natural selection. Variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population. o Disappearance of particular genes as individuals’ die o Random variation Bottleneck effect environmental change that greatly reduces the number of individuals/ genetic variability Founder effect the reduced genetic diversity that results when a population is descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors. Artificial selection controlled by humans, selection of traits. o Ex: dog breeding Natural selection selection of traits. Controlled by the environment Fitness production of descendants over time. Ability to make grandchildren 3 types of natural selection: o Stabilizing selection stable environment o Directional selection environment changes o Disruptive selection patchy environment Macroevolution major evolutionary change Allopatric speciation there has been a geographic barrier that leads to habitat isolation Sympatric speciation occurs in the same geographic location Chapter 8: Concepts: Life histories: o Life span o Parity: Semelparous reproduces 1x Iteroparous reproduces multiple times o Fecundity reproductive event o Age at reproduction o Parental investment Life histories are sensitive to environmental conditions Life history traits represent the schedule of an organism’s life Life history traits are shaped by trade offs Organisms differ in the number of times that they reproduce, but they all eventually become senescent Low latitudes = organisms deal with more seasonality High latitudes organisms deal with less seasonality Vocabulary: Principle of allocation the observation that when resources are devoted to one body structure, physiological function, or behavior, they cannot be allotted to another Determinate growth a growth pattern in which an individual doesn’t grow any more once it initiates reproduction Indeterminate growth a growth pattern in which an individual continues to grow after it initiates reproduction Semelparity organisms reproduce only once during their life Iteroparity organisms reproduce multiple times during their life Perennial organism that has a life span of more than 1 year Senescence a gradual decrease in fecundity and an increase in the probability of mortality Synchronous breeding allows for enhanced gamete dispersal. o Juvenile stages under the most predation o Aids in the success of fertilization and reproduction o Put a lot of energy into reproduction Phenotype plasticity organisms can have different phenotypes based on environmental conditions o Hibernation resting stage for mammals o Diapause state enter a resting stage for insects and invertebrates o Bacterial endospores Proximate factors cues organisms are using to identify the state of their environment Ultimate factors depends on fitness, availability of resources Chapter 9: Concepts: Costs of sexual reproduction: o Gonads (expensive organs) o Act of mating takes time and energy o Display (feathers, horns, colors, etc) higher chances of attracting predators o Meiosis genetic info. That will be passed on Diploid 2n o Haploid gamete (n) + haploid gamete (n) o Diploid offspring (2n) Egg o Larger gamete o Female = greater energy in formation of successful gamete Sperm o Smaller gamete Benefits of sexual reproduction o Formation of genetically varied offspring Outcrossing vs selfing o Deals with reproduction of plants Sex ratios : 50:50 Vocabulary: Sex ratio balance of number of males and females in a population Sexual functioning asexual, sexual, hermaphroditism Allocation of resources Asexual reproduction no male/female gender o Produces identical daughter cell o Ex: bacteria Vegetative reproduction new shoots off of parent plant. No genetic variation Parthenogenesis all female (diploid), produces diploid offspring (identical), form full bodied offspring, don’t need males. o Ex: diatom o Asexual sexual Hermaphroditism can have egg and or sperm Simultaneous hermaphroditism has egg and sperm at the same time o Very rare Sequential hermaphroditism st o Protandry 1 stle when small bodied, when large and older it’s a female o Protogyny 1 female when small, then when large it’s a male Very territorial Environmental sex determination a process in which sex is determined largely by the environment. Mating systems: o Promiscuity many males mate with many females Broadcast spawning o Polygamy low number of one gender and high number of another Polygandy many males : 1 female Polygyny many females : 1 male Usually a harem o Monogamy 1 male and 1 female mate and stay together for one mating season Ex: birds Sexual selection natural selection for sex specific traits that are related to reproduction Sexual dimorphism the difference in the phenotype between males and females of the same species Primary sexual characteristics traits related to fertilization Secondary sexual characteristics traits related to differences between the sexes in terms of body size, ornaments, color, and courtship Runaway sexual selection when selection for preference of a sexual trait and selection for that trait continue to reinforce each other The handicap principle the principle that the greater the handicap an individual carry, the greater its ability must be to offset that handicap
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