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MSU / Art History / AL 315 / Why is culture considered as people's way of life?

Why is culture considered as people's way of life?

Why is culture considered as people's way of life?

Description

*Underlined words are vocab terms  ISS 315  


Why culture is considered as people's way of life?



9/1/16

1) Yoganand Sinha  

a) 312 Baker  

b) 11: 45 pm T and Th

c)3:45-4:45 pm F

2) Caitlin Vogelsberg

a) 4A01 East Fee  

b) Wed. 10-11 am  

3) 2 midterms and 1 Cummulative Final  Homework: Start reading The Age of Empire 9/6/16 

Globalization and Economic systems

Biological diversity

Cultural diversity

-culture is informally learned and is the nature  of the world around us and specifies our role in  reality

culture is how we should act toward human  and object

Who are we?

Everyone has culture and culturally traditioned  Enculturation-given to you by your culture  without you being conscious of it  


How is culture transmitted through enculturation?



∙ Not always aware of the choices we’re  making  

∙ This is how things are done  

∙ What we get as we grow up Don't forget about the age old question of What is equality of opportunity in sociology?

-“This is a boy, this is a girl” “this is good,  this is bad”

∙ “Men are ‘pigs’” in the case of sexuality in  American society  

∙ different assumptions for different cultures  and different people

Family  If you want to learn more check out What does positive strain mean?

∙ psychological and emotional concepts -concepts of love from different members  of the family  

∙ family is monogyny-one man and one  woman

-traditonal family in the American culture ∙ polygyny-one man several women vs.  polyandry –one woman and several men ∙ every culture has an incest taboo, cross culturally it is variable not just limited to  close family but several generations in  some cultures


What is balanced reciprocity characterized by?



∙ same sex marriage is legal but not  accepted, or it is illegal but accepted  Ethnocentrism 

∙ the ability of people from cultures to look  upon different cultures as subordinate or  wrong in comparison

∙ you’re assumptions are right and theirs are wrong  

Cultural diversity limits communication or  adopting their cultural traits cross-culturally  ∙ some degree of contact always existed  between ancestral humans-i.e. genetic  information

∙ modern humans share some genetics and  we can also look at shared cultural ideas  between populations  If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of ethnocentrism in anthropology?

∙ hunting/gathering is the longest lasting  strategy that has lasted in human  

existence  

-in low population you can use this for  generations without depleting an  

environment or population  

-total equality between people

-everyone knows how to do the same job  -no social stratification

∙ same wealth, same food access, etc.  -simple lifestyle and ethically do not need  stuff because they are nomads

Generalized reciprocity

∙ people are constantly giving and taking  while no one keeps track of exchange or  the time place in which it takes place  because no one cares  

∙ dominant exchange pattern in  

hunter/gather societies linked in social ties  -creates bonds and relationships between  groups

∙ The negative can occur when groups are  removed from each other or ethnocentric  towards one another

∙ Can handle economic problems by the  simple idea of repaying debt  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of conditional proofs?

-Big man societies use generalized  We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of reaction time in performance outcome measures?

reciprocity to control government debts or  corporate debts by calling all his favors in   ∙   Excess goods are transferred to a  group that may need it, redistributing  wealth 

∙ Status and wealth increase from this  ∙ Doing it for status and prestige rather  than capital accumulation- it is a  

general assumption in our society that  people are motivated to help for wealth accumulation rather than other needs  Balanced Reciprocity  

∙ Bartering between cultures that are  unfamiliar with each other  

∙ This stops communication and contact  after the exchange has been made

-no social obligations to each other  

Negative Reciprocity  

∙ Take something and not giving something  back  

∙ Raiding  

∙ Native American societies-Plain Indians  ∙ Excess wealth/goods can be raided or  targeted by other people  

 ∙   Can still be equally distributed  

Cultures and its barriers still to some degree of  some type of exchange or communication  amongst one another  

∙ Economic exchange-this has been known  to promote the exchange of culturally  ideas, art, science, language and other  traits  We also discuss several other topics like Where was martin luther king's childhood home?

