PSYC 1101 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 2
PSYC 1101 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 2 PSYC 1101
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nafiha Chowdhury on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Sorensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
PSYC 1101 Study Guide #2 Chapter 3: Consciousness (Sleep & Drugs) - Consciousness, our awareness of ourselves and our environment. - Parallel Processing, processing many aspects of a problem simultaneously. - SelectiveAttention, the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus. Ignoring some things around us or blocking it out. Cocktail Party Effect, you ability to attend to only voice among many other voices. Not paying attention until • something important or familiar comes up. Inattention Blindness, not noticing something something we should be paying attention too because we are two • focused on something else. Doing more than one thing at a time. - Biological Rhythms, our 24 hours biological clock and out 90 minute sleep cycle. Circadian Rhythm, the biological clock in our bodies. • Superchairsmatic Nucleus (SCN), a pair of cell cluster in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythm. • Resets out daily clock. - Melatonin, sleep inducing hormone. Decreased light increase melatonin production. • Increased light decreases melatonin production. Measuring SleepActivity • - Eye movement - EMG (muscle tension) - EEG(brain waves) electro activities, lots of neurons Beta waves, shortest and closest waves. (Awake) • Alpha waves. the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state. (Drowsy) • Delta waves, the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep. (Deep Sleep) Stages of Sleep • - Stage 1, hallucinations, sensation of falling, don’t think your sleeping. - Stage 2, aware you are asleep. - Stage 3, deep sleep, very hard to wake up. - REM, rapid eye movement sleep; have vivid dreams; relaxed muscles, but other body systems are active. Why we sleep? • - Sleep protect us, sleeping during the night is a type of protection from harm. - Restore and repair, restores the immune system and brain tissue. - Strengthen Neural Connections, helps restore and rebuild our fading memories of the day’s experiences. - Promotes Creative Problem Solving, better problem solver. - Growth Hormone, releases a growth hormone for muscle development. Sleep deprivation • - Causes fatigue and irritability. - Impairs concentration, productivity, and memory consolidation. - Also causes depression, obesity, joint pain, a suppressed immune system, and slowed performance with a greater vulnerability. - Increases production of fat cells, causes greater risk of obesity. - Increase in hunger arousing gherkin; decrease in hunger-suppressing leptin. Sleep Disorders • - Insomnia, hard time falling asleep or staying asleep. - Narcolepsy, sleep attacks. Suddenly wakes up and can’t go back to sleep. - SleepApnea, temporary stops breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings. - Night Terrors, mostly common in young children. suddenly waking up terrified and have no memory of it. Why we dream? • - Wish fulfillment, to satisfy our wishes and needs. - File away memory, helps with the events that occurred that day. - Develop and preserve neural pathways. - Neural activation - Cognitive development, stimulates our lives, including worst case scenarios. - Psychoactive Drugs, chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods. Drug Disorder/Substance use Disorder, continued substance craving and use despite significant life disruption. • - Tolerance, diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of drug, which requires the user to take lager doses before feeling the same affect. - Withdrawal, discomfort or distress that happens after discontinuing an addictive drug or behavior. PSYC 1101 Study Guide #2 - When is drug use a disorder? • Diminished Control, not having the ability to stop. • Diminished Social Functioning, stopping life responsibilities or duties because of the drug. • Hazardous Use, physical and mental problems to your body. • DrugAction, experiencing tolerance, and withdrawal when attempting to end use. • Type of Drugs - Depressants, calms neural activity and slows body functions. • Alcohol, slows train activity, controls judgement and inhibition. - Slowed neural processing - Memory disruption - Reduced self awareness and self control - Expectancy affects. • Barbiturates, drugs that depress central nervous system activity, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement. • Opiates, depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. - Stimulants, drugs that excites the neural activity and speed up body functions. • Caffeine, increases alertness and wakefulness. • Nicotine, stimulating and highly addictive drug in tobacco.Alertness, increases heart rate and blood pressure. reduces circulation. • Cocaine, powerful and addictive, temporary increases alertness and euphoria. • Ecstasy (MDMA), produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short term health risks and longer term harm to serotonin producing neurons and to mood and cognition. • Methamphetamine, stimulates the central nervous system with accelerated body functions, energy, and mood changes. - Hallucinogens, drugs that cause hallucination. Evokes sensory images in the absence of sensory input. • Marijuana, amplifies sensitivity to sound, color, taste, and smells. Relaxes, disinhibits and may produce an euphoria. • LSD, shows vivid images. Chapter 4: Developing Through the Life Span - Developmental Psychology, a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span. - Developmental Psychology’s Major Issues • Nature vs. Nurture, how is our development influenced by the interaction between our genetic inheritance and experiences? • Continuity and Stage, what part of development are gradual and continuos and what parts change abruptly - Gradual and Continuous, changes you’ll notice if you’ve been gone for a while. • Stability and Change, will our traits stay the same or will they change over time? - Prenatal Development • Zygote, fertilized egg enters a 2 week period, after conception, of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo. • Embryo, develops from 2 weeks after fertilization trough the second month. - Hearts starts beating. - Organs start forming. • Fetus, develops from 9 weeks until birth. - Starts looking like what its supposed to. - Age of viability, the age you could be to survive outside the womb. (24 weeks = 6 months) • Teratogens, chemical and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus and cause harm. - FetalAlcohol Syndrome (FAS), physical and mental abnormalities. - Newborn Capacities • Preferences for faces (preferential looking task) • Motor Skills, develops very slowly. Ex. Learns to sit, crawl, pulling themselves up, walking. • Brain Maturation, influenced by both genes and experience - Synaptic Pruning, lots of gaps, to many synapses. - Infant Memory, remembers voices of the father and mother. They remember a lot but just can’t tell us. - Piaget’s stages of cognitive development • Schema, concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. (our understandings) PSYC 1101 Study Guide #2 Assimilation, interpreting new experiences in terms of our current understandings. • Accommodation, adapting our current understandings to incorporate the new information. • Sensorimotor stage, (birth to 2 years), during this time infants know the world mostly by their sensory • impressions and motor skills. By looking, hearing, feeling, mouthing, or grasping. Pre-operational stage, (2 to 7 years), during this time a child learn to use language but still does not • comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. - Symbolic thought, they can understand or take representation of things with a symbol, word, image, sound. - Object permanence, things that are hidden don’t exist. Ex. When playing peek a boo. - Egocentrism, unable to see somebody else’s point of view. Very difficult for them to perceive things from another’s perspective. • Concrete operational stage, (7 to 11 years), the child gains the mental operations that enable them to think logically about actual experiences. - Conservation, the principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape • Formal operational stage, (12 to adulthood), during this stage people begin to think logically about abstract concepts. - Abstract thinking, - Hypothetical thinking, “If this happens then what will happen?” Potential for mature reasoning. - Attachment, emotional tie a child forms with a caregiver. • Harlow’s experiment, raised monkeys with two mothers.Abare wire mother with a feeding bottle attached to it.And another wire mother clothed and stuffed, with no feeding bottle attached to it. The monkeys preferred this one over just the wire mother. - Stranger anxiety, when infants suddenly become afraid or upset by strangers (happens from 8 months). • Ainsworth’s Strange Situation, wanted to test how a child would behave when the mother was in the room with the child, left the room, and then came back into the room. - Secure attachment, the child is happy and playful when the mother is in the room, gets upset once she leaves, but is happy again when she returns back into the room. (60% of children). - Insecure attachment • Anxiety, child is happy when the mother is in the room, gets very upset once she leaves, and doesn’t calm back down once she return back into the room. • Avoidance, child is happy when the mother is in the room, gets very upset once she leaves the room, avoids the mother completely once she returns back into the room. • Romanian orphanages, Romania’s Communist dictator outlawed conception, forbade abortion, and taxed families with fewer than 5 children. This caused the birthrate to skyrocket. Many families had to abandon their child because they were unable to afford for them. Caused the babies to be left at government run orphanages with untrained and overworked staff. Child to caregiver ratio was 15 to 1, so children were deprived of healthy attachments with caregiver. - Parenting styles • Authoritative, have rules but allows exceptions, allows older children for their inputs during decisions. • Permissive, no rules at all. Child is allowed to do whatever they want. - Immature - Agressive • Authoritarian, extremely strict, expects complete obedience, and allows no exceptions. - No social skills - Low self esteem - Kohlberg’s levels of moral thinking, thinking process where you try to determine if the idea is right or wrong. • Pre-conventional morality (before the age of 9), follows the rules either to avoid getting punished or to gain a reward. • Conventional morality (early adolescence), follows the rules and laws to gain social approval. • Post-conventional morality (adolescence and beyond), doing something in order to keep society organized. Chapter 5: Sex, Gender, and Sexuality - Sex vs. Gender definitions (role) • Sex, the biologically influenced characteristics by which people define males and female. Biological (XX or XY anatomy) • Gender, the socially influenced characteristics by which people define men and women. Cultural/Experiential Roles. - Role, expectation society has about a social position. PSYC 1101 Study Guide #2 - Prenatal sexual development • Chromosomal sex - X chromosome, found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosome.An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child. - Y chromosome, found only in male. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child. • Gonadal sex, reproductive cell that produces the sex cells. - Puberty, period of sexual maturation, during this time a person becomes capable of reproducing. • Primary sex characteristics, he body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that makes sexual reproduction possible. Things absolutely necessary in order to reproduce. • Secondary sex characteristics, nonproductive sexual traits such as female breast and hips, male voice quality, and body hair. Things that typically happen to males and females. - Gender role vs. gender identity • Gender Role, a set of expected behaviors, attitudes, and traits for males and females. Things that are normal for males and females in the society that are taught at a young age. • Gender Identity, our sense of being male, female, or a combination of the two. The gender you feel most comfortable with. - How gender is learned • Social learning theory, we learn social behavior by observing and imitating other and by being rewarded or punished. • Gender schemas, organizes our experiences of male-female characteristics, and help us think about our gender identity. • Transgender, people whose gender identity differs from that associated with their birth sex. Gender identity is opposite of their biological sex. Chapter 6: Sensation and Perceptions - General concepts • Sensation, the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment. • Perception, the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information. • Sensory receptors and transduction - Transduction, conversion of one form of energy into another. What the sensory does, transferring into electrochemical energy. • Absolute