American Media and social Institutions Questions Answers
American Media and social Institutions Questions Answers JOUR 1020
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JOUR/EMC/RIM 1020 Midterm Study Guide Answers The evolution of mass communication (just know the general time in which shifts occurred) o o Oral and Written Eras 1000 B.C.E until the Industrial Revolution o o The Print Revolution 1450 B.C.E o o The Electronic Era/Information Age Began with the development of the telegraph in the 1840s o o The Digital Era The late 1950s1960s to today. Characterized by the internet The three communications Revolutions Radio, telephone, television. Three ways in which people communicate o Oral, Written, by psychic intuition? Mass media industries o The culture industries that have traditionally created, produced, and disseminated media messages. Differences between media products and channels o The product is what you actually view (a song) while the channel is what you view it on (the radio.) The concentration of ownership in contemporary media o The linear model of communication (or classic model) o Senders > Messages > Gatekeepers > Mass Media Channel > Receivers > Feedback The cultural view of communication o Asserts that the receivers of the message (media consumers) have much say into what media is produced via their feedback. People typically seek media that aligns with their own values and viewpoints. What are the limitations of each view? o Ways mass communication impacts society o Mass communication made information easier to obtain. Society changed from a hunter/gatherer type lifestyle to a more agricultural lifestyle. Once they were able to stay in one place and have a steady food supply, people started writing, inventing, speaking, etc. The change from the agrarian society would not have been possible without mass communication. Argued benefits/disadvantages to mass communication o o Benefits o Gives people common ground o Builds community o Reflects/shapes culture o Informs/persuades/entertains consumers o Serves as one of the primary institutions in society o Influences other institutions o Improves "quality of life" o o Disadvantages o Homogenizes cultures o Distorts reality/perpetuates stereotypes o Breeds commercialism o Works as a conspiracy with other institutions o Isolates people o Creates a divide/knowledge gap o Makes us dumber, more violent, and more sexual The evolution of printing, from premass production on (by century) o 2400 B.C. Egyptians made papyrus scrolls o o 1000 B.C. Chinese people made booklike objects o o 350 A.D. Romans sew parchment together o o 4001500 AD "Manuscript Culture" o o 800 AD Chine printers develop block printing o o 1000 AD Chinese printers use movable type o o 1400s Movable type developed in Europe The key players in this evolution o Benjamin Day Why did writing and printing first develop in these areas? o Because these areas had the ability to meet their basic needs for survival. They had time to write because they weren't spending all their time looking for food. All about Gutenberg, including the year of his printing press o o 14531456 He invented a means of using movable type in a press which made for faster, easier, cheaper, and more efficient printing. However, it was slow and required much labor. o o His printing press was adapted from wine presses. o o The Gutenberg Bible (the first Latin bible) required months to produce and it was printed on a parchment called vellum What were the first books like? o o Large, expensive, heavy o o Took months to illustrate and publish o o Primarily consumed by wealthy and elite o o Eventually, printers began printing smaller books on cheaper paper What limitations did people face before mass production? How did people get their information? o People get their information from members of their community. This information was usually skewed when it came from political leaders. The numerous ways the printing press impacted society (beyond the textbook) o o Increased the literacy rate o o Made printing easier, books more accessible o o Rise in participation in democracy The rise of publishing in America o What were books like in the 1800s? o o Paperback books, Cloth covers, Cheaper, Pulp fiction What are some of the various types of books? o o Trade books, Professional books, Textbooks, Mass market paperbacks, Religious books, Reference books, University Press book Why did some people panic over the popularity of comic books? o There were thoughts by the prominent psychiatrist Fredric Wertham that the lead to juvenile delinquency. Parents and religious grouped feared that their children were becoming corrupt. How is the book publishing industry structured? o Departments may include acquisitions and development; copyediting, design and production; marketing and sales; and administration and business. Acquisitions editors seek out and sign authors. They also have the right to sell a book for use in other media (ex movies). After that, the developmental editor provides advice to the author on how to write the book. Copy editors help with