State Level Organization

∙ Kings, knights, peasants

∙ Different statuses  

-lower or greater access to resources  9/8/16

1.Recap-the culture, what makes culure-i.e.  ideas, communication, ethnocentrism,  social stratification, hierarchy systems

2.At this new age in time, there is contact  between different people leading to  interdependence

a.Indians and Samaritans are coming into contact-proof is in the seals that are  created for marketing  

i. We know because of specialization  in Indian ancient cultures which  

were found in Samaria.  

ii. They were trading with multiple  cultures such as Egypt and West  

Africa, even China  

1.Interconnection between Asia  

and Middle East and West  

Africa  

3.Countries prosper and promote sharing of  cultures and ideas by connecting diverse  regions of an empire together

a.Roman Empire interconnected many  different countries all throughout  

Europe

i. Interconnected with other regions  as well but did not globally reach  

other places in the world  

ii. Did not start global reach until the  1400s  

4.1400s Europe was going through an  expansive redevelopment

a.religion, institutions, and systems were  reshaped to create the modern world b.The Age of Discovery-i.e. Digamma and Columbus discovered new worlds and  created great exports for Europe

5.Coastal regions in Asia and Africa  prospered from the age of Discovery a.They did not receive any other benefits from this trade, nor did they receive an overall economic change  

i. Same in China, nothing really  

changed apart from a economic  

growth but not overall  

ii. Also, Cuba/Caribbean did not  

receive an overall economic  

change rather the people and  

culture of Africa were unchanged  

by the system of the Triangle Trade  b.Europeans typically took lands and  colonies by accident so the  

transformation of cultures was not  systematic  

i. Trading in Calcutta, the English saw an opportunity to overthrow a weak king and India became a colony of  England

1.Exploit peoples, displace native

people, exploit resources

c.There was no Global Economy in the  15th and 16th centuries

i. The real change occurred during  the Enlightenment 

1.Intellectuals and reasoning  

2.Contradicted the original belief  

and was considered radical to

the other institutional  

teachings  

6.1700s reasoning rather than faith and  religion dominated popular thought  a.Due to the Enlighten thinkers such as  Rene Descartes

b.predict the behaviors and processes of  groups of people  

i. when people are rational they  

follow the model of predictability,  

or fundamental principles and laws  of reason

c.challenged foundations of European  tradition

i. clients, economy, art, language,  science

ii. everything became suspect to  

thought or rejection rather than the feudal order of society from the last few centuries

7.Adam Smith, 1776 wrote The Wealth of  Nations

a.Enlightenment thinker in the field of  economics  

 b.Rationalize economics, as long as  people thought in rational ways the  economy could be predicted by looking at people’s own self-interest, thus  rewarding efficient and rational  

production

i. Example, One expensive shoe store and a cheap store, people will buy  from a cheaper store because of  

their own self-interest. The market  is looking for the right price due to  consumers and their choices and  

this influences the production of  

products

ii. “The Invisible Hand”- Adam Smith 1.means that without anyone  

being involved directly the  

market knows how and what to

sell due to consumers and their

predictability and rational  

2.owners know when to lower  

prices or make more efficient  

prices

3.The model only works when  

everyone is being rational in  

their actions

4.Also a problem in the case of  

monopolies or government tax  

exemption

8.For economics to work there needs to be a  laissez-faire policy towards economics a.Otherwords, gov’t. should not interfere b.If the economy is left alone then it will  succeed on its own via the principles of rationality and enlightened thought 9.Industrial Revolution

a.Traditionally, goods were made by  craftsmen guilds  

b.Goods are not made by guilds but  rather efficiently through factories and  without much skill

i. Makes more money and more  

products

c.Coincides with the evolution of science  i. Creation of steam engine factories  ii. Goods are produced at an  

unimaginable rate

d.Increasing needs for a market to sell  goods  

10. Political Theorists they could base  politics and government on rationality  a.John Locke saw a blank slate when  people were born, the people we  

become are due to the way we are  raised (environment)

i. An irrational environment causes  for irrational people

b.Society> creates individual>helps  create the society and influences  

society

c.Two countries in 1776 (U.S.) and 1789  (France) applied rational government in their countries  

d.This works only if people are well  informed

i. Problem with the U.S. 2016 election is that many people are not  

informed  

11. Both revolutions changed Europe and  the rest of the world  

a.Problems with this is that most of the  people who supported the movements  was the bourgeoisie people

i. They were not people who owned  land but rather people who were  

business owners, middle-class, who were involved with commerce  

ii. Embraced the industrial revolution  and made good money, also  

embraced the democratic views of  gov’t.  

