Bio 335 Midterm Exam Study guide
Bio 335 Midterm Exam Study guide BIOL 335
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This 35 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shannon Lusk on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 335 at College of Charleston taught by Roumillat in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Biology of Fishes in Biology at College of Charleston.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Study Guide Mid-T erm Exam -Basic morphology and measurements of fishes - General skull part definitions (neurocranium, branchiochranium) Evolutionary tendency: fusion of skull bones o High # of bones Evolutionary time low # of bones Neurocranium: Brain Case o Chrondrocranium: original cartilaginous braincase o Dermatocranium: dermal bones attached to skull Branchiocranium: endoskeletal arches, original gill arch supports o Arches Mandibular Cartilaginous origin o Sharks Palatoquadrate Cartilage (top jaw) Meckel’s Cartilage (bottom jaw) o Bony Fishes Premaxillae, Maxilae, Supramaxillae (top jaw) Dentary, Angular, Articular (bottom jaw) Everything but the articular, Dermal origin Palatine Cartilaginous origin – second primitive gill arch Hyoid Hyoid arch or Supensorium Cartilaginous origin Privides support and attachment to the skull rd 3 primitive gill arch Opercular Branchial Branchial arches Cartilaginous origin Support gills (hypobranchial, ceratobranchial, epibranchial, pharyngobrancials) Help chewing/crushing (Infraphyngeal tooth plates) - Jaw evolution/ jaw suspension Jaw Evolution o Hypothesis that the vertebrate jaw derives from one of the anterior gill arches o The gill slit anterior to the hyoid arch is reduced to the spiracle o The evolution goes further in amphibians and reptiles, and mammals. Jaw suspension Evolution o The way the joints are attached allow the buccal cavity to expand and contract, hinges allow it - Axial/appendicular skeletons -Fin structures Appendicular skeleton o Pectoral Girdle Found in more advanced fishes Not attached to the vertebral column Attached to the skull o Pelvic girdle Found in primitive fishes Not attached to the vertebral column Axial skeleton o Caudal, Dorsal, Anal fin o 3 types of caudal fins Heterocercal Vertebral column continues all the way down an assymetric fin, as the tail moves, provides lift for the body o Sharks have this type of tail, as they do not have swim bladders Homocercal: Modified into epural bones, hypural plate/bones, the caudal moves back and forth. o Most fish o Used for standard length Isocercal Part of the anal and dorsal fins make up the caudal structure, one big, flat bone o Cod fishes Soft Rays o Soft, segmented, branched, bilateral o Rays attach to muscles on either side of the body o Rays are always segmented in two pieces, sometimes branched True spines o Hard and pointed, unsegmented, unbranched, solid - Scale types (ganoid, placoid, cycloid, ctenoid) Scales: all on the outside of the bone, in the dermis o Bones don’t show and accurate life history of the animal because calcium can be broken down and used for the animal Ganoid o Found in Garrs, ancient primitive, very inflexible scales Cycloid o Primitive fishes have simple, cycloid scales o Disciduous, come off easily Ctenoid, bony ridge scales o More advanced, used for protection, provide hydrodynamic function Placoid o Sandpaper, hydrodynamic effect, smooth through the water - Integument of fishes (epithelium/dermis) - Species definitions (advantages/disadvantages) Biological Species o Main criterion: reproductive isolation o Either completely separate populations (no breeding – prezygotic) Prezygotic Temporal: population isolated because of different breeding times Habitat: breed in different habitats Behavioral: courtship behavior is different Gametic barrier: eggs and sperm incompatible Mechanica: male’s and female’s don’t fit o Or o Breeding but no viable offspring (ineffective breeding – postzygotic) Postzygotic Hybrid viability: offspring from two disparate species die before birth Hybrid sterility: offspring develop and grow, but are reproductively sterile o Problems with biological species Difficult