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Study Guide for Chapter 1 & 2

by: Savannah Alberty

Study Guide for Chapter 1 & 2 ANT2301

Marketplace > University of Florida > ANT2301 > Study Guide for Chapter 1 2
Savannah Alberty

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These detailed notes are filled with definitions and general concepts from the textbook. Includes diagrams and chapter breakdowns. Good luck!!
Human Sexuality and Culture
Young,Alyson Gail
Study Guide
humansex, human sexuality, sexuality
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah Alberty on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT2301 at University of Florida taught by Young,Alyson Gail in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 10/08/16
Human Sexuality Study Guide Chapter 1 (Studying Human Sexuality) The world of human sexuality has been marked by many influential historical events. To illustrate, on the inside covers of the textbook, we journey back over 150 years of significant events that have change our views of human sexuality.  Anthropology- Study of humankind; culture and biology over time and space.  Personal Sexual Philosophy- A person’s unique foundation of knowledge, attitudes, and actions relating to what the person wants and who he or she is as a sexual being.  Human Sexuality- An area of research and study focusing on all aspects of humans as sexual beings.  Morals- A person’s individual, unique attitudes about what constitutes right and wrong. Sexuality is a crucial part of what makes each of us unique. Learning to deal effectively with the wide range of topics that comprise the study of human sexuality is a basic foundation for living a healthy sexual life. Although we are all born to be sexual beings, knowledge of our sexuality is vital for overall understandings of ourselves and of others.  Gender Identity- The sex (male or female) that a person identifies himself or herself to be.  Sexual Orientation- Term specifying the sex of those to whom a person is primarily romantically, emotionally, and sexually attracted. Sex is far more than sexual intercourse, and many people’s sexual lives are enriched through an awareness of the range of activities that comprise sex. Learning about sexuality and sexual behaviors enhances sexual satisfaction throughout our lives.  Celibate- Choosing to forego all sexual activities.  Abstinence Only Approach- The decision to avoid teaching adolescent students about sexual activity, STI’s. contraception, etc., based on the theory that such education is unnecessary if students are taught to abstain from sexual behavior. An understanding of human sexuality also increases an awareness and respect for sexual diversity and allows for a clearer appreciation of what is “normal” sexually. It can even be considered healthier, which includes knowing how to prevent contracting or spreading sexually transmitted infections.  Sexual Health- A general concept referring to physical, emotional, psychological, and interpersonal well-being with regard to a person’s sexuality. Sex researchers use many methods to study human sexual behavior scientifically. Developing and administrating scientific, unbiased, valid surveys requires extensive training and expertise. Scientific surveys must be reliable, providing consistent measurement over repeated administrations, and they must be valid, measuring truthfully, the characteristics being studied. The respondents should represent the population being studied as closely as possible.  Survey- The scientific collection of data from a group of individuals about their beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors.  Respondents- Individuals selected to respond to a researcher’s request for information.  Target Population- The entire group of people to which a researcher is attempting to apply a study sample’s findings.  Sample- A subset of the target population selected by researchers to represent the entire population under study.  Random Sampling- A method of selecting a sample of participants in such a way that each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.  Self-Selection Bias- The effect of allowing members of a target population under study to volunteer to participate in the study; it may compromise the randomness and validity of the research.  Observational Study- Gathering behavioral data through direct or indirect observation using scientific techniques.  Correlational Research- A scientific methodology that determines the extent to which two variables are systematically related to each other.  Experimental Method- A type of scientific research in which variables of interest are changed while all other unrelated variables are held constant to determine cause-and-effect relationships among variables.  Treatment- The action performed on or by a group in an experiment.  Experimental Group- The participants in an experiment who are subjected to a variable of research interest.  Control Group- The participants in an experiment who receive no treatment and are allowed to behave as usual, for the purposes of comparison to an experimental group; also known as the comparison group.  Independent Variable- The variable of interest in an experiment that is allowed to change between or among groups while all other variables are held constant.  Dependent Variable- The result of an experiment, evaluated to determine if the independent variable actually caused a change in the experimental group of participants.  Reliability- The extent to which a measurement is consistent over repeated administrations.  Validity- The extent to which a measurement accurately reflects the concept being measured. Observational research may provide useful information about sexual behaviors but does not indicate the cause of the behaviors. Correlational research allows researchers to show relationships between variables. However, two variables may be strongly related but not necessarily casually related. Experimental research can demonstrate cause-and-effect connections among variables by holding constants all possible influences except those under study. Although experimental methods provide additional control of variables under study, this control is usually at the expense of the realism of other research methods.  