b.Middle class finally becomes the  dominant class  

12. Society was getting better due to  rational and enlightened thought and even  was surpassing the advancements of the  ancient world  

 a.Cultural evolution – idea that societies  are evolving and progressing through  time

b.Colonizing Asian and African nations  would benefit them by being influenced by European rationale, making this a  moral cause

i. U.S. fighting in Benghazi, Iraq, and  so forth today

9/13/16

1.Europe had adopted the ideas of  

democracy and rational economics  

2.1805-1914

a.no wars between European countries at this time due to the Enlightenment

b.adoption of rational economics and  technology led to a boom of wealth and creativity

i. art and literature flourished  

3.change is associated with the notion of  progress during the Enlightenment  

a.things keep getting better all the time b.idea is still present today

4.innovations allow people to move  technology, products, and communication  more efficiently helping the global  

economy and also helping create it  

5.increasing gap between first world and  third world countries  

6.destruction of traditional economies actively getting rid of any competition in  non-European countries

a.Europe was creating textiles which took over for Asian and African cultures  

which traditionally made textiles  

7.No fight against western imperialization  since the opposing countries did not have  any sense of commonality

a.Meaning they could not find anything in common with each other culturally to

fight the rise of European economy and development  

8.Despotic kingdoms and empires such as in  India and South America

a.This was created by the ideals of race i. Black, brown, white

ii. People can genetically and  

rationally grow to become closer to white or progressive indefinitely  

but genetics prevented them from  going past the boundaries that  

separated them in society

iii. Black^Brown^White

b.Paternal notion of empires and  

colonization where European countries  would introduce rational thought to  colonial countries due to their  

incapability to take care of themselves c.White people’s burden

d.Some groups are genetically superior e.White society there was a certain belief that some people were genetically  superior and some were genetically  inferior

i. This is social Darwinism

f. 1870s Europeans believed they would  be forever the beacon of civilization  i. the mass production of goods and  agriculture as well as  

transportation led to crash in the

market because of constant  

competition

1.in other words, a deflation,  

prices go down and wages go  

down

g.farmers suffer from the increase in  production and export from foreign  countries

i. thus they either lose their farms or  emigrate  

9.Executives and other corporate hierarchies  are created for efficiency and monetary  gain

a.Executives help to limit the owners role and help to control the processes in the company

b.Beaucracy is also created

i. white collar workers  

c.taylorism/Fordism

i. companies would clock workers to  see how long it took workers to  

complete a particular task

ii. time and motion studies-in all  

factories

d.Second Industrial Revolution era  (1870s)

i. New technologies and innovations  allow for the production of a whole  new set of goods  

1.Steel, equipment, tools,  

chemicals, etc.

2.Mass production businesses  

required a lot of money

ii. It was no longer easy for everyone  to start up a business on their own  without a lot of money up front

e.Monopolies are created and  

discouraged free market competition  i. Carnegie and Rockefeller and  

Vanderbilt  

10. Governments tried to rescue the  economy by setting up protectionist  barriers or tariffs for exported goods  

a.Everyone was trying to protect their  domestic businesses by taxing foreign  goods  

11. Growth of mass democracy

a.Politicians wanted to appeal to the  masses who were losing their jobs  i. Did it by taxing any foreign goods  12. No self-correcting government beliefs  from the market

a.Classic capitalism or laissez-faire was  no longer believed to be an effective  form of economic policy

b.Governments were loaning money to  people to start up their own companies i. At this point, again, people needed  large amounts of money to start a  business

c.Government promoted small domestic  at the fall of a free market

d.Economic rivalry between companies  was shadowed by the country rivalries  13. Final response to depression of 1870s  is imperialism and colonialism

a.Governments believed this would help  the domestic economy and getting out  of the depression  

b.Colonies would be specialized to  produce goods that would not compete with the domestic economy like raw  goods-bananas, coffee, cane sugar,  cocoa, etc.  