to address species that are separate enough so that there is no chance of interbreeding Difficult to interpret fossil species What about asexual species? Morphospecies o Because of restricted gene flow Morphology of a species is expected not to overlap with those of another species o Widely applicable Even with fossils and asexual organisms o Problems with morphospecies Possible to place different looking taxa into separate species (polymorphic species) Possible to not recognize cryptic species Choice of characters to use in species separation can be subjective Phylogenetic species o Relies on interpretation of monophyletic group (ancestral population and all of its descendants) o This is determined by synapomorphies (shared derived characters) Symplesiomorphies (shared ancestral/primitive characters) - Homologous vs. analogous Phylogeny : - Agnath characters vs. gnathostomes (e.g. hagfish single semicircular canals) o Agnath Class Pteraspidomorphi Paired olfactory bulbs with separate openings Jawless filter feeders in fresh/salt water Bodies covered with bony armors without true bones cells or with dermal denticles Class Myxini o Family Myxinidae (hagfishes) One semi-circular canal and single olfactory bulb Entirely cartinaginous skeleton Jawless benthic scavengers found in cold and temperate oceans, on muddy continental shelves Very different from lampreys, but still jawless Isometric to saltwater (restricted to a narrow range of salinity) No paired fins, no scales, no vertebrae (no vertebral column) Degenerate eyes About 40 species Sediment dwellers, scavengers Family Myxinidae Dorsoventral slime glands: o Protein and carbohydrate mucous Slime function: o Attacking fish (suffocation) o Protect hagfish while feeing inside a cadaver o Repulsion of other scavengers (sharks) o Stabilize muddy burrows o Gets rid of the slime it produces by tying itself into a knot and rubbing it off Little known about reproduction and growth Commercial fisheries (skin) Small number of large eggs throughout the year Never have found a juvenile in the wild - Reason for placoderms only from fossil record o Class Placodermi Bony anterior plates When the plates broke, no way to fix them, outcompeted by fish with replaceable teeth Jawed with depressed flattened bodies Pectoral and pelvic fins - Three major superclasses of Gnathostomes o Chondrichthyes: cartilaginous fish o Placodermi: extinct clade of armored fish o Teleostomi: bony fishes, birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians - Timeline for Chondrichthys to separate from teleostomi (very early) o Rapid radiation of Chrondrichthys in the early Paleozoic and in the Mesozoic o Rapidly speciated as marine predators o By the carbiniforous, sharks made up as much as 60% of the species of fish in some shallow tropical habitats o Thought to be primitive because cartilaginous, but not, just very specialized for different life in the water o Calcification of endoskeletal cartilage and pelvic claspers in males - Two major subclasses Chondrichthys o Subclass Elasmobranchii Sharks, skates and rays Cartilaginous skeleton with calcifications placoid scales replacement dentition, teeth replaced serially internal fertilization, pelvic fin claspers multiple gill slits, five, six or seven external gill slits (spiracle) Around 800 species Soft unsegmented fins (ceratotrichia) Buoyant livers and spiral valve intestines Osmotic regulation through metabolic waste products (urea and Trimethylamine oxide-TMAO) Single cloaca Predators (or scavengers) Mainly marine habitats Slow metabolism and slow growth Low fecundity (few and large young) Oviparity (embryo develops only off nutrients in the egg) Ovoviviparity (egg kept in the mother, but still lives only on the yolk Viviparity o Subclass Holocephali Chimaeras or ratfishes Upper jaws fused to braincase (Holostylic), cartilaginous skeleton, single gill cover, separate anal and urogenital openings, erectable dorsal spine (poisonous), spiral valve intestines (what makes them uniqe) 3 families, 58 spp. Breath through nostrils Males have clasper on head (internal fertilization) Tooth plates (vomer, palatine, mandibular) o