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Art Survey 1010 Study Guide

by: Jennifer Notetaker

Art Survey 1010 Study Guide ARHS 1010

Marketplace > Tulane University > ARHS 1010 > Art Survey 1010 Study Guide
Jennifer Notetaker

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These notes cover our first exam.
Art Survey 1: Prehist-Middle Ages
Jennifer Saracino
Study Guide
prehistoric, Neolithic, Aegean, Egyptian
50 ?




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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Notetaker on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARHS 1010 at Tulane University taught by Jennifer Saracino in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


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Date Created: 10/08/16
Cave Painting & Paleolithic Sculpture  Paleolithic Art  30,000­9,000 BCE  Humankind went from the recognition of forms in the natural  environment to representation  Terms to know:  Facture­ the act, process, or manner of making anything;  construction  Naturalism­ a style of art that aims to depict the natural world  as it appears  Modeling­ shading a form in a way to give depth & volume  Cave Painting o What creates Neolithic societies?  Climate change (ice melts around 9000 BCE)  Human beings settle and domesticate plants & animals  Develop stone implements  Monumental architecture (funerary, ritualistic)  Megaliths­ from the Greek work mega meaning ‘big’ and lithos meaning ‘stone’  Used in cromlechs and dolmens  Post and lintel construction­ two or more vertical uprights,  posts, support a horizontal member, called the lintel  Ancient Near Eastern Art o Features of Mesopotamian society  New inventions: irrigation, wheel & plow, copper tools  Leads to → increased food production, trade, and communities  flourish  Which leads to → specialization of labor & trade, development  of city­states, centralized authority and government   Social complexity increases o Higher density communities →  Increased “job” density → o More material goods/resources →  Accumulation of wealth →  Social stratification  Big Ideas  o Relationship between art and political power (art as an expression of  empire o Role of art and architecture in religion o Different narrative techniques  Uruk o Pre­history ends/theocracy begins o Agricultural gods and goddesses o Uruk 5000 BCE­ written records  Cuneiform o Developed around 3400­3200 BCE o Administrative methods develop to organize increasing people and  goods…which leads to permanent record keeping  Terms to know:  o Ziggurat­ from the Assyrian work meaning ‘mountain top’ or ‘height.’ A squat stepped pyramid made of mud brick material  o Cella­ room in middle containing religious symbols, etc.   It was thought that climbing a mountain brings you closer to  god/celestial realm; mountains were sacred spaces that  exemplified the earth’s generative powers  Politically/socially, the priest was elevated above the rest of the  people  The path to the cella was a journey to reach the middle in a  winding path around the ziggurat  The 4 corners of the ziggurat aligned to the 4 cardinal directions  Female head o Life­like/naturalistic modeling of the face o The top half of the face (hair and eyebrows) are abstracted and  geometric o Large eyes are an apotropaic device­ they ward off evil  They were thought to bring a person closer to god as well  Royal Standard of Ur o Visual narrative established o 3 registers o Hieratic scale­ the seated, top­most left man is the largest and most  important o Made of lapis lazuli­ a semiprecious material  Therefore, this was made for someone wealthy and powerful o One interpretation: shows 2 necessary sides for a ruler  o Another: it showed life as it was in Sumer   Akkad/the Akkadians o Akkadian rulers exploited the visual arts to establish & reflect their  power o Circa 2350 BCE, the Akkadians (from northeast) take control of  Sumer o King Sargon  Incorporates city­states into one state: Akkad o Naram­sin (Sargon’s grandson)  Western expansion of the realm o New emphasis on individuals as rulers and conquerors  No longer just servants of god  Head of an Akkadian Ruler o Modeled and naturalistic face o Abstracted & geometricized beard o Copper material­ showed strength, power, and longevity o Metal was primarily used for tools & weapons, so this emphasized the military prowess of the ruler  Victory Stele of Naram­Sin o Naram­sin is up there with gods & the celestial realm  o He is wearing horns to make himself seem more god­like (a divine  attribute) o The work follows the shape of the stone in pyramidal composition o Hieratic scale: Naram­sin is larger than his enemies and he tramples  them beneath him o First depiction of landscape in the mountain  Neo­Sumerian o Gudea of Lagash o Gudea holding a water jar  Shows Gudea with piety, worshipping a god and being devout   Adorned with writing & inscription  Gods favor him by allowing water = special connection to god  He provides this water to his people  Static, more obedient to gods  Serene & eternal representation, with enlarged eyes to represent a connection with the gods/apotropaic to ward off evil  Babylon o ca 1790­1600 BCE o Hammurabi’s Code­ oldest known record of law  Stele of Hammurabi   Large upright stone  3500+ lines of cuneiform addressing theft, domestic  assault, and equal punishment  Hammurabi answers to god­ he stands while the god is  seated  He serves as an intermediary between god by being in the same register, but not an equal to god  The god can be identified by his larger scale, headdress,  the sun rays emitting off his shoulders, and that his feet  don’t quite touch the ground  Assyrian & Late Babylonian art o Assyrian­ Art of Empire th  Flourished circa 7  century BCE  Drew on artistic achievements of the Sumerians & Babylonians  but adopted their own purpose  Art of empire­“propagandistic and public, designed to proclaim  and sustain the supremacy of Assyrian civilization, particularly  through representations of military power  Architecture shifts to royal palaces o Citadel of Sargon II  Mud­brick  Enclosed with temple and palace  Elevated platform (50ft) physically bringing them closer to the  celestial realm  Ruler has privileged access to deities = intercessor between  gods o Lamassu  Powerful, defensive protective, warding off evil  Similar to Head of an Akkadian Ruler in the beard by being  geometricized & stylized  Human­animal hybrid  5 legs allow it to be seen from frontal and side view o Orthostats  Stone panels for protecting mud­brick on walls of complexes  Proclaim military strength & prowess of enemies  o Royal lion hunt orthostat  Stylized river currents  King would be main archer; he shows off that he could kill  powerful lions  Stylized/abstracted people vs. naturalistic, beautiful lions  (geometricized manes vs naturalistic bodies)  Low reliefs & gypsum material  Late Babylonian art o Assyrian empire ends in 1612 BCE o Babylon has a resurgence Art Survey 1010 Notes  Ancient Egypt: Religion & Sculpture o History of civilization in Egypt  5000­3000 BCE­ stabilizing culture and establishing urban  centers  By circa 3000­2500 BCE Upper and Lower Egypt unify.   