14. A dual-economic system was created  where domestic goods were manufactured  in the country and the colonies created the  raw goods

a.Farmers could also migrate to the  colonies and make plantations  

15. Economic competition between  countries to get colonies

16. Depression ended in 1890s  

a.Monopolies, government response, and colonies did not end  

b.No one went back to liberal capitalism  and businesses were making tons of  money

17. More countries became industrialized 18. America and Germany became more  industrialized and economically expansive

19. 1870 to 1914 Europe was colonized  and expansive countries where they had  zones of influence prevalent  

a.China was influenced by Germany, US,  England etc.  

20. Politics and the economy together  came to create the colonization and nation state economies that were seen in this era

a.Dense relationship between developed  and undeveloped worlds

21. For the first time the entire world was  under one economic system  

22. Mining and plantations came to  dominate third world economies  

a.One or two products could dominate an entire region’s economy  

23. Excess goods could be dumped on to  other colonies when the price of goods  went down

a.This never actually happened  

24. Colonialism had little impact on the  natives

25. New elites developed from western  culture and education and replaced  traditional elites  

9/15/16

Recap: protectionism basically is the practice of putting a tax on another countries goods to  protect domestic business in the home country

-Taxes are also extended to the colonies so  that the colonies will only buy into the  domestic economy  

-raw goods are also produced in colonies  and sold in the mother country to boost  domestic economies

∙ This was still practiced after the  

depression

1.Democracies saw everyone as equal even  with the differences in environments and  genetics  

2.Superiority of whites over natives

a.Based on genetic differences

b.Racism justified colonialism and went  back to the traditional belief that some  people should rule due to their genetic  superiority  

3.Power shift to bourgeois class

a.Excluding non-bourgeois from  

participating in political processes

i. Property and literacy requirements 4.Commune of Paris

a.Groups of workers took control of the  city of Paris and threatened European  gov’t. practice

i. Wake up call on the suppression of  workers’ demands

5.1871

a.votes were given to a vast majority of  people across all classes

b.restricted voting and relevance of  legislature  

i. these ideas suddenly became  

ineffective and workers became the dominant group of people

6.Ruling class

a.Aristocrats and businessmen

7.Middle class

8.Poor or peasant people

a.Could also be factory workers  

9.Mass political parties  

a.Ideologies of how the world should be  i. Socialism-Marxism  

1.Everyone is equal-workers  

utopia

b.Ruling class was finally forced to take  the political parties seriously

throughout Europe

10. Politicians no longer believed anything  they promoted rather they became  hypocritical  

11. These parties posed a threat the nation because they undermined national unity 12. Career politicians became more  dependent on withholding their jobs to  survive

13. Revolving door between politicians and business through lobbying or favors

14. Patriotism undermines socialist visions  so the nation’s boosted this idea to rid of  the overpowering socialist parties of  workers

15. Education and monuments/palaces  helped to brainwash as well as create a  sense of nationalism

16. To suppress communist parties nations  would cooperate and include them in  government  

a.Making policies and no more  

oppression

b.Government had to make concessions  to the workers in order to get them on  their side

i. Also had to abandon laissez-faire  policy

ii. Also had to become more  

beaucratic, larger, and more  

involved  

17. Shift in the economies from agriculture  to more technical and scientific business  and farming practices  

a.Cities started to have more than one  million people

b.Farmers started migrating to the cities  for factory jobs  

c.Peasants became the majority of the  population  

18. Working class finally received the rights to vote, 1870s

a.People finally felt that they had power  19. The only people who were actively  seeking out the working class was the  socialists  

a.Marxists  

20. Proletariats are workers who do not  own property  

21. In order for socialists to gain the forces  that they wanted they had to focus on  national policy and politics  

a.Eventually they stopped focusing on  other countries’ working classes

b.Lost revolutionary ideology and  

accepted capitalism as the depression  came to a close and prosperity was  revived under government concession  and labor  

22. Workers were never a homogenous  group because in reality divisions between  workers was existent due to competition  between one another

a.In other words, if you compete against  an opponent you both can’t be on the  same team, right?  