Subclass Elasmobranchii Around 800 species of sharks and rays Cartilaginous skeleton with calcifications Teeth replaced serially Soft, unsegmented fins (ceratotrichia) Five, six or seven external gill slits (spiracle) Buoyant livers and spiral valve intestines Internal fertilization (pelvic fin claspers) Osmotic regulation through metabolic waste products (Urea and Trimethylamine oxide-TMAO) Single cloaca - Difference Selachii vs. Batoidea: phylogeny of Chrondrichthys o Subclass Elasmobranchii Superorder Selachii: Sharks Superorder Galeomorpha o Order Heterodontiformes (bullhead and horn sharks) Family Heterodontidae, 1 genus, 9 spp. 2 dorsal fins, each with a spine o Order Orectolobiformes (carpet sharks) 7 families, 14 genera, 42 spp. 2 dorsal fins with no spines, short mouth Includes wobbegons, nurse sharks and whale sharks o Order Carcharhiniformes (ground and requiem sharks) 8 families, 50 genera, 287 spp. 2 dorsal fins with no spines, medium mouths Includes cat sharks, gray sharks, tiger sharks, blue sharks, hammerheads o Order Lamniformes (Mackeral sharks) 7 families, 10 genera, 15 spp. 2 dorsal fins with no spines, large mouths Includes great whie, Mako, basking sharks, thresher sharks, sand tigers and megamouth Most recently advanced, have characteristics similar to fish who have to move quickly Maintain body heat, streamline shape, large caudal fin ratio Superorder Squalomorpha o Order Hexanachiformes (5 spp., cow and frill sharks) 2 families, 4 genera, 6 spp. One dorsal fin, six or seven gill slats o Order Squaliformes (dogfish sharks) 6 families, 24 genera, 130 spp. 2 dorsal fins with or without spines, no anal fin Includes dogfish and cookie-cutter sharks Usually small Superorder Squalomorphi o Order Pristiophoriformes (sawsharks) 1 family, 2 genera, 7 spp. Shark-like body, flat blade snout with lateral teeth of unequal size Subdivision Batoidea: Rays Order Rajiformes (456 spp., 13 families) o Ventral gill openings, dorsal eyes, depressed bodies, advanced pectoral fins attached to the head o Skates Order Torpediniformes Order Myliobatiforme s o Dasyatidae Stingray, Eagle rays, Manta rays - Heterothermy of Lamniformes (convergent evolution with billfishes!) o Order Lamniformes (Mackeral sharks) 7 families, 10 genera, 15 spp. 2 dorsal fins with no spines, large mouths Includes great white, Mako, basking sharks, thresher sharks, sand tigers and megamouth Most recently advanced, have characteristics similar to fish who have to move quickly Maintain body heat, streamline shape, large caudal fin ratio White shark, makos and porbeagle, maintain elevated visceral and body core temperatures with a heat exchanging rete located anterior to the liver. o Have countercurrent exchange to help maintain body heat in cold waters Internal temperatures are often warmer than the surrounding water and remains stable between warm surface waters and colder deep water In ectothermic fish, the blood goes from the body to the heart to the gills, losing heat in the gills and becoming the same tempaerature as the water, returning to the core and keeping body temp the same In large tuna however, the cool blood leaving the gills is diverted to large peripheral vessels that run along the outside of the fish’s body. As the arterial blood flows toward the large swimming muscles near the core of the body, it passes through a network of small blood vessels where it runs countercurrent to warm blood leaving the muscles. Heat generated by the fast moving muscles is kept within the muscles themselves, transferred to the cold blood and not lost at the gills Red muscle is responsible for the fast swimming, most fish it is located laterally, close to the surface, but tunas have it more centrally along the spinal column, makes them more efficient Swordfish also have red swimming muscles more centrally located and also possess associated heat exchange - Euteolostomi (Osteichthys) = Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii o Class Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii (Coelocanthiformes, Dipnoi and Osteolepimorphi [tetrapods]) Lobed fins Coelacanths, lungfishes, Osteolepimorphi Order Coelacanthiformes