the grammar, and design managers work on the look of the book. The business departments figure out how to sell the book What have been the latest economic trends in book publishing? o Ebooks are receiving the most market share for the book publishing industry, growing from less than 100 million dollars in 2008 to nearly 3000 million in 2012. Barnes and Noble is the last successful book superstore left. Mailorder bookselling still succeeds, but only primarily in the trade, professional, and university press publishing industries. How the English government restricted Colonial press activity? o The factors that set the stage for the Colonial Press o o Harsh press restrictions (British would have to approve writings) o o Puritan beliefs, agrarian society, and lack of technology When, where, and why the Colonial Press development o o This occurred in the 1690s1700s o o Colonial Press developed due to: o Population growth, Establishment of the postal system and educational system, Expansion of the shipping and farming industries, Trend towards self government, English government power to license not renewed Significance of the Zenger trial o Found not guilty. Verdict was that newspapers had the right to criticize political leaders as long as the statements were true. Libel vs. slander o Libelwritten o Slanderspoken Content of the Colonial Press o o Commercial information o o Local Colonial news/news from England o o Political commentary/critiques of English gov't or Colonial independence Significance of the Stamp Act o One of the examples used to either support/deny the Revolutionary War Alien and Sedition Laws o The rise and function of newspapers in Colonial times o o During the Revolutionary War, newspapers were used to: o Show ideas of both Tory and Patriot supporters o Recruit soldiers o Gain support o Disseminate information Why Freedom of the Press was included in the Bill of Rights o The Boston Massacre proved this concept. The founding fathers believed the people should be able to express their views freely. It protects those who speak up from the worry of jail time. Changing newspaper content, audience, and sponsorship, Colonial times—contemporary times o Newspapers started to include less opinion and more facts. The audience increased from the elite to include many of the middle class, different ethnicities, and even children. In contemporary times, the newspaper has moved from the paper channel to online and TV. The Partisan Press o The partisan press were political papers that pushed the political agenda of the group that payed for the paper to be published The Penny Press o 1830s Newspapers that, because of technological innovations in printing, were able to drop their price to one cent, therefore making papers affordable to working and middle classes and enabled newspapers to become a genuine mass medium. Yellow journalism & the battle between Hearst and Pulitzer o Yellow journalism was sensationalist, loaded words journalism. Hearst and Pulitzer were two journalists that were known for this style The rise of objectivity/characteristics of objective journalism o During the middle 19th century to early 20th, the more a newspaper appeared not to take sides on its front pages, the more its readership base grew. Reporters strived to maintain a neutral attitude toward the issue while also trying to present alternative arguments. "inverted pyramid style" presenting the most important details at the beginning and then moving to the least important ones. Ochs and the New York Times o Ochs was the founder of the New York Times. He started by working on the Chattanooga Times but then invested $75,000 in the NY. He favored objective journalism instead of yellow. How did unionization impact the newspaper industry? o It set the stage for better benefits to journalists and helped journalism become a recognized profession. Different types of journalism o o Yellow journalism o o Objective journalism o o Interpretive journalism o o Literary journalism o o Consensusoriented journalism o o Conflictoriented journalism Main issues and concerns with newspapers o o Distrust of the author o o Pushing of political opinions Contemporary ownership and circulation concerns o Examples, characteristics, and the purpose of alternative newspapers, including ethnic presses o African American Freedom's Journal, New Pittsburg Courier o o SpanishLanguage El Manana Daily News, La Raza, El DiarioLa Prensa o o Asian American World Journal, Weekly Bangla Patrika o o Native American Cherokee Rose Bud, Native American Times, Indian Country Today o o The Underground Press explosion of alternative newspapers in the 1960s How has the newspaper industry responded to each new medium? o What are the current trends in the newspaper industry? o What were colonial magazines like? What was their primary purpose? o They primarily served politicians, the educated, and the merchant class. They spoke about issues such as taxation, state versus federal power, Indian treaties, public education, and the end of colonialism. When did magazines become popular? Why? o During the late 