Study Guide Exam 1
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rk18370p on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MCA 180 at Pace University taught by Zeke in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Key Terms and Definition of Public Relations Influencing beliefs and behaviors 1. Power: use authority for overt 2. Patronage: purchase or bribery 3. Persuasion: use communication to promote good will Public Relations is… “management of relationships between an organization and its publics” Defining Public Relations All definitions of PR frame it as Planned activity - organized behavior consistent with values and goals Management function- must be a top concern of leadership Involves two-way communication - involves soliciting feedback Research-based science - must conduct formal and informal research to effectively communicate Socially responsible – constructive in society RACE Process Research: define problem The discovery phase Analysis: what is going to be done The strategy phase Communication: execution The action phase Evaluation: was the audience reached The measurement phase 4 Student Misconceptions 1. Negative Perceptions of the Field Exam 1 Study Guide ◦ PR is more than media relations and special events planning 2. Lack of Management Knowledge ◦ Reliance on strategic management process 3. Lack of Understanding about Relationships ◦ Maintenance, facilitation, problem solving and conflict resolution 4. Lack of Knowledge about Research ◦ Comprises a large portion of field History and Current Challenges I. Ancient Beginning a. Sumeria, Babylonia, Persia – leaders used poems to promote battles and politics b. Julius Caesar – reports, news and statues to promote achievements II. Growth of an Industry a. Publicity Bureau i. Started by Ivy Lee in 1900 ii. Lee also wrote the “Declaration of Principles” b. William Wolf Smith Agency in 1902 c. The Parker and Lee Agency in 1904 d. Edward Bernays writes first book i. Crystallizing Public Opinion ii. Teaches first class III. War and Public Relations a. WWI i. Society more familiar with “propaganda” ii. Committee for Public Information b. WWII i. Office of War Information c. Vietnam, Iraq 1 and 2, Afghanistan IV. PR in the New Millennium a. Multicultural World i. More women working ii. Cultural population changes b. Demand for Transparency i. Self-reporting – information provided by an actor on its own behaviors ii. Other-reporting – information provided by an actor on other actors’ behaviors Exam 1 Study Guide iii. Problem-reporting – non-behavioral aspect of the problem itself – actors monitor a problem and seek information on trends c. Corporate Social Responsibility i. Social and environmental expectations d. Fragmentation of the Media i. No single mass media that will be a good vehicle e. Increased emphasis on Measurement and Evaluation i. Return on Investment (ROI) ii. Measuring outcomes – long-term effectiveness iii. Measuring inputs – how well was a program executed V. Marketing a. Exists to sense, serve and satisfy the needs of customers at a profit b. Process of researching, creating, refining products or services c. Based on research and metrics VI. Advertising a. Use of controlled media in an attempt to influence the actions of targeted audiences b. 3 Important Points of Advertising i. Repetition ii. Style 1. plain-talk (straight presentation) 2. talk-talk (hyperbole) 3. Combination to create a world of true nor false iii. Ubiquity VII. The Appeals a. Sex (2%) b. Affiliation (largest number) c. Nurture (maternal/paternal) d. Guidance e. Aggress (get even) f. Achieve g. Dominate h. Prominence i. Attention j. Autonomy k. Escape l. Feel Safe m. Aesthetic Sensations n. Satisfy Curiosity o. Physiological Needs (eat, sleep & drink) VIII. Convergence of all 3 …. a. Tension between all 3 b. To outsiders, they seem to be the same c. Melding of functions Exam 1 Study Guide d. Melting of boundaries IX. Example of Convergence a. Cause-Related Marketing i. Cooperative efforts of a "for profit" business and a non- profit organization for mutual benefit ii. Sells products iii. Builds good will toward organization Working in Public Relations I. Examples a. Political PR i. The process by which an organization or individual actor engages in purposeful communication political purposes ii. Seeks to influence and to establish relationships so that political goals can be achieved b. Celebrity PR i. The process by which an individual actor builds good for the goal of building and maintaining celebrity ii. Not geared toward promoting particular films, television programs or products but the individual II. 2 ways of explaining PR a. Resource Dependency Theory i. strategic approach ii. look to establish relationships with publics in order to gain access to needed resources (Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978) iii. to acquire resources, organizations build productive relationships with publics that control the resources iv. explains need for organization to negotiate position within environment v. They all have a resources we need 1. Clients 2. Media 3. Consumers 4. Critics 5. Stockholders and analysts 6. Competitors 7. Government 8. Educational institutions b. Institutional Theory i. beyond instrumental ii. acknowledging that there are influences on decision making that are often shaped by non-instrumental factors (DiMaggio & Powell, 1991) Exam 1 Study Guide iii. forms of ideas, practices and structures span organizations and become authoritative guidelines for social behavior (Scott, 2004) iv. Explains need for organization to negotiate position within environment III. 2 Categories of Practitioner a. Managers – solve problems, advise leaders, make policy decisions b. Technicians – prepare communications that executive public relations policies IV. Where are the jobs a. Corporations i. Where most PR occurs ii. Employee relations, government relations, media relations, community relations, b2b relations, consumer relations, investor relations b. Nonprofits i. Similar to corporations ii. But added donor relations and fundraising c. Governments i. Focus on voters, news media, employees and special- interest groups d. Agencies i. Assist with other organizations e. Independent Consultants i. Smaller range of activity than agencies Ethics and Morality Ethics is doing the right thing o Following a specific set of rules o Putting values into action Morality is doing the right thing when no one is watching Corporate Ethics Statements Value statements, corporate credo, code of ethics and Internet privacy statements (Murphy, 2005) o delineated treatment of a firm’s expectations regarding ethical behaviors o provide guidelines for behavior by making references to corporate qualities as integrity, trust, teamwork and fairness o spelling out areas of specific concern such as conflict of interest, gift giving, relationships with dealers, increasing workforce diversity, human rights and competitive intelligence Exam 1 Study Guide Challenges to Ethics Dilemmas – a problem that lacks a good, painless solution Overwork – obligation to control your work Legal/Ethical Confusion Cross-Cultural Ethics – Cultural Relativism vs. Ethical Imperialism Short-term thinking Virtual organizations Specific ethic challenges Corporate Social Responsibility Programs and Initiatives community outreach corporate philanthropy strengthened environmental behaviors cause-related marketing child labor sustainable energy opportunities of the poor Inter-organizational alliances crisis communication The Potter Box Definition box: define the situation as objectively as possible Values box: state the values involved Principles box: consider ethic principles Loyalties box: identify stakeholders Select course of action Evaluate the impact of the decision
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