threshold and difference threshold - Absolute threshold, the minimum stimulus energy needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time. (one stimulus) - Difference threshold, the minus difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. Just noticeable difference. (two stimuli) - Weber’s Law, the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (not a constant amount). • Sensory adaptation, when you have constant stimulus your body starts ignoring it an starts decreasing sensitivity. - Vision • Light - Wavelength/frequency (hue), the distance from the peak of one light wave or sound wave to the peace of the next. • Short blue waves has high frequency. • Long red waves have low frequency. - Amplitude (brightness), the height of the wave. • Smaller/short means brightness is dimmer. • Taller/big means brightness is bright. • Anatomical structures of the eye - Cornea, bends the light to help provide focus. - Pupil, small opening for the light to pass through. - Lens, behind the pupil, focuses incoming light rays into an image on the retina. - Retina , the light sensitive inner surface of the eye. Processes the visual information. • Photoreceptors - Cones, sensitive to detail and color. PSYC 1101 Study Guide #2 - Rods, sensitive to faint light. Bad with details and colors. - Fovea, the central focal point in the retina. Center or vision. - Blind spot, where the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a “blind” spot because there are no receptor cells located there. - Optic nerve, carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain. • Parallel processing, the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions. Doing many things at once. • Bottom-up processing vs. top-down processing - Bottom up processing, taking tiny pieces of information (motion, form, depth, and color) and then gradually putting them together. - Top down processing, processing information on our experience and expectations. • Feature detection, nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific feature of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement. • Form perception, using these grouping strategies to see patterns and objects. - Gestalt principles, an organized whole. • Figure ground, the organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground). - Proximity, we group nearby figures together. - Continuity, we perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones. - Closure, we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object. • Depth perception, being able to see objects in three dimensions even though our retina sees those images as two dimensional.Allows us to judge distance. - Monocular cues, only uses one eye. Measures depth. • Linear Perspective, parallel lines appear to meet in the distance. • Relative Size, the closer the object the bigger it seems, the farther the object the smaller it seems. • Light and Shadow, darker shadows appear closer while lighter shadows appear farther. • Interposition, when one object is overlapped or hidden by another object it appears to be farther. • Texture Gradient, surface with texture will be easier to see and the closer. - Binocular cues, depends on the use of both eyes. • Retinal disparity, seeing two slightly different image. Closer the object more difference between the images the eye sees. - Gibson’s visual cliff experiment, Eleanor Gibson divided a miniature cliff with a glass covering the drop part to find out if infants and newborn animals would crawl over it. • Perceptual constancies, perceiving objects as unchanging (having constant color, brightness, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change. - Shape constancy, seeing different shape but same object. - Size constancy, object is the same size even though there is a distance between them. - Color constancy, perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the objects. Chapter 9: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence - Defining Intelligence/Intelligence Tests (know how each person/test defines intelligence) Intelligence, the mental potential to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new • situations. Alfred Binet: MentalAge vs. ChronologicalAge • - MentalAge, chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Lewis Terman: Intelligence Quotient/Calculating IQ • - Intelligence Quotient, ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplies by 100. Charles Spearman (1863 - 1945): general intelligence (g) vs. specific ability • - General Intelligence, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test. David Wechsler • - WAIS (WechslerAdult Intelligence Scale) Consists of 15 subtests • - Similarities, considering the commonality of two objects or concepts. - Vocabulary, naming pictured objects, or defining words. PSYC 1101 Study Guide #2 - Block Design, visual abstract processing. - Letter Number Sequencing, on hearing a series of numbers and letters, repeat the numbers in ascending order, and then the letters in the alphabetical order. - Application of normal curve, a symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of fate; most scores fall near the mean, and fewer and fewer near the extremes. • Emotional Intelligence, the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions. - Perceiving emotions, recognizing them in faces, music, and stories. - Understanding emotions, predicting them and how they may change and blend. - Managing emotions, knowing how to express them in varied situations. - Using emotions, to enable adaptive or creative thinking. • Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences - Intrapersonal intelligence, self awareness.Aware of their emotions, motivations, beliefs, and goals. - Interpersonal intelligence, the ability to understand and interest effectively with others/ - Linguistic intelligence, the ability to understand spoken and written language, and the ability to speak and write it. - Logical-mathematical intelligence, good at scientific investigations, identifying relationships between different things, and understanding complex ideas. - Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, ability to use a variety of physical skills. • Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence - Analytical intelligence, school smart; traditional academic problem solving. - Creative intelligence, the ability to react adaptively to new situations and generate novel ideas. - Practical intelligence, street smart; skill at handling everyday tasks. - Nature vs. Nurture - Interaction of Genetics and Environment on intelligence
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