Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide COMM 1041
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1041 at George Washington University taught by Lally in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Communication at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Leslie Ogu COMM 1041 Exam 1 Study Guide This document is a compilation of the terms from the study guide from the emailed to the class with information from the Discussion Board, as well as the lecture slides we went over before movie presentations (all for your convenience). If a term is missing, I didn’t see it on Blackboard. Vocabulary From Professor Chapter 1 Interpersonal communication continuum ● Interpersonal Communication exists on a continuum that begins with highly impersonal conversations all the way too very personal conversations. There are a few distinct characteristics to keep in mind when evaluating if a conversation is i mpersonal or interpersonal. ● In order to better explain this concept, we will have an example of one impersonal communication and interpersonal communication. In this case, the impersonal communication will be with a young woman shopping at a retail store and the sales associate. For the interpersonal communication, we'll take the example of a couple who has been together for many, many years. ○ Social Rules versus Personal Information ■ The customer acts like a customer and the sales associate acts like a sales associate: they are each playing their designated role. However, the couple treats one another as unique individuals and act on the basis of personal information. ○ Societal versus Personal Rules ■ The rules of society would be directly applied to the customer and sales associate. For the couple, they have personally established their own rules between one another and are unique to themselves exclusively. ○ Social versus Personal Messages ■ When the customer is talking to the sales associate, very little personal information is exchanged besides perhaps the customer's shoe or jean size. When the couple is interacting with one another, they more oftentimes engage in highly personal information that is emotional and saturated with information about themselves Metamessages ● If messagesare signals we receive by one our senses -- auditory (hearing), visual (seeing), tactile (touching, olfactory (smelling), gustatory (tasting)-- or any combination of our senses (intentional or otherwise), then metamessages are simply messages that are about other messages. (pg. 11, 12) ○ Some examples of m etamessagesinclude: "Do you understand?" "Did I say that right?" "What did you say?" "Is it fair to say that...?" "I want to be honest," "That's not logical." (pg. 12) ○ Two types of m tamessages are: ■ Feedback ■ Feedforward ● Feedback messages tell the speaker what effect they are having on listeners. Feedback provides a basis on which the speaker may adjust, modify, strengthen, deemphasize, or even change the content/form of the messages. ○ Feedback can often come from others as they listen and respond to the speaker, but feedback can also come from the speaker themself, as they may note what they say, how they move, what they write, etc. ○ Examples of feedback from others include: a smile or frown, a yay or nay, a pat on the back or a punch in the mouth. (pg. 12) ● Feedforward messages is information that a speaker provides before sending their primary message to prepare the listener for the message to come. ○ Reasons for eedforward: ■ Open channels (ex: Call out a name, clearing your throat) ■ Preview (forewarn listener; ex: "Don't turn around, but there's a snake.") ■ Disclaim (to distance sender from message; ex: "I'm not afraid of snakes, but...") ■ Altercast(ex: "Hey what would you do if you saw a snake on the trail...") Choice points (overall concept – use the Glossary) ● Choice points: moments when you have to make a choice about whom you communicate with, what you say, what you don't say, how you phrase what you want to say, and so on (p.8) Encoding/decoding ● Encoding and decoding, simply put, are the acts of sending and receiving messages. Encoding is when a message is created by the sender. This can be done verbally or in writing. Decoding is when the receiver translates deciphers the sound or text and makes meaning from it. It is important to note that there can be disruptions in this encoding-decoding process that result in ineffective impersonal communication. (p.10) Context ● Context/environment that influences the form and content of messages. Sometimes the context doesn’t have an influence, for example if there is music, but sometimes it can take over the communication. You communicate differently depending on the situation you are in, you would communicate differently in a restaurant than you do a funeral. Context has four dimensions: physical dimension (environment), temporal dimension (what