Psy 200 Exam 2 Study guide
Psy 200 Exam 2 Study guide PSY 200
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Huriyyah Notetaker on Friday October 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 200 at North Carolina State University taught by Christopher Mayhorn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 203 views. For similar materials see into to psych in Psychology (PSYC) at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Psychology 200-006 (Mayhorn) Review Sheet for Exam #2 The second exam will cover materials from the textbook (Chapters 4, 6, 7, & 11) as well as the lectures. The majority of the test material (80%) will come directly from the lecture with the remaining 20% coming from the textbook. A number of questions are applied….this means that you will have to be familiar with concepts and be able to apply them in specific situations. Be familiar with the following concepts: How Motivations affect behavior: ● Preference for one activity over another ● Intensity or vigor of response ● Persistence of organized patterns of action towards a goal Types of Motives ● Primary: simple motives such as serving biological needs, common to all animals (ex. Hunger and drinking) ● Complex: learned behaviors typically involving social interaction Hypothetical Constructs ● motives cannot be seen, but are assumed to exist ● Helps to explain/predict behavior Hunger as a Motive ● Blood glucose levels tomach contractions ● Hypothalamic involvement: lateral portion tells us what to eat and ventromedial portion tells us when to stop eating ● External Cues: our diet and social factors Eating Disorders ● Obesity: condition of being overweight ○ Bodily factors: digestive apparatus and lower metabolic rate ○ Genetic factors: genes which can lead to disease (ex. Twin studies) ○ Behavioral factors: externality hypothesis (outside forces and behaviors that lead the disease) ● Anorexia Nervosa: disorder that causes people to obsess over what they eat, their body image, and weight ○ Three phases - 1. Increased concern for physical appearance - 2. Increased fear that eating will make them fat - 3. Problem admission and increased food intake ● Bulimia: binging disorder that takes place, people want to lose weight ● What causes these eating disorders? - Hypothalamic dysfunction - Family conflict - Control of self - Fear of sexuality - Cultural pressures Arousal as a Motive ● There are sensory deprivation studies to study arousal (ex. College students getting paid to sit in sensory deprived area - were not able to last even a day) ● Humans are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal ● Optimal arousal is task dependent!!! ○ Easy tasks - higher level of arousal ○ Moderately difficult tasks - medium level of arousal ○ Difficult tasks - lower level of arousal Learning ● Relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs because of experience (conditioning) Types of Conditioning ● Classical: learning association between 2 stimulus events - Pavlov’s Dogs (used bells to learn), Little Albert (creating extreme phobias), ex. Music and friend - Unconditioned (not learned) stimulus: stimulus causes reflexive response (ex. Smell of food) - Unconditioned response: reflexive (automatic) response (ex. Salivation to smell of food) - Conditioned (learned) stimulus: an initially neutral stimulus that is often paired with unconditioned stimulus (ex. bell) - Conditioned response: learned response (ex. Salivation to bell which is not the same as unconditioned but similar) - Applications: - Alcoholism, phobias >>>>> counter-conditioning - Taste aversion/animal training (special: can occur after only one pairing, problem with coyotes so they used slightly poisoned sheep) *paired thoughts like grandma and cooking which then makes you drool* ● Operant (instrumental) conditioning: learning association between behavior and consequences (more active) Extinction: conditioned response disappears Stimulus Generalization: conditioned response appears w/ similar stimuli; ex - different bells Discrimination: conditioned response only appears with specific stimuli ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Watson’s Little Albert (unethical research) UCS: loud noise UCR: Albert cries CS: rat paired with loud noise CR: Albert cries - Induce phobia in child - Interested in phobias - Tried to look for fear in Albert - Phobia of furry animal (unreasoned fear came from previous experiences) Stimulus Generalization: Albert cried when he saw anything that looked furry ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Law of Effect: if a response is followed by a reward, it will be strengthened/ B.F. Skinner ● 2 types of reinforcement (anything that increases behavior) ○ Positive: when response produces something ex. Rat presses lever to get food ○ Negative: when response removes something you don’t like ex. Taking aspirin to get rid of a headache, honda beeping until you put on seat belt *NOT A PUNISHMENT* ● Primary reinforcer: natural stimulus reinforcing because it satisfies physiological need ex. Food ● Primary punisher: stimulus is inherently punishing ex. Pain ● Secondary conditioned reinforcer: learned reinforcers associated with other reinforcers ex. Money and gold stars for 1st graders ● Secondary conditioned punisher: learned punishers associated with other punishers ex. Frown ● Schedules of reinforcement - 1. Continuous: everytime desired response occurs, it is reinforced - 2. Fixed Ratio: after predetermined number of responses, reinforcement is given ex. Every 10 brooms you make, you get $1,000 - 3. Variable ratio: reinforcement after average number of trials - 4. Fixed interval: reinforced after specified time has elapsed - 5. Variable Interval: reinforcement after average time interval has elapsed ● Effects of schedules ○ Partial or intermittent reinforcement effect > partial reinforcement schedules lead to longest lasting learning ● Applications of Operant conditioning ○ Behavior modification (e.g. autism) > shaping: reinforce behavior that is similar to desired response ○ Animal training > chaining: reinforce each step in complex behavior until entire sequence is performed ex. Penguins in seaworld ○ Token economic: ex. Prison: everyday you volunteer, you get a certain time off your sentence ○ Superstition: coincidental reinforcement > keep doing it again and making connections that aren’t there Psychophysics: field of psychology that investigates relationship between sensory experience and physical properties Types of Thresholds Absolute: smallest amount of energy a person can detect; strength of signal you can detect 50% of the time > signal detection theory > Used to measure abs. threshold - is there something in environment or not? Difference: smallest difference in stimulation that can be detected when two things are compared > Just Noticeable difference: difference threshold from perspective of observer Weber’s Law: change necessary to produce JND is constant proportion of intensity of original stimulus ex. 100 candles, you have to add a lot of candles, but for 1, you have to add only 1 candle The Senses Vestibular: tells us about bodily orientation with respect to gravity (ex. Shifting weight) ● Adaptation: less sensitive to continuously presented stimuli ex. Boat and walking, off balance Kinesthetic: tells us about bodily orientation with respect to rest of body ex. Not tripping over own feet Cutaneous: touch, pressure, cold, warmth, pain > distribution of mechanosensory receptors Taste: chemical substance of food interacts with receptors on tongue (taste buds) >5 types of taste receptors (sweet, salty, bitter, sour, umami ex. MSG) Smell: chemical substances in air interact with receptors in olfactory epithelium Hearing: sound waves moving through air or other substance that stimulate auditory receptors in ears Characteristics of sound waves: amplitude, frequency, complexity Vision/seeing: ominant sense in humans Characteristics of light ● Color we perceive is related to wavelength ● Color-blindness: difficulty distinguishing color from another ● Brightness: intensity, amount of light you see ● Saturation: vividness or purity of color Anatomy of the eye ● Cornea: clear eye covering ● Pupil: opening in eye ● Iris: colored portion of eye; muscles vary size of pupil ● Lens: focuses light ● Retina: light sensitive area w/ photoreceptors (rods and cones) Sensation versus Perception Sensation ● Registration of physical properties of stimuli we encounter Perception ● Our psychological interpretations of these stimuli Depth Cues: features of stimuli that indicate how far an object is from the observer or from other object in the world Binocular Cues: (both eyes) ● Eyes are 2.5 inches apart so each eye sees a slightly different view of the same object - this helps determine how far an object is from you ● Convergence inward: focus on object coming close, eye will go Monocular Cues/pictorial cue: (use one eye) ● To manipulate cues: > interposition/occlusion - one obj. Partially covers another b/c it is closer to you ● Linear perspective: when two lines which we know are parallel seem to converge ● Texture gradient: greater distances, texture/ details of scene are packed together, less detail in back ● Relative size: two objects are very similar and larger object will appear closer ● Perception of movement (induced/apparent movement): incorrectly perceiving that object is moving when its actual background or surrounding objects moving ex. Clouds crossing over moon ● Form perception: we perceive object as individual parts ● Reversible figures: objects that can be perceived in more than one way Gestalt Laws of Grouping: ● Proximity: object close together are perceived to be in the same group ● Similarity: objects that look similar ● Continuation: we tend to fill in gaps when lines are interrupted ● Closure: when a familiar object is interrupted we imagine the rest of the figure Recall versus recognition ● Recognition: encounter something from the past and connect it with the original source ● Recall: digging something up from memory without having subject provided ● Rote learning: memory associated with lists and facts that have no emotional meaning Processes of Memory Encoding: converting external information into a neural code that your brain can understand Storage: retention/ encoded data is stored until we need it again Retrieval: etting information stored back out Multistore Model of Memory ● Sensory memory >> STM (short-term memory)>>LTM (long-term memory) ● Sensory memory: all incoming sensory data must pass our sensory memory filter ● Short term memory: working memory/ simultaneous storage and processing information (limited capacity) ● Long term memory: unlimited storage capacity, relatively permanent, recall is dependant on how data was encoded, data is organized into patterns Declarative versus Procedural Memory ● Declarative Memory: knowing about things; facts of information ● Procedural Memory: knowing how to do things ○ Semantic: meaning ○ Episodic: remembering episodes from your life You should be able to: Identify independent, dependent, and confounding variables Be able to identify US, UR, CS, CR Discriminate between punishment and reinforcement Identify different schedules of reinforcement Label diagrams of the eye Identify different types of memory (episodic versus semantic)
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