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UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT LAFAYETTE / History / His 102 / What is equality of opportunity in sociology?

What is equality of opportunity in sociology?

What is equality of opportunity in sociology?


School: University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Department: History
Course: World Civilizations II
Professor: Richard frankel
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: history, Antisemitism, nationalism, zionism, and Jews
Cost: 25
Name: History 102 Notes Week 6
Description: These notes cover most of lecture Tuesday about the Rise of Zionism: Nationalism Between the East and West as well as views of Antisemitism and how these views affected Jews.
Uploaded: 10/08/2016
5 Pages 121 Views 2 Unlocks

The Rise of Zionism: Nationalism Between the East and  West 

What is equality of opportunity in sociology?

I. Transformation, Nationalism, & Antisemitism  

II. Russian Environment and the Emergence of Zionism  III. Theodor Herzel & the Organization of Zionism  

 Terms: Pale of Settlement , Pogroms , Hovevei Zion ,Theodor   Herzel Dreyfus Affair 

I. Transformation, Nationalism and Antisemitism  

 - Enlightenment's implications and promise

 - Dual Revolution and reemergence of anti-Semitism  --> new aspects

 --> importance of nationalism  

 --> old forms remain  

A. Enlightenment's implications and promise  This period involved the importance of the 'environment',  including all individuals were created equally, and in order to  form this type of union, society must remove those restraints and allow others to adapt in general society (similar to what the Jews  did)  

What was the cause for the emergence of modernization in europe?

 *there was a promise of hope and change for the Jews, to  assimilate into the Christian Empire (through legal forms like the  Patent/Edict of Toleration, etc.)

 B. Dual Revolution and reemergence of antisemitism Antisemitism --> began in the second half of the 19th century  and started to expand in areas where Jews were highly  discriminated against 

 - this idea occurred due to the results of change ( Europe's  modernization crisis), but the economy began to pick at the term  of the millennium) We also discuss several other topics like How is poisson's ratio calculated?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of ethnocentrism in anthropology?

 - brought a sense of confusion, individuals who endured  negative experiences blamed the Jews for the source of their  problems/ looked to scapegoats as Jews

When did the polish lithuanian commonwealth fall?

 - Dual Revolution --> second modern crisis in Europe  (through capitalization, social changes/status, political change  and industrialization)  

 - lifestyles maintained prior to this period were much more  challenging to maintain (Ex. Guilds status in the job market would decline in the 19th century because department stores emerged, it also put small shopkeepers out of business, and small-scale

farmers availability in the job market declined because of new  farming techniques and technology

 - it was easier to blame Jews for crisis, b/c of the  discrimination they experienced ( and now since these changes  occurred, Jews were able to move up in society because of their  economic areas they were placed/limited in (like money lenders),  able to venture into various fields because they were liberals  ( liberals promoted capitalism and policies of change and this  undermined Christian ideals, but allowed Jews to become more  successful)  

 - in all, individuals still found ways to blame Jews for their  hardships ----> actually groups were formed which became sort of a movement; these groups supported anti-Jewish policies  ( wanted to revoke the Emancipation of Jews, limit their  freedoms) --> political/social movements were also endorsed by  major political parties  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of conditional proofs?

* rise of nationalism -- ideals that people are separated into  different nations, and these nations would have the option to  govern their own state ( could also trigger prejudice against Jews)

 --How does nationalism affect Jews? This group were  completely different groups of individuals who lived in various  areas of Europe (Are Jews apart of the nations or are they  outsiders of the nation? For example if someone is German and  tend to believe in the Jewish faith, which may cause conflict)  

 --> as nationalism spreads, the process of group formation is  much easier to point out who's not a member  We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of performance production measures in measuring motor performance?

 a. Must be boundaries

 b. Becomes different for Jews

 c. For some. Nationalists, this became an issue because  they saw Jews as a problem (since they are everywhere,  and don't fit); in a way this resolution for this problem would improve their idea in a sense  Don't forget about the age old question of Where was martin luther king's childhood home?

-- original ways didn't dissolve, but remained ( Jews were viewed  as economic/political/cultural threat); reemerges  

 a. People classified Jews as 'Christ-killers' 

 b. These prejudices reemerge in the environment, but take  new forms.  

 c. Zionism also forms due to Jewish prejudice  

II. Russian Environment and Emergence of Zionism  --Conditions in the Pale of Settlement  

 --Violence sweeps the Southern Pale (1881)

 --Leo Pinsker and 'Auto-Emancipation'

 --Emigration begins

 --Hovevei Zion and the 1st Aliyah  

Conditions in the Pale of Settlement

- began in Russia in the 19th century; this is where most Jews  lived--> Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, (which were areas of  decline and under major threat by other countries  - the Polish-Lithuania Commonwealth was separated by its three  neighbors-- Prussia, Austria-Hungary, and Russia (lion share- by  Russia) If you want to learn more check out Why is oxygen so important to most animals?