time, where), social-physiological dimension (relationships), and cultural dimension (cultural beliefs) (DeVito pg. 14) Inevitable, irreversible, unrepeatable ● Interpersonal communication cannot be prevented (is inevitable), cannot be reversed (is reversible), and cannot be repeated (is unrepeatable). The inevitability principle means that, in many instances, your communication even though you might not think you are or might not even want to be. In an interactional situation , all behavior is potentially communication (p. 24-25). The quality of interpersonal communication also being irreversibility means that what you have communicated remains communicated; you cannot uncommunicate. The message itself cannot be reversed (p. 25). In addition to being inevitable and irreversible, interpersonal communication is unrepeatable. Everyone and everything is constantly changing. As a result, you can never recapture the exact same situation., frame of mind, or relationship dynamics that defined a previous interpersonal act (p. 25). Interdependent individuals ● Feedback ● (Chpt 1, pg 7): the response to a message. A give and take process, individuals in a conversation speak and then listen to the response of another person engaged in the same conversation. Feedback can be: ● Intentional (your mother gives you a hug when you announce your engagement) or unintentional (you yawn as you listen to your uncle tell the same story over again) ● Verbal ("that's a pepperoni pizza, right?) or non-verbal (blushing after being asked to dance) Ambiguity ● Ambiguity (pg 20-21)- An ambiguous message is a message that can be interpreted as having more than one meaning. Ambiguity occurs because people use words that can be interpreted differently. For example the terms soon, right away, in a minute, early, and late can be interpreted very differently by different people. ● Strategic Ambiguity (pg 21)- This is used when you want to be ambiguous. For example an interviewer who compliments you on your interview (without actually offering you the job); May be strategically ambiguous to keep you interested in the position while the company interviews more and perhaps better candidates. Chapter 2 Acculturation/enculturation ● Acculturation- the process by which you learn the rules and norms of a culture different from your own (pg 31) ● Enculturation- the process by which you learn the culture into which you were born and develop an ethnic identity (pg 31) Collectivist/individualist cultures (p.37) ● “Cultures differ in the way in which they promote individualist v. collectivist thinking and behaving.” (Hofstede et al) ● Individualist Culture: ○ “teaches members the importance of individual values such as power, achievement, hedonism, and stimulation.” ○ Ex from text: Cultures of the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom ○ Emphasis is on individual success and goals rather than the goals of a group. ○ Responsibility is to family members and people with a direct relationship ○ Success is comparative - how much better did you do then everyone else. ○ Individualist cultures are closely linked to universalism - Universalism is a cultural characteristic that evaluates people as individuals and for their contributions. It does not evaluate them based on similarities such as race and religion ● Collectivist Culture: ○ “Teaches members the importance of group values such as benevolence, tradition, and conformity.” ○ Ex from text: Cultures of Guatemala, Ecuador, and Panama ○ Emphasis on the goals of a group of the goals of the individual. ○ Success defined by the value you of your contributions to the collective goal. ○ Collectivist cultures often have exclusionist values. The value of a person is based on the people they identify with or the similar traits they share with people. These groups are divided by race, religion, sexual orientation and other factors. High/low ambiguity tolerance High/low context ● High-Context Culture: The information is known by all participants, through assumptions about each other, and through shared experiences. It is a culture in which most of the information in communication messages is left implied; it’s “understood.” Most collectivist cultures are High-Context. ● Low-Context Culture: A culture in which most of the information in communication is explicitly stated in the verbal message rather than being left implied or assumed to be “understood.” Individualist Cultures are generally Low-Context. US is more low-context culture. Culture shock ● Culture shock (p. 45): the psychological reaction you experience when you’re in a culture very different from your own ● Occurs in four stages ○ Stage One: The Honeymoon ■ You experience fascination and even enchantment with the new culture and its people ○ Stage Two: The Crisis ■ The differences between your own culture and the new setting create problems ■ Feelings of frustration and inadequacy come to