23. Traditional values and nationalism in a  country were torn down by the  

enlightenment  

24. All of Europe began to think of  themselves in national terms

a.Every person should have their own  nation-after the first world war and the  Treaty of Versailles  

i. Shared culture

b.Sense of national identity before even  being a part of a nation

c.Notions of shared communities gave  the state a way to reach out to their  citizens, or a way to get citizens to  submit to their authority

i. Standardized citizen

ii. Education, literacy, flags  

d.Every nation needed to create a history in order to unite everyone and create a national unity

e.Everyone had to speak the same  language and have religion

i. Anyone who was different  

(immigrant) was credited for  

creating disunity in the nation  

f. Groups in America, immigrants,  created their own identity because  they had none in their previous nation  or in their new nation

25. Neonationalism – the false reality of the countries they came from  

26. Foreigners became the target of  nationalist parties

a.Jewish in Europe

b.Anti-Semitic-not liking a particular  powerful group of people

 27. Enlightenment notions were ridding of  traditional values and was the basis of  nationalism 

28. Monopoly on nationalism-right wing  29. Countries were becoming rival  economic blocks and opposed other  countries in capitalism

9/20/16

Recap: Rise of nationalism

1.Religion is irrational  

2.Institution engages people in civic  responsibility

a.This was nationalism’s purpose  

3.No reason for a country’s greatness 4.Nationalist parties

a.Is not an ideology therefore the  

effectiveness of these groups was  

reliant on socialism and socialist  

parties  

i. Utopian society for only one  

country rather than people  

from all countries

5.Any country or person who opposed  the nationalist was a threat to a  

country and to society

6.Foreign ideals and nations are  

dangerous for society

a.Nazis are actually national  

socialists

7.Role of the bourgeois

a.Top of the social order around the  1870s

b.Nobility was almost rid of due to  their ties with landholding

c.Working and business owning class became the large class

i. Hard work, frugality, progress,  etc.

1.The new ideals of the time

8.Bourgeois was no longer the dominate  class

a.No longer stood for hard work  b.No more work, they no longer  stood for frugality

c.Young people were not expected to do much  

d.Differentiate themselves from the  working class

e.No longer stood for progress as  they turned from liberal to  

conservative, right wing, parties  f. Champions of tradition  

9.Nations are barriers of trade to the  bourgeois

10. A lot of social transformation was  occurring  

a.Women’s votes

b.Art focused on capturing non aesthetic form and more emotion i. Embrace of the primitive was a  way of saying that African and

Asian artists were better and  

more authentic than that of  

Europeans

ii. Europeans are not longer the  most elite  

c.Science no longer presented a  consistent view of the world or a  fundamental belief on life  

d.Psychology was then influenced by  the idea of the id where people will  always have this part of  

themselves that is irrational  

e.NOTHING MADE SENSE TO THE  BOURGEOIS ANYMORE  

11. Period of 1870 to 1914 was  considered a golden era

a.Money, power, no wars, economy  lifted, cultural boom

12. The world became interconnected  and this caused other nations to feel  repercussions in other remote parts of  the world  

a.Issues in other countries came  back to bite Europe in the butt

b.Opium wars  

 13. Extraterritorial Zones of Influence – area of a country that belongs legally  to another country  

a.Laws no longer apply in this area  b.China had areas such as these that  where European powers fought

over regions in the country for their own profit  

c.Opium and the tax revenue also  went through the Europeans  

instead of the emperor  

d.Before the Golden Era, 1860s 14. Ottoman empire was growing  weaker  

a.Europe was on the brink of war  trying to create colonies in this part of Africa

15. Russian Revolution  

a.Tsar Romanoff was trying to  

industrialize  

b.Problem-rural economy, so the only way to gain money was to tax  

farmers and peasants  

c.Social discontent  

d.1905 is the revolution demanding  democratic reform  

e.1917 is when the communists took  the royal family and killed them,  second revolution  

16. Wealth was created from 1805- 1914

a.Each country had made zones of  influence and was a constant  

source of conflict  

17. Conflicts threw off the balance of  power for western nations

a.Diplomacy or contracts between  

nations prevented war for many  

years

18. Most countries had enlisted men  into the military while also instilling a  sense of nationalism to prepare for a  war in Europe

