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BIOL1107: Test 3 Study Guide

by: Brittany Ariana Borzillo

BIOL1107: Test 3 Study Guide BIOL 1107

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Biology > BIOL 1107 > BIOL1107 Test 3 Study Guide
Brittany Ariana Borzillo
GPA 3.7

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covers test material -- redox reactions through photosynthesis
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1107 at University of Georgia taught by Armstrong in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see /class/202289/biol-1107-university-of-georgia in Biology at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 10/08/16
Biology Study Guide: Metabolism Terms  Oxidation o Occurs simultaneously with reduction o removes an electron from one molecule  Oxidized o The electron does not just remain in the system, another molecule receives it  In the reduction state  Reduction o Occurs simultaneously with oxidation o An electron is accepted by a molecule  Reduced o The electron is gained from a molecule which has lost one  In the oxidation state  Electronegativity o Oxidizing a molecule decreases its potential energy o Reducing a molecule increases its potential energy o  Glycolysis o First step in the breakdown of glucose to extract energy o Anaerobic  Does not require oxygen o Takes place in the cytoplasm of all cells o Inputs (reactants)  Glucose  NAD+  2ATP o Outputs (products)  2 pyruvate  NADH  4 ATP o net gain of 2 ATP because 2 ATP are put into the process for it to work  pyruvate o breakdown  transition stage before citric acid cycle  acetyl-CoA o produced in pyruvate breakdown  enzyme-bound acetyl group is transferred to CoA  produces acetyl CoA o conversion to CO 2  acetyl group binds with a four-carbon molecule to form citrate in citric acid cycle o a main input to the CAC  citric acid cycle o takes place in mitochondria like conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA o combines two-carbon acetyl group with a four-carbon molecule to form a 6-carbon molecule of citrate o irreversible  highly exergonic o controlled with negative feedback of ATP  the more ATP in the reaction slows the rate o cycle occurs twice – one per acetyl CoA o inputs (reactants) per ONE turn of the cycle  1 acetyl CoA  3 NAD+  1 FAD+  1 ADP  1 Pi o Outputs (products) per ONE turn of the cycle  2 CO 2  2 Acetyl Carbon  3 NADH  1 FADH 2  One ATP (GTP)  ATP AND GTP ARE INTERCHANGABLE  phosphorylation o endergonic reaction o ATP forms intermediate complex with the substrate and enzyme in the reaction  Allows ATP to transfer the third phosphate group to the substrate o When intermediate complex breaks apart, the energy is used to modify the substrate and convert it into a product of reaction o ADP molecule and free phosphate ion are released into the medium and are available for recycling though cell metabolism o substrate level phosphorylation  a few ATP are generated as the direct result of the chemical reactions that occur in catabolic pathways  phosphate group is removed from an intermediate reactant and the free energy of the reaction adds it to the available ADP molecule o oxidative phosphorylation  most ATP generated during glucose metabolism  same amount of ATP generated for fructose and galactose  takes place in mitochondrion (or plasma membrane in prokaryotes)  chemiosmosis generates 90% of ATP made during glucose catabolism and is used to harness sunlight in photosynthesis o photophosphorylation  the use of light energy from photosynthesis to ultimately provide the energy to convert ADP to ATP  replenishing the universal energy currency in living things  ATP o Enables the cell to safely store energy and release it when its needed o Prevents damage to cells that could occur in the presence of too much energy o Broken down by removing its terminal phosphate group  Releases energy that is used to do work o Structure  Adenosine monophosphate  Adenosine bonded to ribose molecule and to a single phosphate group  Two phosphates are added to this to create ATP o Addition of phosphate groups adds energy  Negatively charged ions  Repel each other o Makes the molecule increasingly more unstable  AMP is the most stable form of the molecule and thus not useful o Function  Hydrolysis breaks complex molecules apart  A water group will break apart forming H+ and OH- which will bond to the macromolecule  Will produce ADP and one phosphate ion  releases energy  Dehydration synthesis reforms ATP from ADP  OH- and H+ will dethatch from the macromolecule and produce water  The third phosphate is reattached to ADP o GTP o Yield from Cell Respiration  Reasons it could vary  Depends on number of H+ ions the ETC complex pumps  Depends on whether FADH or 2ADH is serving the ETC  Intermediate compounds in glucose catabolism pathways are used for functions other than just glucose catabolism  electron transport chain o uses atmospheric oxygen o series of ReDox reactions  electrons are passed rapidly from one complex to the next o complex 1  two electrons are carries to the first complex with NADH  compound of Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and an iron-sulfur- containing protein  prosthetic group o non-protein molecule required for protein activity  contains NADH dehydrogenase enzyme  can pump hydrogen ions across membrane from the matrix into the membrane space  creates H+ gradient and maintains it o complex 2 and Q  directly receives FADH 2rom the CAC  ubiquinone (Q) connects the first three complexes  lipid soluble  freely moves through membrane  once reduced, QH d2livers electrons to the next complex  FADH f2rms a complex with succinate dehydrogenase that delivers electrons to the third complex  The number of ATP produced is directly proportional to the number of protons pumped across the inner mitochondrial membrane o Complex 3  Composed of cytochrome B, a Fe-S protein, Rieske center (2Fe- 2S), and cytochrome C  Prosthetic heme group  Similar to heme in hemoglobin  Carries electrons  Iron ion at its core is reduced and oxidized as it passes the electrons and fluctuates between Fe++(reduced) and Fe+ ++(oxidized)  Pumps proteins through the membrane and passes its electrons to