force ■ You experience the actual shock of the new culture ○ Stage Three: The Recovery ■ You gain the skills to function effectively ■ You learn the language and ways of the new culture ■ Your feelings of inadequacy subside ○ Stage Four: The Adjustment ■ You adjust to and come to enjoy the new culture and the new experiences ■ You may still have periodic difficulties and strains, but the experience is pleasant on the whole Ethnocentrism ● Ethnocentrism is the tendency to see people and their behaviors through the lens of one’s own culture. It is the idea that one’s belief system, values, and cultural behaviors are superior to those of someone belonging to a different ethnic background or group. It is important to note that ethnocentrism in not binary (meaning you display the trait or you do not), but it is a continuum of varying degrees. (p. 48, 49, 64) Improving intercultural communication ● Educate yourself: Learn about different cultures by engaging with different people, reading about different cultural practices, as well as by watching videos and viewing images. ○ Recognize the fears that stand in the way of effective intercultural communication ■ Example - anxious about ability to control the intercultural situation or you may worry about your level of discomfort around certain cultures. ● Recognize differences: Recognize and attempt to understand that differences do exists between peoples' cultures. Although one should not hold this assumption that all people ■ People around us ■ Societal structure ■ What others think of you▯ ■ Social comparisons▯ ■ Cultural teachings ■ Own interpretation of your actions Johari Window ● The Johari Window is a self awareness model created by Joseph Lundt and Harrington Ingham that divides our 'selves' into four quadrants. The Open Self is information that both we and others know about ourselves. The Blind Self is Information that we don't know about ourselves but others do. The Hidden Self is information about ourselves that we know but others don't. Lastly, the Unknown self is information that we and others don't know about ourselves. Though delving into and understanding our 'selves' we can more aptly identify ourselves within the context of our own and other's understanding, thusly improving both our self-awareness and communication. Self-affirmations Selective attention ● This is the tendency not to notice and more quickly forget stimuli that cause emotional discomfort and contradict our prior beliefs. For example a teacher may ignore improvement or hard work in a student they dislike Overattribution Halo/reverse halo effect ● Halo effect: a function of the Personality Theory. Personality Theory states that every person has a personality theory that says which characteristics of an individual go with other characteristics. The halo effect works in the way that states if you believe a person has some positive qualities, you're likely to infer that she or he also possesses other positive qualities. (p. 67) ● Reverse halo effect aka "horns" effect: states that if you know a person who possesses several negative qualities, you're most likely to infer that the person also has other negative qualities. (p.67) Self-fulfilling prophecy ● A prediction that comes through because you act on it as if it was true. They occur in different situations such as parent-child relationships, educational settings, and business. There are four steps for a self-fulfilling prophecy: 1) you make a prediction about a person, 2) you act towards a situation or person as if the prediction you had was ■ Semantic ○ Context ■ Physical ■ Temporal ■ Social - Psychological ■ Cultural ■ Ethical ○ Communication is a transactional process ⇒the elements are interdependent ○ Communication is purposeful ■ To learn ■ To relate ■ To influence ■ To play ■ To help ○ Communication: ■ Can be ambiguous ■ ** Is symmetrical or complementary ** ■ Refers to content and relationship ■ Is a series of punctuated events ○ Three principles of communication ■ Unavoidable ■ Irreversible ● Unrepeatable Diversities in Communication Less Typical Diversities ● Body Image ● Communication skills ● Personalities ● Life experiences ● Birth Order ● Environment Culture ● Hallmarks ○ Learned system ○ Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, values, norms ○ Shared by a group ○ Passed on through generations ○ Through verbal and nonverbal communication Culture Terms ● Enculturation: learning the culture you’re born into ● Acculturation: learning a new culture ● Cultural Evolution: some cultures are advanced; some are primitive ● Cultural Revelation: cultures are right for where they are - neither superior nor inferior Cultural Diversity - Geert Hofstede ● Individual / Collective Orientation ○ Individual ■ Personal success: surpassing others ■ Power, achievement ■ Self & immediate family ■ United States ○ Collective ■ Group success: contribution to the whole ■ Conformity / tradition ■ Entire group ■ Central / South America ● High / Low Context ○ High Context ■ Information in person / context ■ Face-Saving, reluctant to say “no” ■ Asian Countries ○ Low Context ■ Information in verbal message ■ Direct, explicit ■ German, Scandinavian, United States ● Power Distance ○ High Power Distance ■ Power held by a few ■ Students totally respectful of teacher ■ Romantic partners chosen with class ■ Malaysia, Philippines, India ○ Low Power Distance ■ Power evenly distributed ■ Students welcome to challenge teachers ■ Romantic partners chosen by personal characteristics ■ Northern Europe ● Masculine / Feminine ○ Masculine ■ Achievement ■ Aggressive ■ Emphasize success ■ Confront conflict ■ Japan ○ Feminine ■ Nurturance ■ Modesty ■ Quality of life ■ Compromise ■ Scandinavia ● High / Low-Ambiguity Tolerance ○ High-Ambiguity Tolerance ■ Comfortable with unknown ■ Minimize rules ■ Singapore (US-11th) ○ Low-Ambiguity Tolerance ■ Avoid uncertainty; high anxiety ■ Clear-cut rules ■ Greece ● Long / Short-Term Orientation ○ Long-Term Orientation ■ Future rewards ■ Old age revered ■ Success attributed to efforts ■ Asia, Eastern Europe ○ Short-Term Orientation ■ Look to past and present ■ Old age unpleasant ■ Success attributed to luck ■ Puerto Rico, Ghana ● Alternate Time Orientation ○ Monochronic ■ One thing at a time ■ Time is money ■ Schedules ■ United States ○ Polychronic ■ Multiple things happening ■ Relationships more important than schedules ■ As life happens ● Biological Difference: the nature side of the argument ● Socialization: the nurture side of the argument (how we argue) ● Social Power: our societal roles affect the way we communicate Primary Difference(s) ● Men engage in report talk ○ They are way more focused on problem-solving, determining the issues, discussing issues, statistics ○ Also, in terms of communication: ■ Use it as an instrumental tool ■ Are clear ■ Make broad, sweeping gestures ■ Use more physical space ■ Use fewer facial expressions (smile less) ■ Enter other's’ personal space but don’t touch ■ Stare at the opposite side in negative interactions ■ Touch in playful interactions ■ Move around when uncomfortable ■ Rarely talk about personal lives ■ Tend to change topics frequently ■ Gossip about sports and media, not people they know ■ Think big picture ■ Stay on the surface of topics (broad, not deep) ■ More direct ■ Have trouble apologizing ■ More assertive and authoritative ■ Use communication to gain control of conversation ■ Tend to be louder ■ Use less tone variation (about 3 tones) ■ Use volume ■ Interrupt more ■ Engage in concurrent speaking (constantly interrupting to gain control of conversation) ■ Offer solutions and do not ask for help ■ Talks tend to be task-oriented ■ Yell to release stress ■ Talking defines a relationship ■ Miss conversational cues ■ Establish a conversation ● Women engage in rapport talk ○ They want life to be in balance ○ When things are perceived as unbalanced, they will communicate in a way to restore balance ○ Also, in terms of communication: ■ Use it as an expressive tool ■ More questions and taglines ■ More inwardly directed gestures ■ Take up less physical space ■ More facial expressions (smile more) ■ Lean in more but don’t invade personal space ■ Look away during negative interactions ■ Use contact to connect ■ Stay still when uncomfortable ■ Talk about personal lives ■ Change topic less often ■ Gossip about people they know ■ Think more about details ■ Narrow but deep focus ■ More indirect ■ Apologize more ■ More tentative and questioning ■ Communicate to support ■ Tend to be quieter ■ More tonal variation ■ Get softer to emphasize ■ Interrupt to agree ■ Don’t use concurrent speaking ■ Talk through to solution ■ Relationship-oriented ■ Cry to relieve stress ■ Talking is a relationship ■ More in tune with underlying message ■ Don’t dominate conversation Top 10 Ways Men and Women Are Different 10. Nonverbal Communication 9. Body Orientation 8. Arguments 7. Apologize 6. Giving compliments 5. Problem Solving 4. Getting Your Way 3. Chatterbox (** Hint: No real difference **) 2. Interrupting 1. Email Self 3 Aspects of Self ➢ Self-concept: the way you see yourself ➢ Self-awareness: insight you have into yourself ➢ Self-esteem: value you place on yourself Self concept comes from (class discussion) - ➢ Nurture ➢ People around us ➢ Societal structure Self-concept comes from - ➢ What others think of you ➢ Social comparisons ➢ Cultural teachings ➢ Own interpretation of your actions Self Awareness ➢ The more you understand WHY you do what you do, the more you will understand who you are - and how to relate to others The Johari Window ➢ Open Self Examples ○ Name ○ Ethnicity ○ Physical Attributes ➢ Blind Self Examples ○ Poker “tells” ○ Habits ➢ Hidden Self Examples ○ Secrets ○ How you feel about someone ➢ Unknown Self Examples ○ If you were abused as a child, and