19. Tied industry and gov’t together  20. Certain countries were suffering  from domestic problems so war was  seen as a good thing for political  

stability

 21. Triple Entente-Russia, England, and France

 22. Triple Alliance-Germany, Austria,  (Italy for a while), and Turkey  

(ottomans)

23. First World War began July 28th as  Austrian heir Franz was assassinated  by a serbian which made everybody  think it was okay to start fighting their  enemies

24. West lost its sense of progress and  society with the war  

a.In other words, we don’t have  

anything to work for in the future

10/4/16 

Enlightenment

1.Transformation of the Enlightenment  from public to private domains

a.Seen in the family  

2.Thinkers tended to prioritize public  values over private ones

a.Civic responsibility

i. Over love, family-private  

matters

b.Difference of public and private life 3.How are we presented in public  sphere?

4.In this model, enlightened self interest  transforms private interest into civic  responsibility

a.Self-interest is married to public  good

b.I’m good and society is good and  vice versa

5.Self-interest links individual to the  community because their interest links  with the welfare of others

6.First civil responsibility is politics a.Women of course are excluded  from this but not in public  

discourse

b.Selfishness of men

c.Responsible for morality

d.Welfare of all children

7.Men are responsible for the welfare of  all women and children in the  

community

8.Religion in Early American Republic was to get people involved in the civic  

community

a.Charity, church functions, etc.