Family Coelacanthidae Fleshy lobed fins o Used for propulsion Characteric osteological features No choanae (internal nostrils) 2 extant spp. Rare o Oviparous o Rostral organ (can detect movement of prey in the dark) o No functional lung Swim bladder filled with mucus substance that maintains balance at depth, adapted to cold deep Infraclass Dipnoi (lungfishes) Massive toothplates Maxillae and premaxillae teeth missing Functional lung, choanae (internal nostrils) Family Ceratodontidae (Australia, 1 spp.) o Thought to be the most primitive of the group o Facultative air breather Family lepidosirenidae (S. America, 1 spp.) Family Protopteridae (Africa, 4spp.) o Both obligate air breathers o Live in grassy swampy areas, in dry season they excavate holes and wait around for the water to come back Infraclass Osteolepimorphi Sister group to modern tetrapods Similar fins to Devonian Amphibian limbs Other morphological similarities o Class Actinopterygii Ray finned fishes Start primitive, get more advanced as they adapt to their environments - Themes of lower teleostean phylogeny - Phylogeny : Synapomorphies o 1. Mobile premax, posterior neural arches elongate o 2. Bony tongue plate o 3. Two uroneurals over last centrum, epipleural intermuscular bones abundant o 4. Leptocephalus larvae o 5. Neural arch of the first tail vertebra lost o 6. Specialized swimbladder/neurocranium association Suborder Otocephala: swimbladder associated closely with neurocranium, use sound waves and can interpret vibrations Order Clupeiformes Gas bladder connects with the ear, same function as in Orocephala but have a specialized structure to do it Herring, sardines, anchovies o 7. Dorsal adipose fin o 8. Weberian apparatus Cyprinidae, carps and goldfish o 9. Skull/1 vertebra three-point attachment, retractor dorsalis, hinged teeth that depress posteriorly o Actiopterygii; Chondrostei; neopterygii; teleostei o Teleostei Leptocephalus larvae Subdivision Elopomorpha Long lived, no red blood cells Mostly saltwater species o Ladyfishes, tarpons, bonefishes, freshwater, moray and snake eels, snipe eels, swallowers, pelican eels American Eel o Greenland to venezuala o Single panmitic population o Catadromous species Juvenile/early adult lives in freshwater, then spawn in the Sargasso sea for a uear or so then move to the estuaries o Only spawn once Groups comprising otocephala Swimbladder associated closely with neurocradium, use sound waves and can interpret vibrations Clupeomorpha o Order Clupeoformes (5 families) o Gas bladder that connects with the ear o Most abundant fishes (numbers) in the world o Pelagic environment, schooling behavior o Marine (freshwater and anadromous) Clupeidae (freshwater and anadromous) Engraulidae (anchovies) Chirocentridae (Wolf herrings) o Very long toothed maxilla, unique to the group Ostariophysi o Use sound waves as well, but no specialized structures Approximate placement of protacanthopterygii Euteleosti o Protacanthopterygii are pretty primitive, but seem to be a sister group of more advanced fish, seem to be between Ostariophysi and Stenoterygii Order Osmeriformes o 13 families, smelts and icefish Order Salmoniformes o Trout, salmon, char and grayling Major turning point of groups represented by Synodontidae? Order Aulopiformes (13 families) Cycloid scales Mainly pelagic and abyssal environments o Synodontidae (lizardfishes) First representative of the strong vertebral attachment to the cranium o Giganturidae (telescopefishes) o Alepisauridae (lancetfishes) Acanthopterygii Basal groups Percoidea (=explosion of speciation!) o Scorpaeniformes, Perciformes, Pleuronectiformes Perciformes 148 families, 9300 spp., 1/3 of all fishes Suborder Percoidei o Serranidae, carangidae, lutjanidae, sparidae, scianidae, chaetodontidae, Pomacanthidae Suborder Elassomatoidei o Family Elassomateidae (pigmy sunfishes) Suborder Labroidei o Labridae, scaridae, pomacentridae, cichlidae, Suborder Zoarcoidei o Zoarcidae (eel pouts), Anarchichadidae (wolfishes) Suborder Notothenioidei Suborder Blennioidei o Blennies Suborder Gobiodei Suborder Acanthuridae o Surgeonfishes Suborder Xiphoidei o Swordfish, marlins, spearfishes