others don’t know about it, but it manifests in how you behave ○ If someone didn’t get their coffee and they start acting cranky, and others don’t know it’s because of that reason ○ ** Note: In your paper, if you don’t see an example of unknown self, then you need to provide reason why it isn’t apparent ** Self Esteem ➢ How is it damaged? ○ We foster self-destructive ideas ○ We surround ourselves with others to do it for us ➢ What to do about that... ○ Attack self-destructive beliefs - you don’t have to be perfect ○ Affirm yourself using “I am ________” statements ○ Seek nourishing people Perception 5 Stages of Perception ➢ Stimulation ➢ Organization ➢ Interpretation-evaluation ➢ Memory ➢ Recall Stimulation ➢ Selective attention ○ Certain things stick out to us above others ➢ Selective exposure ○ Exposing yourself with that which you agree with Organization ➢ By rules ○ Proximity: things physically close to each other and believing them to be a group, or related ○ Similarity: sense things belong together because they look the same or have some similar attributes ○ Contrast: when things are different, they do not belong together ➢ By schemata: mental templates are used to understand everything we are exposed to ○ Stereotypes ■ ** We all have them ** ○ Scripts: method of organizing information in which things happen in a certain way and/or order ■ Ex: having a set morning routine to prepare for class Interpretation-evaluation ➢ We interpret something around and evaluate what it means when it violates or doesn’t violate our preconceived notions Memory ➢ Def: storing of different experiences Recall ➢ Def: reconstruction of a memory at a later time Impression Formation ➢ Ethnocentricity ➢ What we go through to make impressions of others ➢ Self-fulfilling prophecy: when we have an impression of another person and treat that person in a manner that confirms our belief ➢ (Implicit) Personality Theory: theory that certain traits go together ○ Ex: Halo effect: when we encounter a person that has positive qualities, we attribute additional positive qualities to them (such as intelligence being attributed to attractive people) ○ Ex: Horns effect: opposite of halo effect; attributing additional negative qualities to those with negative qualities ➢ Primacy / Recency Effect: we remember things at the beginning and end of it, but not so much the middle of the event ➢ Consistency: acting in a manner over time without much change ➢ Attribution of control: determining whether a person’s actions are due to internal or external reasons ○ Self-serving bias: attributing good things to internal reasons such as you being a smart person, and bad things to external reasons such as having an off-day ○ Overattribution: singling out the obvious characteristics and attributing all other characteristics to that ■ Ex: GW students being believed to be smarter than other students because they come from wealth ○ Fundamental attribution error: tendency for people to place an undue emphasis on internal characteristics of others for their actions, rather than external reasons Improving Our Impression Formation ➢ Analyze impressions and check perceptions ➢ Reduce uncertainty and increase cultural sensitivity Impression Management ➢ Def: the processes you go through in order to project your desired image ➢ To be liked - affinity seeking strategies: finding ways that we are similar to others ➢ To be liked - politeness strategies ➢ To be believed ○ Using skills, or attributes to make others more likely to listen and believe what you’re saying ➢ To excuse failure ○ Attributing our failures to excuses to explain why we performed poorly ➢ To secure help ○ Methods implemented to receive assistance ➢ To hide faults ○ Self-monitoring strategies to try and hide mistakes ➢ To be followed ➢ To confirm our self-image “Other” Orientation ➢ Show consideration and respect ➢ Acknowledge other’s feelings ➢ Acknowledge other’s presence ➢ Focus message on other ➢ Let others express Just World Hypothesis ➢ You get what you deserve Listening Listening ➢ “Mostly, people don’t listen - they take turns speaking. We all tend to be more interested in announcing our own views and experiences than really listening and understanding others. This is ironic since we all like to be listened to and understood.” - From Customer Loyalty - a Guide for Time Travelers ➢ “The reason the other is not listening to you is not because they are stubborn, but because they don’t feel heard.” - Douglas Stone Difference between hearing and listening? ➢ Hearing is physiological ➢ Listening is a psychological Purpose of listening ➢ To learn ➢ To relate ➢ To influence ➢ To play (to enjoy yourself) ➢ To help Process of listening 1. Receiving 2. Understanding 3. Remembering 4. Evaluating 5. Responding Receiving ➢ Passive process ➢ Disclaimers (ensure your message will be heard without reflecting negatively on you) ○ Hedging: separating yourself from the message so if one doesn’t agree with it, they won’t separate themselves from you ○ Credentialing: giving one reason to listen by showing you are someone to be listened to ■ Ex: professors ○ Sin license ○ Cognitive disclaimer ○ Appeal for suspension of judgement ➢ Problem: They call attention to what you don’t want... Understanding ➢ Decoding phase ➢ Avoid assuming ➢ See it from speaker’s point-of-view ➢ Ask questions ➢ Paraphrase Remembering ➢ Reconstructive process ➢ Short-term memory: things we remember for short periods of time; limited ➢ Long-term memory: things we hold onto and remember for long periods of time ○ To move something from short-term to long-term, we need focus, repetition, and organization Evaluating ➢ Don’t evaluate until you hear it all ➢ Separate fact and opinion ➢ Identify your bias ➢ Recognize reasoning fallacies ○ Ad hominem: to attack the person instead of their policies, or ideas ○ Testimonial ■ Usually advertisements with celebrities ○ Bandwagon ○ Slippery slope ○ Faulty either-or ■ Ex: You either come to the party with me, or have no fun at all ○ Faulty causal Responding ➢ Immediate / delayed ➢ Backchanneling cues: affirmations when we are listening like “okay” or “mhm” ➢ Support speaker ➢ Own your own responses ➢ Solve?? ➢ Don’t complete the other's’ sentences and ideas Barriers to listening ➢ Distractions (physical and mental) ➢ Biases ➢ Incorrect focus: engaged in listening process but thinking about the wrong thing OR only listening to what you believe ○ Ex: Someone is talking and focusing on their lisp ➢ Judging too quickly What good listening is NOT ➢ Agreeing ➢ Discussing ○ One-way process ○ Requires FULL attention ➢ Problem solving ➢ Correcting errors Styles of listening ➢ Empathic / Objective ○ Empathic: trying to understand one’s feelings ○ Objective - going beyond just listening ➢ Nonjudgmental / Critical ➢ Surface / Depth ➢ Polite / Impolite ➢ Active / Inactive Public Speaking 3 Things to Consider When Public Speaking ➢ Organization ○ You have to repeat your point numerous times to ensure your audience remembers it ➢ Information ➢ Delivery Organization ➢ Intro ○ 3 Goals ■ Grab audience’s attention ■ Preview what you are going to say ■ Engage them - why does it matter? ➢ Body ○ 3-5 Main Points ○ Structured ○ (for movie presentation) Add research (and cite it) ○ Be clear about your transitions ➢ Conclusion ○ Recap what you said ○ Finish with a clincher or impactful statement Information - Movie Assignment Specific ➢ Enough explanation of scene to ensure the audience understands; not so much you run out of time ➢ Explain and apply concepts ➢ Reflect on research Top 10 Biggest Public Speaking Phobias And How to Overcome Them (in descending order) ➢ My voice sounds shakes / I become breathless (10) ○ Breathing ➢ I forget what I’m going to say (9) ○ Practice ○ Do NOT memorize (brain-friendly) ■ Make it interesting ■ Use visuals ■ Stories matter more than facts ➢ I have a technical glitch and my visuals don’t work (8) ○ Test the equipment ○ Be prepared to do your presentation without technology ■ Handouts? ➢ I get a heckler (7) ○ NOT going to happen here - class is supportive ○ Elsewhere? ■ Validate ■ Acknowledge ➢ No one laughs at my jokes / audience is not engaged ○ Relinquish control of that ○ Design an interesting presentation ○ Asl questions ➢ The audience doesn’t understand what I am presenting ○ Do your audience analysis - this speech is for them, not you ○ Watch the nonverbals ○ Ask them ➢ People will think I am not qualified (4) ○ Don’t give in to the “Imposter Syndrome” ○ Prepare ○ Use that Speaker Credibility Statement to assure the audience ➢ I go way too quickly or way too slowly (3) ○ Practice ■ Out loud ■ With your visuals ■ With an audience ➢ Someone asks a question I don’t know the answer to (2) ○ Anticipate and get answers ○ No one knows all the answers - offer to get back to that person ○ Things sound better coming out of your mouth than they do in your head ○ Ask them - what do they think? ○ Don’t “tapdance” (fake it0 ➢ I sweat too much, my face turns red (1) ○ MOST physical symptoms are not evident ○ Identify you personal issue and find a way to deal with it ■ E.g. sweat - wear dark clothes; use lots of antiperspirant Delivery ➢ Speaking apprehension ○ Prepare ... prepare ... prepare ○ Use speaking notes - not entire speech ○ Breathe ➢ What makes a good delivery? ○ Voice ■ Volume (projection) ■ Speed (fast/slow) ● Having a variety of modulations to grab attention ■ Use of pauses ● Adds drama ● Grabs attention ■ Emphasis ■ Articulation ■ A good pace ■ Avoid use of “um’s” and “like’s” ■ Enthusiasm ○ Body ■ Positioning ■ Movement ■ Eye contact ■ Posture ■ Energy ○ Presentational Aids ■ 6x6 rule ● No more than 6 bullets on a slide; no more than 6 words in a bullet ■ Watch color choices ■ Limit fonts ■ Questions
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