1800s and early 1900's; because The Postal Act of 1879 which lowered postage rates for magazines. It helped make them equal with newspapers What is specialization? Give examples. o o Specialization is moving away from the general interest magazines and focusing on more specific faucets of life. These magazines had a more condensed but homogenized audience. (Ex. Consumer magazines Cosmopolitan, Business and trade magazines Advertising Age, Progressive Grocer, Farm magazines Dakota Farmer) o o Other types of specialized magazines include Men's, Women's, Sports, Entertainment, and Leisure, Age, Elite, Minoritytargeted, Supermarket Tabloids What was unique about McLure, The New Yorker, and Ms. magazines? o o McLure touched off an era of investigation in magazine reporting o o The New Yorker represents general interest magazines o o Ms. represents alternative magazines, particularly women Who were the muckrakers? o Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public. Why are magazines appealing, from both production and consumption aspects? o How has the magazine industry responded to the digital age? o Online magazines and desktop publishing. The significance of the telegraph o Instantaneous communication The major inventors in sound recording and radio (de Martinville, Marconi, Armstrong, and Edison) o o de Martinville first recorded sound with the phonoautograph (although it could not play back sound) (1850s) o o Marconi experimented with wireless communication; developed the first effective system of radio communication (1890s) o o Armstrong discovered regeneration, also invented FM radio (1930s) o o Edison played back sound with the phonograph (1877) The evolution of technology for radio and sound o How sound recording survived the advent of radio o When TV came onto the scene in the 1950s, all of the soap operas, radio shows, etc moved to TV and radio had to look to the recording industry for more music. Rock and roll helped provide this new content by selling to an evergrowing consumer youth market. Significance of titling and the star system o Titling and the star system helped sound recording become a mass medium. What the first radios were like o How was radio transformed from business/military product to a commercial product? o November 2, 1920 radios were commercial. By 1925, 5.5 million radio sets were in the hands of the public. Once radio became stylish and simpler consumers wanted to buy it. Amateur radio shutdown of 1917 o This was when the Navy closed down all amateur radio operations in 1917 to ensure military security as the United States enters World War 1 How and why rock & roll blurred lines between groups o Rock and roll brought people together by blurring the lines between high/low culture, masculine/feminine traits, black/white people, the country and the city, the north and the south, and sacred/secular. Many factors lead to rock & roll including black integration, the growth of a youth culture, and the beginnings of racial integration. Legislation and regulation in radio and film o o Radio: o 1910s Wireless Ship Act, Radio Act of 1912 (required a license to run a radio station), and 1917 Amateur Radio Shutdown o 1920s Radio Act of 1927 (Created the Federal Radio Commision, a syste, for allocating radio waves, and set a precedent for future broadcasting regulation) o 1930s Federal Communications Act of 1934 (FRC became FCC, was passed to balance commercial/educational interests, and created regulatory structure for broadcasting) o o Film: o 1930s: Production code established (also called Haze code, this was NOT imposed by the government, but agreed upon by producers.), HUAC is formed to sniff out communist actors The evolution of commercial radio, film, and television/cable o Radio content in the Golden Age of Radio o Weather forecasts and farm reports, News, Fictional programs (sitcoms, dramas, westerns, mysteries etc.), Variety shows, Quiz shows, Soap operas, Music, Ads embedded in programming The response of radio to the popularity of television o o Popular programs moved to TV, Focused on playing music and talk radio The significance of the telegraph in media history o Instantaneous communication How did the radio networks develop? o AT&T set the stage for commercial radio networks with its toll broadcasting system (advertising on the radio). The first linked network came about with the simultaneous airing of a program on AT&T's WEAF and WNAC radio stations. RCA formed its own group of affiliate stations and competed with AT&T (which included NBC). The evolution of film technology o Film projector allows film to be viewed be a mass audience > sound is added > color is added Major players in the early history of film (Muybridge, Edison, projector folks, Melies, Porter, and Lumiere brothers) o o Muybridge showed movie pictures to an audience using a zoopraxiscope (late 1800s) o o Edison introduced first practical moving camera (kinetograph) & kinetoscope (played celluloid film) o o Many people invented film projecter in 1890s, including: o Robert Paul with the film projector o Lumiere brothers with the