 a. Jews were forbidden from living in main parts of Russia (by  this time there were millions of Jews)  

 b. Pale of Settlement  Most of the Polish-Lithuanian  Commonwealth was taken over; permanent residency was  assigned to Jews and they were not allowed to move to any  region beyond those borders in Russia, which occurred from  1791-1917

Pale of Settlement conditions:  

--Dramatically increasing populations with huge numbers of  poverty levels 

-limited living regulations in specific towns/villages  -more people wouldn't be able to make a living or obtain a job -the Jews faced huge amounts of discrimination which made it  very challenging for this group (since they were poor, and  Orthodox Jews {weren't assimilated}, spoke Yiddish language  ( not common European language)  

* by the early 1880s: Violence occurred on a large scale -->  especially in the spring of 1881 when the ruler of Russia (czar)  was assassinated by a group of revolutionaries ( people blamed  the Jews as a result of this because one of the revolutionaries  involved in the assassination was a Jewish woman)  * this event resorted to Anti-Jewish riots --> called pogroms -->  resulted in many injuries, extensive damage to properties, had a  major impact on people

 -- the pogroms were noteworthy because it was the last  occurrence before modernization, while others viewed it as a sign of conflict --> biggest expression occurred in 1882 when Leo  Pinsker, a Jewish doctor wrote a book called ‘Auto-Emancipation' which described how the pogroms in Russia changed his  perspective from Jews one day prospering among others in  society to perspective that Jews no longer had a future

 --- he explained that Jews needed to emancipate themselves because Russia wouldn't and they needed to venture to another  area in order to do that --> earliest principle of Zionism According to Zionism, what's a Jew?  

-- could be viewed as a nation, similar to other European  countries (Jews would be united despite crisis, because they  are considered a nation like everyone else) --> variations  taking place when Jews left Russia in huge numbers in 1881

 -massive wave of emigration to all areas west (period of  emigration before WWI, especially in US, also in areas like Britain, Western Europe,South America, and Palestine (Jews moved there  in small #'s --> were originally small secret organizations created in order to help other Jews move to Palestine  

 -this group was known as Hovevei Zion, also known as Lovers of Zion; didn't obtain much wealth at first and they group was  originally composed of 10,000-30,000 members  

 -the first ten Jews sent 2500 Jews to Palestine --> this event  was  

 known as the 1st Aliyah ( happened from 1881-1903), during  this time period 20,0000-30,000 Jews were sent to Palestine in  total  


--The Dreyfus Affair and its Impact

--Herzl's vision

--Organizing Zionism  

--New violence, new Aliyah

The new leader of Hovevei Zion --> Theodor Herzl  -- born in middle-class Jewish family in the Hapsburg Empire (Austria)

 --pretty secular individual who spoke various languages ( not  the language of Orthodox Jews or other Jews)  

 -- also a lawyer, journalist, an artist, and cosmopolitan  -since he was a Western assimilated and modernized Jew,  becoming a leader of this a Jewish organization would be totally  different for him  

 ----> Dreyfus affair - took place in the early 1890s --->  greatest French scandal since the French Revolution   a. Dreyfus was a Jewish officer/captain in France who had  been accused of Espionage (being a German spy)

 b. Unfairly tried and convicted on fake evidence since he  was framed  

 c. One of the biggest public scandals in France, others  called for a new trial for Dreyfus (some believed he was guilty  because he was a Jew, while others believed he was innocent)  

 d. He was given a retrial and exonerated in 1894 -->  crowds gathered which Herzl was among; Herzl witnessed and  heard chants like Death to the Jews, and many riots occurred due  to this event)

 e. This event allowed Herzl to see that Zionism was  the solution.  

Ideals of Zionism

- Jews had to obtain new land for themselves.

- Herzl had major influence upon this type of organization -->  developed the first Zionist Congress in 1894 --> which involved methods of how to achieve their goals (Early Zionists started their quest with similar questions as the Early Nationalists)  

 a. How history would connect them to the new area they  would obtain  

 b. Develop a common language ( this was challenging  because most Jews spoke Yiddish, some spoke Hebrew, and  others spoke various languages)  

 c. These questions were important in strengthening the body and the Jews themselves by methods of farming ("reviving the  body of Jews")

Anti-Semitism and Zionist Imagery  

-Antisemitism imagery --> depicted Jews as weak, frail, depressed 

-Zionist imagery --> depicted Jews as healthy, strong, happy (the  Zionist internalized images of Anti-Seminists by countering it)  -in 1903, there was a wave of violence --> much more violent  than the 1st instance of violence --> many people died (in huge  numbers), but this event differed from the first because  Jews began to fight back (Younger Jews fought, "brought  attitude of strength")

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