b.Universal government  

Checks on Individualism  

9.Churches are cross-cultured, communal centers from all walks of life

a.Poverty was no longer invisible to  well-off members of society

i. Fostered by rich who thought of

the poor as their civic  

responsibility

10. Early Republic political involvement was tied to the community good

a.Opposite of unrestrained  

individualism

i. Acting for the good of all

11. Economics also restrained  

individualism

a.Done at the local level  

b.No national or international system for the everyday Joe

c.Fostering relationships between  

people when economy began to  

intertwine people together

Roles

12. Gender roles were undefined

13. People that worked did not have  defined public role, it was done at  

home

a.Any one who could do a job would  do it  

i. Farms-anyone who could  

physically or mentally do the  

job did it for their economic  

welfare

14. Domestic Mode of Production  a.Women are expected more than  

men to take on civic duty for the  

good of community

b.Both in this era had specific roles  to play

15. Guilded Age 1870-1890

a.In this era middle class retreated  

from public engagement-no longer  

worried about social reform

i. Gov’t left south after civil war  

without making sure  

oppression and racism was  

over

b.Public morality was replaced with  private morality

c.Community-family  

d.Era of political corruption

e.Big business takes over politics and economy

i. Buying up the federal gov’t  

Classes

16. Social Darwinism-genetically poor  or rich

a.Why gov’t was reluctant to help the poor

b.People who wanted to be charitable would only help public services and

elevate the middle class

i. Helping the poor would only  

create more poor people and  

whole bunch of deaths

17. Free-fall economic period

a.Middle class focused more on their  own financial security

b.Distinct segments/socioeconomic  levels of society in this era

c.All groups became segregated  

along the different lines

i. No one was interacting with  

other groups of people

18. Churches become segregated  19. Political agendas become social  clubs  

20. Religion instead promotes  

conservative views like law and order a.Morality is a family issue

Middle class

21. Issues are due to other groups  a.Materialistic rich and poor, after a  good time

i. Vanderbuilts built a castle on  

the east coast

22. Hedonistic- concerned with your  own pleasure which is most  

important  

23. Morality are attribute of individual 24. Parellels to guilded ages of 1980s a.Reagan Years

b.Poor are hedonistic and bad but  

rich are good as opposed to 1880s  

where both classes were hedonistic

or bad  

Poor and Women

25. Poor cannot adopt a different  lifestyle because they were poor!  

26. Children are forced to work  

a.Women are forced to work in 1980s and children are left alone at home

b.Lax of family values-child neglect  27. WOMEN ARE BLAMED FOR  

POVERTY IN BOTH ERAS

28. Cuts in public spending from  

women and pregnant women

29. Even today the highest amount of  welfare recipients are single mothers  and young children

30. Public dialogue on morality stops  becoming social concern  

Speaking Out

31. No more social processes

32. All expressions of morality are  expressed in the language of private

affairs even if they take place in public  domain

a.Personal relationships with  

politicians or none at all

b.“I FEEL YOUR PAIN” comments from politicians  

Individualism and Private World

33. family becomes a mechanism for  self-interest  

a.corruption is generally excused for  the family  

b.spending at all is seen for the  

family and therefore righteous  

behavior

34. Public domain is world of men 35. Private world is world of women 36. Women increasingly are expected  

to work and therefore, in the public  domain, has to be unfeminine and shrill a.Successful women are expected to  be men or obtain aspects of men

10/6/16 

1.Free Market Capitalism  

a.No real free market, even today

b.Ideology or belief system

2.Sectors of economy were sheltered from  competition  

a.Constant state of readiness for war  against Russia so military needed to

be protected from people who could  steal it  

3.International monetary fund helped  developing countries in the 50s and 60s  who did not have the money to feed  themselves when the money on  

commodities fell

a.Even caused political unrest  

b.These countries were repressive  against their people  

i. We would side with dictators if it  did not hurt the U.S. internally  

ii. They had to be aligned with us  even if they were hurting their  

own people  

c.Extremes good or bad  

4.White people control everything  everywhere  

a.No political power, representation, no  regulations, no gov’t services, no  basic necessities for people in  

minorities

b.When the people in the developing  world wanted to rebel they were  

considered communist and were put  down by their gov’t  

5.Gov’t interest in all of the developing  countries

a.Guatemala most of the land in the  country was owned by one company  (United Fruit Company)

i. U.S. was appealed to by the  

company to shut down the locals  (who were considered communist) ii. Country and people were  

considered communist

iii. U.S. incited a dictatorship to  

protect business and incited years of civil war

b.Iran had lots of oil and democratic  gov’t  

i. Nationalize oil fields, controlled by other countries

ii. President wanted Iranian control  of oil  

1.We thought it meant messing  

with the free market  

iii. U.S. incites long lost Shah in  

control of Iran, becoming pro-U.S.  1.Uses money from oil to  

suppress people

6.It doesn’t matter if a country was any but  democratic as long as they were for us a.They couldn’t interfere with the free  market

b.Karl Marx felt free market ruined  institutions because it would interfere  with capitalism  

 i. Promoting inequality 

 7. Russia had a system where all aspects  were controlled by the gov’t

8.Invisible hand no longer determined  economy it was all being controlled by the central gov’t  

9.System failed sometimes just because  sometimes there was a change in supply  and demand

10. Beauacrat could choose not to make  changes  

11. Russia controlled the back economy  and U.S. controlled the foremost economy a.Most countries were in between the  two  

b.Developing world was in modified  capitalism with regulations  

i. i.e. socialism  

12. 1991 Collapse of the U.S.S.R.  a.problem was their economy which  couldn’t keep up their needs

b.clients abandoned this communist  economic model

c.many countries found it hard to  become more open in terms of  

economic activity with other countries 13. More global economy

a.China began to open up their  

economy to free market forces such  as U.S.  

b.New global economic system

14. Capitalism was the only economy left  after the fall of communism

a.WTO-world trade organization makes  sure that everything such as currency, protectionism, etc. are fair  

 15. Agriculture was exempt from the free  market openness 

a.Free developing countries, from the  colonial era, would not be as  

competitive if they were in a free  market  

b.In a short period of time these  

domestic economies in the U.S. and  other countries would disappear  

c.They had nothing to trade with the  goods they were demanding  

i. Labor force works for lower wages 16. Goods today are made all over!  17. Some companies are exceedingly  

successful and are not able to generate  jobs anymore  

a.Factories are relocating everywhere to wherever jobs are cheapest

18. Free trade is important

a.Economic rationality is married to  efficiency

b.Generates more wealth

19. Trade increases overall wealth of the  country

a.Up to the country where excess  wealth goes in that country  

b.Ideally excess money should go to all  sectors of the country

20. Wealth will be appropriated by those  who are already wealthy

a.May not benefit the country’s middle  class

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