cytochrome c for transport to the fourth complex of proteins and enzymes  Cytochrome c is the acceptor of electrons from Q  Though Q carries pairs of electrons, cytochrome C can only accept one at a time o Complex 4  Composed of cytochrome proteins c, a, and a3  Contains two heme groups and three copper ions  Cytochromes hold an oxygen very tightly between the ion and copper ions until the oxygen is completely reduced  Reduced oxygen picks up two hydrogen ions from the surrounding medium to make water o Contributes to the ion gradient used in chemiosmosis  Chemiosmosis o Free energy from the electron transport chain is used to pump hydrogen ions across the membrane  Uneven distribution of H+ ions establishes concentration and electrical gradient o ATP synthase  Integral membrane protein  Facilitates the addition of phosphate to ADP using the potential energy from the H+ gradient  Generates 90% of ATP made during aerobic catabolism o Process used in the light reaction of photosynthesis to convert the energy of sunlight for phosphorylation  NAD+/NADH o Electron carrier  Easily reduced molecules  Transport electrons from where they are released (from an oxidized molecule) to where they’re needed next o Cannot easily enter mitochondria  FAD/FADH2 o Electron carrier  Easily reduced molecules o Transport electrons from where they are released (from an oxidized molecule) to where they’re needed next o Produces fewer ATP than NADH  Fermentation o Process using an organic molecule to regenerate NAD+ from NADH o Anaerobic respiration  No oxygen present o Lactic Acid Fermentation  Used by animals and certain bacteria  Alcohol Fermentation o Carboxyl is removed from pyruvic acid  Releases CO g2s o reduces acetaldehyde to ethanol  Calvin cycle o CO 2nters leaves through stroma  Diffuses over short distances until reaching mesophyll cells  CO 2iffuses into chloroplast once in the mesophyll cells o Fixation  Rubisco and 3 ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) initiate light- independent reactions  Rubisco  CO 2ibulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase  Catalyzes a reaction between CO and2RuBP  CO 2s “fixed” from inorganic form to organic molecules o Reduction  ATP and NADPH are used to convert 6 molecules of G33P  6 molecules of ATP and NADPH o Regeneration  Only one G3P molecule leaves the Calvin cycle and is sent to the cytoplasm to contribute to the formation of other compounds o Takes 3 turns of the Calvin Cycle to fix enough Carbon to export one G3P but each turn produces 2 G3Ps o Remaining 5 G3P molecules remain in the cycle to regenerate RuBP  Enables the system to prepare for more CO to 2e fixed  Cyclic electron flow o means during photosynthesis of biasing light reaction outputs towards increasing photophosphorylation over NADPH production o avoids both photosystem II and the donation of electrons to NADP+  Linear electron flow o route of electron flow during the light reactions that involves BOTH photosystems o produces ATP, NADPH and oxygen  Photosystem o Multi-protein complex o Embedded in thylakoid membrane o Photosystems differ in what they oxidize and reduce o Both have antenna proteins  Chlorophyll molecules are bound to them which surrounds the reaction center  Reaction center is where photochemistry takes place o Each photosystem is serviced by a light-harvesting complex  Passes energy from sunlight to the reaction center o Consists of multiple antenna proteins that contain 300-400 chlorophyll a,b, and other pigments o Photosystem 2  first protein complex in the light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis o Photosystem 1  second photosystem in the photosynthetic light reactions Objectives i. Explain how oxidation-reduction reactions result in a change of energy in the molecules involved. ii. If given an oxy-redox reaction involving organic molecules, indicate which molecules are oxidized/reduced and which have gained/lost energy. iii. Describe or draw a diagram that illustrates the flow of matter (atoms), energy, and electrons during cell respiration. iv. Draw a diagram that illustrates the inputs and outputs (both what and how much in terms of matter/atoms and relative energy content) for the major stages of aerobic respiration a. Glycolysis b. Pyruvate à Acetyl CoA c. Citric Acid / Krebs / TCA cycle d. Oxidative phosphorylation v. If shown a chemical reaction from aerobic respiration, be able to explain what is happening in this reaction a. Note: you will NOT be asked to draw out or remember a chemical reaction from memory vi. Draw a diagram that illustrates the inputs and outputs (both what and how much in terms of matter/atoms and relative energy content) for anaerobic respiration. Also indicate where in the cell these stages take place. vii. Describe two ways in which membrane transport is involved in Chemiosmosis and indicate what kind of transport is taking place. viii. Describe or draw a diagram that illustrates the flow of matter (atoms), energy, and electrons during cell respiration. ix. If shown a chemical reaction from aerobic respiration, be able to explain what is happening in this reaction a. Note: you will NOT be asked to draw out or remember a chemical reaction from memory x. Draw a diagram that illustrates the inputs and outputs (including energy, electrons, and atoms) for the Light Dependent and Light Independent reactions. xi. Distinguish between cyclical and linear electron flow. xii. Predict how the biomass of a plant would change if grown the presence or absence of sunlight. xiii. Compare and contrast between cell respiration and photosynthesis. In what ways are they similar? In what ways are they different? xiv. Predict how a plant might respond metabolically to an increase or decreases in O2 or CO2 levels. How are these responses different from what you would see in an animal? xv. Describe how a plants attempt to avoid problems associated with photorespiration. xvi. Predict how the biomass of a plant would change if grown the presence or absence of sunlight. xvii. Compare and contrast between cell respiration and photosynthesis. In what ways are they similar? In what ways are they different?


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