Dynastic rule begins  Old Kingdom (ca. 2500­2100 BCE)  Middle Kingdom (ca.2000­1500 BCE)  New Kingdom (ca. 1500­1000 BCE)  Ca. 1000­30 BCE­ Egypt under foreign rule (esp. Greeks then  Romans) o Nile River­ fertile land with irrigated agriculture on desert terrain.  Everything is derived from the river­ it is a part of Egyptian life along  with flooding too.   Religion o Pantheon of gods o Nature informs religion o Eternal life possible  “ka” life force  Continued to inhabit the body after death  Material remains necessary for continued existence  Pharaoh o Divine kings / “god­kings” o Intermediaries with gods o Honored by monuments during their lifetime  Tombs, statues, etc.  Immortality o Ka/immortal part of self o Could live on after death o Mummification  Preserving the body  Began to be practiced with the building of tombs o Servants provide the deceased with necessities  Food, drink, clothes, furniture, games, attendants, etc.  o Statues of dead  Substitute dwelling places­ where the ka traveled to   Architecture­ Tombs for an eternal life o Mastaba tombs  Usual importance of one person   Commemorates the dead  Made of mud­brick  Sarcophagus­ stone coffin  Offerings = living and dead can interact o Stepped pyramid of Djoser  Saqqara was the necropolis (city of the dead) in Lower Egypt  Stacked mastabas  Palace for king in his afterlife  The constituents/family share food w/ dead because the ka is  still present  Made of limestone­ more durable­ covered in mudbrick to make it look like living  Serdab­ enclosed room where statue is places with 2 airshafts  Monumentality  o Culmination of tomb architecture  Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure  Limestone, tipped with gold to seem luminescent and commune with the sun god   The sun was the focus of the religious cult so encapsulating  light was important  East­west access; the pharaoh was on the west side of the  setting sun  Sphinx o Head of Khafre, body of lion o Standing sentry   Egypt: sculpture and painting (ending style) o Palette of Narmer  First texture record of Old Egypt  Compositedview­ Egyptian style for 1000 years  Hieratic scale­ King Narmer is larger than everyone   Use of registers  Unification of Lower & Upper Egypt  Blending of different symbols­ literal and representative  Canon of proportions in Egyptian art is standardized o Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt  Shows him as strong and assertive; will be victorious in the  afterlife  He has control over the forces of nature o Akhenaton  Makes religion the most monotheistic­ sun­obsessed  Ticks off the priests and clergy  Radiating in sun beams   Strangely feminine  Elongated, individualized face  Egypt: tomb spaces o Iconography of a pharaoh  Kilt, false beard, nemes headdress  Ancient Aegean Art  Things to consider o How art expresses cultural values o For Minoans: in terms of their relationship to the environment o Mycenaeans: in terms of political power  Early Cycladic Art o 3000­2000 BCE o Marble statuettes are major surviving artworks. Little known about  their function o Many figures come from graves & may represent the deceased o These statuettes mark the beginning of the long history of marble  sculpture in Greece o Figure of a woman  Geometric, angular, stylized by the broad shoulders and tapered waists o Male lyre player  ancestral veneration or afterlife veneration is shown by this  marble is a local resource  the sculpture is abstracted, stylized, and geometricized  Minoan culture o 3500­1050 BCE o Named for King Minos, keeper of the Minotaur o Highly developed agricultural society with preference for aquatic  imagery o 4 major urban centers on the island of Crete o First excavated by Arthur Evans in the early 20  century  o Their culture’s idealized bodies have tapered waists and broad  shoulders o Representations of daily life and animals around them o “Palace” of Knossos  Community center with ritual/ceremonial purpose  Fresco (dolphins)  Patterned, meaning stylized  Colorful  Depicting movement  Rounded  Scattered/naturalistic composition  Spring fresco  Reverence for natural world  Stylized mountain forms and colors  Natural imagery in interior fresco  Crocus gatherers  Traders/merchants coming in  Aerial perspective­ frontal view of people coming in   Composite view  Bull Leaping  2 different interpretations of 3 people vs. 1 person   Could be Perseus pursing Andromeda  Dynamic  Only 1 guy touches the ground line  Decorates a space  Blank background  Cultural activity  Curvilinear lines lead the eye to depict fluidity and  dynamic movement  Harvester Vase o Dynamic, with movement in a fluid composition o Energetic o Interest in human body­ there is definition in skeleton and the  musculature o Celebration of a harvest­people are singing  o Agricultural tools are resent o There is also landscape with the fields in the background  Mycenaean Art o Height­ ca 1500­1200 BCE o Known for their citadels  Citadels­ fortified, elevated, defensive walls o More warlike and worried about invasion o  Corbeled arch came from them   Lioness Gate o Contains a relieving triangle, which takes the weight off of the lintel o Lions are standing sentry, though they are missing their heads o Heraldic pose­ the lions are mirrored across a central axis o They are imposing/dominant creatures to scare off intruders


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