cinematograph o Edison with the Vitascope o Skladanowsky brothers with the Bioscop o Lauste with the Eidoloscope o o Melies founded many early cinematographic techniques (such as in A Trip to the Moon) o o Edwin Porter also a great cinematographer, his works included The Great Train Robbery and Life of an American Fireman Issues/concerns with each decade and new technology o o 1910 o o 1920 A powerful oligopoly is formed between the Big 5 and Little 3, controlling the whole film industry. o o 1930 Production code is established, forcing filmmakers to adhere to strict guidelines or face their movie not being backed. o o 1940 Who are the major players in early film history? o Robert Paul, Lumiere brothers, Edison Skladanowsky brothers, Lauste, Goodwin What were the first films like? o The very first films were short slide shows of ordinary people doing ordinary things. As they evolved they became more intricate, adding in plot lines and expressions, and eventually audio and color. How did people react to the first films? o They were awestruck. To be able to see a train coming toward them on a screen was something they had never seen before. When did the star system/studios develop? o 1920 What was the “silent era” of film? o In the 1910s early 1920s; movie theaters were lavish, the movies were typically of the Western, Slapstick comedy, damsel in distress genres and they placed much emphasis on physical action since they could not talk. What events transformed the film industry in the 1920s? o The studio/star system, sound coming to film. What challenges arose with “talkie” films? o actors were not used to preforming in "talkie" films. It was expensive, there was less of an international appeal, there was a loss of jobs of silent film workers, a need for new technology, and it was an awkward transitional period. What was the role of labor unions in the late 1930s? o They formed the Screen Actors Guild. How quickly did color films take off? o Slowly How have films been used for nonentertainment purposes? o Films have been used for educational purposes (hygiene) and war propaganda (anticommunist). How did the introduction of TV impact film? o Broader issues were addressed in films, films contained huge epics that of which TV did not, and gimmicks and experimentation were used in films to keep people interested in movies. What was Hollywood blacklisting? o Most famous group blacklisted in Hollywood and jailed by the government for suspicion and affiliation to communist activity. What happened in the antitrust case U.S. v. Paramount Studios? o the Supreme Court ruled against the film industry in that they could not practice vertical integration (the simultaneous control over production, distribution, and exhibition.) This forced the studios to gradually divest themselves of their theaters. What is the Hollywood “blockbuster?” o Jaws How has film changed with digital technology? o o Movies have shifted from theaters and DVDs to being played on computers, streamed to TV screens, and mobile devices. This has forced companies to either only release blockbusters that people are only going to want to see in theaters, or make more lowbudget movies and distribute them online. Marketing for movies on the internet is much cheaper than TV and billboards. Popular genres of each decade, why were they popular then o o 1910s1920 "Silent era" of films. Films were just being created and consumers could see their favorite stars from radio acted out on the big screen. o o 1920s1930 "Golden Age of Hollywood" Onset of "talkie films" o o 1930s1940sNew genres, onset of child stars. Child stars took away the stress of being in the middle of a war. o o 1940s1950s o o 1960s1970sSimilar genres as before, but more experimentation with themes, narrative structure, and technology. o o 1970snow Hollywood blockbuster films. They have a massive appeal. What are some contemporary economic trends in the film industry? o o Blockbusters will draw in the most money for companies. o o After three to four months, studios can make more money on the film by releasing it on DVD, BluRay, and VideoonDemand. o o Film exhibition is controlled by a handful of theater chains (Regal Cinemas, AMC, Cinemark USA, Carmike Cinemas, and Cineplex Entertainment) o o Film business has six key rulers: Warner Brothers, Paramount, Twentieth Century Fox, Universal, Columbia Pictures, and Disney. o o Movies are increasingly being viewed less in theaters and more digitally. o o Digital video is more common as opposed to standard video equipment. Characteristics and examples of films of the modern and postmodern eras o o Modern: o Emerged with Industrialization/urbanization, Faith in scientific authority, Focus on logic and reasoning, Cultural hierarchies, Bullet model of communications, Ex. (Reefer Madness 1930s version) o o Postmodern: o Response to existing art/definitions of what art is. Overall questioning of institutions/authority, Part of rise of cultural studies, New perceptions of culture/reality, Characteristics: not always linear, fragmentation, pastiche, intertextuality, blur between reality