Informed Consent- Agreeing to participate in an experiment only after having been provided with complete and accurate information about what to expect in the study.  Debriefing- Explanations of the purpose and potential contributions of the findings given to participants at the end of the study. Formal ethical guidelines have been established that govern research involving human participants. Researchers must adhere to these ethics precepts, which include protecting participants from harm, obtaining participants informed consent prior to beginning the research, ensuring participants’ freedom to withdraw from the study at any time, promising the confidentiality of all findings, and offering a full debriefing for all participants following the study. Chapter 2 (Sexual Anatomy) Early conceptualizations of sexual anatomy were highly inaccurate. False beliefs included the notion that the male and female bodies were the same, but that the male’s genitals had simply been “pushed out;” the uterus was an internal scrotum and a girl could be turned into a boy by sudden jarring motion, forcing the genitals to pop out; the uterus consisted of two halves (boys were born from the right half and girls from the left); and the source of sperm was the male brain.  Penis- The primary male anatomical sexual structure.  Penile Glans- The end or tip of the penis, its most sexually sensitive part.  Corona- The raised edge at the base of the penile glans.  Frenulum- The band of tissue connecting the underside of the penile glans with the shaft of the penis.  Penile Shaft- The area of the penis between the glans and the abdomen.  Erection- Rigidity of the penis or clitoris resulting from an inflow of blood during sexual arousal.  Foreskin- A layer of skin covering of the glans of the penis.  Circumcision- Removal of the foreskin of the penis.  Corpora Cavernosa- Two parallel chambers that run the length of the penis and become engorged with blood during erection.  Corpus Spongiosum- A middle chamber running the length of the penis into the glans that engorges with blood during erection.  Urethra- The tube extending from the bladder to the urethral opening, which carries urine out of the body in both women and men, as well as semen in men. Penis size has been the central focus of male anatomy for centuries. Despite, or perhaps because of, this preoccupation among many men throughout history, most people are surprised to find that length of the average erect penis is about 5.5 inches and varies little among the majority of men. Self- reports of penis size are larger but are probably not accurate due to inflated self-reporting or faulty measurement. Sperm start their journey in the testicles, which produce sperm cells and testosterone. Sperm cells mature and are stored adjacent to the testicles in the epididymis before traveling through both vas deferens into the man’s body, where they mix with semen for ejaculation. Semen is produced primarily by the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland.  Scrotum- The sac of thin skin and muscle containing the testicles in the male.  Spermatic Cords- Supporting each testicle and encasing the vas deferens, nerves, and muscles.  Testicles- Oval structures approximately 1. To 1.5 inches in length made up of microscopic tubes in which sperm cells and testosterone are produced in the male.  Gonads- Organs that produce cells (ova or sperm) for reproduction.  Seminiferous Tubules- Tightly wound microscopic tubes that comprise the testicles in the male, where sperm cells are generated.  Epididymis- A crescent-shaped structures on each testicle where sperm cells are stored as they mature.  Ejaculation- Expulsion of semen through the penis.  Vas Deferens- A tube extending from the testicles (epididymis) into the male’s body for the transport of mature sperm cells during ejaculation.  Anus- The end of the digestive tract and outlet for bodily excretions. It is also a sexually stimulating area for some people.  Semen- The fluid produced primarily by the prostate gland and seminal vesicles that is ejaculated with the sperm cells by men during orgasm.  Seminal Vesicle- A structure that produces fluid that becomes part of the semen that is expelled during ejaculation.  Ejaculatory Duct- A continuation of the tube that carries semen into the urethra for ejaculation.  Prostate Gland- A gland in the males surrounding the urethra that produces the largest proportion of seminal fluid.  Prostatitis- An uncomfortable or painful inflammation of the prostate gland, usually caused by bacteria.  Orgasm- The peak of sexual arousal.  Urethral bulb- The prostatic section of the urethra that expands with collected semen just prior to expulsion, creating the sensation of ejaculatory inevitability.  Cowper’s Glands- Small glands near the penile urethra that produce a slippery, mucus like substance during male sexual arousal (also referred to as the bulbourethralglands).  Pre-Ejaculate- The fluid produced by the Cowper’s glands. Female external sexual anatomy, the vulva, is more complex than that of the male. The female genitals normally vary in size, shape, and color. The clitoris is a significantly larger and more complex organ than once thought; it extends several inches inside the woman’s body. Women are more prone than men to urinary tract infections (UTI’s) due to the shorter length and its proximity to anal bacteria. Breast augmentation is the most common cosmetic surgery procedure in the United States. Female internal sexual anatomy has evolved to optimize the odds of pregnancy and continuation of the human species. The passageway between the vagina and the uterus is the cervix. Certain strains of the human papilloma virus (HPV) that cause genital warts to have been found to be the primary cause of cervical cancer. Many doctors and health organizations are recommending the HPV screening to be done in conjunction with the yearly Pap test. Vaccines now exist that prevent contraction of the strains of HPV that are associated with cervical cancer. The ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone and typically release mature ovum during each fertility cycle of, on average, 28 days from puberty until the end of menopause.  