Art Survey 1010 Study Guide
Art Survey 1010 Study Guide ARHS 1010
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Notetaker on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARHS 1010 at Tulane University taught by Jennifer Saracino in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Cave Painting & Paleolithic Sculpture Paleolithic Art 30,0009,000 BCE Humankind went from the recognition of forms in the natural environment to representation Terms to know: Facture the act, process, or manner of making anything; construction Naturalism a style of art that aims to depict the natural world as it appears Modeling shading a form in a way to give depth & volume Cave Painting o What creates Neolithic societies? Climate change (ice melts around 9000 BCE) Human beings settle and domesticate plants & animals Develop stone implements Monumental architecture (funerary, ritualistic) Megaliths from the Greek work mega meaning ‘big’ and lithos meaning ‘stone’ Used in cromlechs and dolmens Post and lintel construction two or more vertical uprights, posts, support a horizontal member, called the lintel Ancient Near Eastern Art o Features of Mesopotamian society New inventions: irrigation, wheel & plow, copper tools Leads to → increased food production, trade, and communities flourish Which leads to → specialization of labor & trade, development of citystates, centralized authority and government Social complexity increases o Higher density communities → Increased “job” density → o More material goods/resources → Accumulation of wealth → Social stratification Big Ideas o Relationship between art and political power (art as an expression of empire o Role of art and architecture in religion o Different narrative techniques Uruk o Prehistory ends/theocracy begins o Agricultural gods and goddesses o Uruk 5000 BCE written records Cuneiform o Developed around 34003200 BCE o Administrative methods develop to organize increasing people and goods…which leads to permanent record keeping Terms to know: o Ziggurat from the Assyrian work meaning ‘mountain top’ or ‘height.’ A squat stepped pyramid made of mud brick material o Cella room in middle containing religious symbols, etc. It was thought that climbing a mountain brings you closer to god/celestial realm; mountains were sacred spaces that exemplified the earth’s generative powers Politically/socially, the priest was elevated above the rest of the people The path to the cella was a journey to reach the middle in a winding path around the ziggurat The 4 corners of the ziggurat aligned to the 4 cardinal directions Female head o Lifelike/naturalistic modeling of the face o The top half of the face (hair and eyebrows) are abstracted and geometric o Large eyes are an apotropaic device they ward off evil They were thought to bring a person closer to god as well Royal Standard of Ur o Visual narrative established o 3 registers o Hieratic scale the seated, topmost left man is the largest and most important o Made of lapis lazuli a semiprecious material Therefore, this was made for someone wealthy and powerful o One interpretation: shows 2 necessary sides for a ruler o Another: it showed life as it was in Sumer Akkad/the Akkadians o Akkadian rulers exploited the visual arts to establish & reflect their power o Circa 2350 BCE, the Akkadians (from northeast) take control of Sumer o King Sargon Incorporates citystates into one state: Akkad o Naramsin (Sargon’s grandson) Western expansion of the realm o New emphasis on individuals as rulers and conquerors No longer just servants of god Head of an Akkadian Ruler o Modeled and naturalistic face o Abstracted & geometricized beard o Copper material showed strength, power, and longevity o Metal was primarily used for tools & weapons, so this emphasized the military prowess of the ruler Victory Stele of NaramSin o Naramsin is up there with gods & the celestial realm o He is wearing horns to make himself seem more godlike (a divine attribute) o The work follows the shape of the stone in pyramidal composition o Hieratic scale: Naramsin is larger than his enemies and he tramples them beneath him o First depiction of landscape in the mountain NeoSumerian o Gudea of Lagash o Gudea holding a water jar Shows Gudea with piety, worshipping a god and being devout Adorned with writing & inscription Gods favor him by allowing water = special connection to god He provides this water to his people Static, more obedient to gods Serene & eternal representation, with enlarged eyes to represent a connection with the gods/apotropaic to ward off evil Babylon o ca 17901600 BCE o Hammurabi’s Code oldest known record of law Stele of Hammurabi Large upright stone 3500+ lines of cuneiform addressing theft, domestic assault, and equal punishment Hammurabi answers to god he stands while the god is seated He serves as an intermediary between god by being in the same register, but not an equal to god The god can be identified by his larger scale, headdress, the sun rays emitting off his shoulders, and that his feet don’t quite touch the ground Assyrian & Late Babylonian art o Assyrian Art of Empire th Flourished circa 7 century BCE Drew on artistic achievements of the Sumerians & Babylonians but adopted their own purpose Art of empire“propagandistic and public, designed to proclaim and sustain the supremacy of Assyrian civilization, particularly through representations of military power Architecture shifts to royal palaces o Citadel of Sargon II Mudbrick Enclosed with temple and palace Elevated platform (50ft) physically bringing them closer to the celestial realm Ruler has privileged access to deities = intercessor between gods o Lamassu Powerful, defensive protective, warding off evil Similar to Head of an Akkadian Ruler in the beard by being geometricized & stylized Humananimal hybrid 5 legs allow it to be seen from frontal and side view o Orthostats Stone panels