and fiction. Ex. (Reefer Madness 2006 version) How is the 2006 Reefer Madness postmodern? o It is postmodern due to its many instances of intertextuality (Romeo and Juliet, Annie), pastiche, blur between reality (scene where Mary Lane and boyfriend sing about Romeo and Juliet), nonlinear as the movie cuts between different times and spaces How, when, & why did TV rise in popularity? o TV rose in popularity drastically between the years 19461952. It was marketed around family and many people wanted to watch sporting events. How has TV technology & content changed with each decade? o 1950s Color TV. Popular genres included soap operas, sitcoms, dramas, musical variety shows, sports, children's programs, quiz shows. (I Love Lucy) o o 1960s Satellite TV. Sketch comedy, science fiction. o o 1970sSuperstations and premium television Miniseries (Roots) o o 1980s Cable news. Dramedy. Hybrid between drama and comedy; mixed comic situations with grim plots. o o 1990s o o 2000sBroadcast signals change from analog to digital o o 2010s Internet TV What were the quiz show scandals? o It was when many people started to realize that quiz shows were being staged. The quiz show scandals ended singlesponsorship because no producer wanted to accept all the blame for staging the shows. Know how Edward Murrow fought the Red Scare. o Edward Murrow aired See It Now as an alternative broadcast to get Americans to think critically about why they should not be accusing everyone as a communist and how Joseph Mccarthy was wrong. What are the Nielsen ratings? o A way to measure the audience size of a particular TV (or radio) program. What is public television? o Public television is made up of local stations and nationwide news stations. Content mostly consists of programming geared towards elderly people and children, the "less attractive" audience. How has the technology for TV and cable changed over time? o Know the significance of the NixonKennedy debates for TV history. o The debates were important because they were broadcast on TV. Many citizens liked Kennedy because he was a good actor on the TV, while Nixon was not. How have TV & cable been regulated? o o Prime Time Access Rule (April 1970)reduced the networks' control of prime time programming from four to three hours. o o Financial Interest and Syndication Rules (1970) the FCC banded networks from reaping profits from program syndication (reruns). o o (1975) the Justice Department limited the networks' production of nonnews shows, requiring them to seek most of their programming from independent production companies and film studies. o o Mustcarry Rules (first established in 1965, reaffirmed in 1972) required all cable operators to assign channels to and carry all local TV broadcasts on their systems. o o AccessChannel Rules required cable systems to provide and fund a tier of nonbroadcast channels dedicated to local education, government, and the public. o o The Telecommunications Act of 1996 basically allowed companies to own and merge multiple mass communication services together How has TV advertising changed? o When TV first began, the advertising was embedded in the programs. They were also very simple and the aim was to get the name out there. Starting in the 1970s, advertisers became more complex, humorous, and sophisticated. Nowadays, most effective advertising takes place on the internet. How did cable change TV? o It allowed for TV to come to areas that analog signals could not reach. o o CATV had the opportunity to carry twice as many channels. o o It allowed for basic cable services (CNN, MTV), premium cable services (HBO and Showtime), payperview, and videoondemand. How do different groups of people use TV? o o Public, government, or educational parties can use TV to air a certain point of view o o The public can use TV to stay informed on current events o o The public could use it to entertain themselves with dramas and comedies. o o Companies could use it to advertise their products to a mass audience. What are the major departments at a typical TV station? o Sales, Programming, Marketing, HR & Admin, Finance, Research & Strategy, Traffic/Scheduling, and Syndication What are the major changes that will impact contemporary TV? o What have been the major concerns/issues for TV/cable? o Know the relationship between historical context and television. What themes dominated for each decade? Why? o Overall concepts and questions Be able to describe the development and rise in popularity for each medium. Know when and why each medium became popular and who were the major contributors that made it happen. How did each medium adapted to new technology (i.e., what happened to radio with the popularity of TV)? How has each medium been federally regulated? How has each industry censored itself? Why? For every media example we’ve viewed in class, know why we examined it. When inventions/developments happened o pre1700s: Know the century o 1800son: Know the decade o You should be able to identify the order of events (what came first, second, third)
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