Vulva- The female external genitals.  Mons Venires- A slightly raised layer of fatty tissue on the top of a woman’s pubic bone, usually covered with hair on an adult.  Labia Majora- Folds of skin and fatty tissue that extend from the mons down both sides of the vulva, past the vaginal opening to the perineum.  Labia Minora- The smooth, hairless, inner lips of the vulva.  Clitoral Glans- The outer end of tip of the clitoris.  Clitoris- An erectile sexual structure consisting of the clitoral glans and two shafts (crura) that is primarily responsible for triggering orgasm in most women.  Clitoral Hood- Tissue that partially or fully covers the clitoral glans.  Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)- Removing part or most of the vulva to prevent sexual stimulation or pleasure; a cultural practice in many countries, especially in Africa.  Urethral Opening- An opening in the midsection of the vulva, between the clitoral glans and the vagina, that allows urine to pass from the body.  Urinary tract infection (UTI)- An infection of the urethra, bladder, or other urinary structure, usually caused by bacteria.  Hymen- A ring of tissue surrounding, partially covering, or fully screening the vaginal opening.  Hymnography- A medical procedure, common in some cultures, to reconstruct or repair the hymen to allow a woman to appear “virginal”; also known as hymenoplasty.  Perineum- The area of skin in the female between the vulva and the anus, and in the male between the scrotum and the anus.  Episiotomy- Surgical cutting of the perineum during childbirth, a procedure that was believed to allow for easier passage of the infant and less tearing of the vaginal opening. Found to be ineffective, it is rarely performed today.  Areola- The darker skin encircling each nipple; actually part of the skin of the nipple.  Vagina- A flexible, muscular canal or tube, normally about 3 to 4 inches in the length, that extends into the woman’s body at an angle toward the small of the back, from the vulva to the cervix.  G Spot- In some women, an area of tissue on the anterior (upper) wall of the vagina that, when stimulated, may cause a woman to experience enhanced sexual arousal and more intense orgasms.  Mammogram- Low does X ray of the breast to detect tumors.  Cervix- The lower end of the uterus that connects it to the vagina.  Os- The very narrow passageway through the cervix, from the vagina to the uterus.  Pap test- A routine test in which cells from the cervix are examined microscopically to look for potentially cancerous abnormalities.  Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)- A sexually transmitted virus that is typically characterized by warts in the genital or anal area and that may lead to some forms of cancer; also known as genital warts.  Uterus- A very flexible organ with strong muscle fibers where a fertilized egg implants and an embryo and fetus grow, from a few days after fertilization until birth.  Endometrium- The tissue lining the uterus that thickens in anticipation of pregnancy and is loughed off and expelled during menstruation.  Endometriosis- A potentially painful and dangerous medical condition caused by endometrial cells migrating outside the uterus into the abdominal cavity.  Fallopian Tubes- The tubes that carry the female ovum from the ovaries to the uterus and in which fertilization occurs.  Ovum- The female reproductive cell stored in the ovaries; usually, one ovum is released approximately every 28 days between menarche and menopause. The plural is ova.  Etopic Pregnancy- A pregnancy complication in which aa fertilized ovum attaches and begins to grow outside the uterus, most commonly in the fallopian tube, which is called a tubal pregnancy.  Ovaries- The female organs that produce sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone and where follicle cells are stored and mature into ova.  Estrogen- The female hormone responsible for regulating ovulation, endometrial development and the development of female sexual characteristics.  Progesterone- The female hormone responsible for the releases of ova and implantations of the fertilized egg in the uterine wall.  Ovarian Cyst- A fluid filled sac on the surface of the ovary, formed during normal ovulation; sometimes cysts may swell and cause pain and abnormal bleeding.  Menarche- The beginning of menstruation during puberty; a girl’s first period.  Menstrual cycle- The hormone controlled reproductive cycle in the human female.  Ovulation- The release of an egg, or ovum, from the ovary into the fallopian tube.  Follicle Stimulating Hormone- A hormone that stimulates the development of a mature ovum.  Luteinizing Hormone- A hormone that acts in concert with follicle stimulating and the release of estrogen and progesterone.  Premenstrual Syndrome- A set of symptoms that may occur during the days just before and during the start of a woman’s period, which includes irritability, depressed mood, and feelings of physical bloating or cramping.  Premenstrual dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)- A significantly more intense and debilitating form of PMS.  Menopause- The normal, gradual change in a woman’s life, typically occurring between age forty-five and fifty-five, when the ovaries produce a decreasing amount of female hormones and menstrual periods cease.  Premenopausal Changes- The physical and psychological changes many women experience during the decade leading up to menopause.


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