for protecting mudbrick on walls of complexes Proclaim military strength & prowess of enemies o Royal lion hunt orthostat Stylized river currents King would be main archer; he shows off that he could kill powerful lions Stylized/abstracted people vs. naturalistic, beautiful lions (geometricized manes vs naturalistic bodies) Low reliefs & gypsum material Late Babylonian art o Assyrian empire ends in 1612 BCE o Babylon has a resurgence Art Survey 1010 Notes Ancient Egypt: Religion & Sculpture o History of civilization in Egypt 50003000 BCE stabilizing culture and establishing urban centers By circa 30002500 BCE Upper and Lower Egypt unify. Dynastic rule begins Old Kingdom (ca. 25002100 BCE) Middle Kingdom (ca.20001500 BCE) New Kingdom (ca. 15001000 BCE) Ca. 100030 BCE Egypt under foreign rule (esp. Greeks then Romans) o Nile River fertile land with irrigated agriculture on desert terrain. Everything is derived from the river it is a part of Egyptian life along with flooding too. Religion o Pantheon of gods o Nature informs religion o Eternal life possible “ka” life force Continued to inhabit the body after death Material remains necessary for continued existence Pharaoh o Divine kings / “godkings” o Intermediaries with gods o Honored by monuments during their lifetime Tombs, statues, etc. Immortality o Ka/immortal part of self o Could live on after death o Mummification Preserving the body Began to be practiced with the building of tombs o Servants provide the deceased with necessities Food, drink, clothes, furniture, games, attendants, etc. o Statues of dead Substitute dwelling places where the ka traveled to Architecture Tombs for an eternal life o Mastaba tombs Usual importance of one person Commemorates the dead Made of mudbrick Sarcophagus stone coffin Offerings = living and dead can interact o Stepped pyramid of Djoser Saqqara was the necropolis (city of the dead) in Lower Egypt Stacked mastabas Palace for king in his afterlife The constituents/family share food w/ dead because the ka is still present Made of limestone more durable covered in mudbrick to make it look like living Serdab enclosed room where statue is places with 2 airshafts Monumentality o Culmination of tomb architecture Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure Limestone, tipped with gold to seem luminescent and commune with the sun god The sun was the focus of the religious cult so encapsulating light was important Eastwest access; the pharaoh was on the west side of the setting sun Sphinx o Head of Khafre, body of lion o Standing sentry Egypt: sculpture and painting (ending style) o Palette of Narmer First texture record of Old Egypt Compositedview Egyptian style for 1000 years Hieratic scale King Narmer is larger than everyone Use of registers Unification of Lower & Upper Egypt Blending of different symbols literal and representative Canon of proportions in Egyptian art is standardized o Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt Shows him as strong and assertive; will be victorious in the afterlife He has control over the forces of nature o Akhenaton Makes religion the most monotheistic sunobsessed Ticks off the priests and clergy Radiating in sun beams Strangely feminine Elongated, individualized face Egypt: tomb spaces o Iconography of a pharaoh Kilt, false beard, nemes headdress Ancient Aegean Art Things to consider o How art expresses cultural values o For Minoans: in terms of their relationship to the environment o Mycenaeans: in terms of political power Early Cycladic Art o 30002000 BCE o Marble statuettes are major surviving artworks. Little known about their function o Many figures come from graves & may represent the deceased o These statuettes mark the beginning of the long history of marble sculpture in Greece o Figure of a woman Geometric, angular, stylized by the broad shoulders and tapered waists o Male lyre player ancestral veneration or afterlife veneration is shown by this marble is a local resource the sculpture is abstracted, stylized, and geometricized Minoan culture o 35001050 BCE o Named for King Minos, keeper of the Minotaur o Highly developed agricultural society with preference for aquatic imagery o 4 major urban centers on the island of Crete o First excavated by Arthur Evans in the early 20 century o Their culture’s idealized bodies have tapered waists and broad shoulders o Representations of daily life and animals around them o “Palace” of Knossos Community center with ritual/ceremonial purpose Fresco (dolphins) Patterned, meaning stylized Colorful Depicting movement Rounded Scattered/naturalistic composition Spring fresco Reverence for natural world Stylized mountain forms and colors Natural imagery in interior fresco Crocus gatherers Traders/merchants coming in Aerial perspective frontal view of people coming in Composite view Bull Leaping 2 different interpretations of 3 people vs. 1 person Could be Perseus pursing Andromeda Dynamic Only 1 guy touches the ground line Decorates a space Blank background Cultural activity Curvilinear lines lead the eye to depict fluidity and dynamic movement Harvester Vase o Dynamic, with movement in a fluid composition o Energetic o Interest in human body there is definition in skeleton and the musculature o Celebration of a harvestpeople are singing o Agricultural tools are resent o There is also landscape with the fields in the background Mycenaean Art o Height ca 15001200 BCE o Known for their citadels Citadels fortified, elevated, defensive walls o More warlike and worried about invasion o Corbeled arch came from them Lioness Gate o Contains a relieving triangle, which takes the weight off of the lintel o Lions are standing sentry, though they are missing their heads o Heraldic pose the lions are mirrored across a central axis o They are imposing/dominant creatures to scare off intruders
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