Percoid derivatives (tetraodontiformes) Estuaries : - Types (Physically named, Circulation-wise nomenclature) o Drowned River As the water level rises, changes to the river system, more random, becomes salty, flooding causes fauna of the estuarine areas to adapt to salinity and temperature Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries, Charleston Harbor and rivers o Lagoon or bar-built Bar-built, water behind sand bars created by currents, usually quite salty Outer Banks, NC o Fjord-type Remains from glaciers, usually in northern regions, can tell because of the rough rubble in the glacial till Glaciers cut through mountains Glacier caving makes a sill when it reaches the ocean, creates a gully that doesn’t get a lot of circulation o Tectonically produced Fault lines intersect the ocean San Francisco Bay - Circulation: o “Inverse Estuary”/Reverse Colorado River, so many people want water from the river, by the time it gets to the ocean there is a dry riverbed, lots of evaporation, high salinity o Salt Wedge o Well-mixed (homogenous) o Partially mixed (moderately stratified) o Fjord - Estuarine fishes (functional use definitions) o Freshwater stragglers Stenohaline species (maximum 5-7 ppt) Can’t tolerate much salt Mosquitofish, FW catfish, carp, FW sunfishes, largemouth bass o Freshwater migrants Predominantly freshwater species, though often found in higher salinities (euryhaline) Garr and mosquitofish o Diadromous (anadromous and catadromous) Euryhaline species (0-35 ppt) Estuaries as staging area Salmonids and Clupeids (anadromous spp.) Anguilid eels (Catadromous spp.) o Their numbers have drastically dropped because they are overfished o Have good swim bladders, need to vertically migrate as they move into the Sargasso Sea o True estuarine fishes Entire life cycle in estuaries Euryhaline species (those found locally) White perch, Mummichog, some sciaenids, gobies and blennies, toad fish, bay anchovy o Marine stragglers Semi-dependent marine fishes Small part of life cycle needs to occur in estuary Stenohaline marine species Use the estuary because it is productive, few predators, greater chance of juveniles making it to adulthood Serranidae, lutjanidae o Marine migrants At least part of life cycle in estuary Euryhaline species Nursery habitats Croakers and drums Anchovy, Menhaden - Different habitats within estuary (food webs) o Complex food webs, all interconnected o Predator and prey levels rise and fall in response to the numbers of each at any given time - Reproduction o Five Life Stages Embryo Post fertilization/pre hatch Larval Post hatch/pre adult meristics Generally the embryo has lots of yolk still, but it is free swimming After the animal hatches and before you can count the number of elements for definitive species (fin elements, vertebrae, etc.) Juvenile Post adult meristics / pre-gonad maturation Once the gonads are mature, it is an adult Adult Post initial maturation/senescence Once the gonads are developed until it can no longer spawn Senescence Post reproductive activity o Sexuality types (except unisexuality) Gonochrorism Estuarine fish usually Gonochrorism Hermaphroditism Simultaneous o Seranidae offshore, occurs in some smaller species of the cyanids o Gonads are developed equally, both developed and ready to spawn at the same time o Usually territorial fishes, so have the ability to spawn whenever come across someone to mate with Protogenous o Notoriously protogenous (black seabass, labridae, porgies, etc.) o When the population, young and small animals are all female, at some size and time the individuals will turn into males o Good for type 1 survivorship curves (lots of females, only need a few males) Protandrous o Opposite, everyone starts off as males and turn into females o clownfish Rudimentary o juveniles hermaphrodism, then become or the other as an adult o Reproductive guilds Non-guarders Usually nutrient poor eggs Pelagic broadcast spawners Substratum egg hiders o Will wash downstream, get hidden from predators More primitive method High mortality Guarders Usually few nutrient-rich eggs Substratum choosers (blennies) Nest builders (sticklebacks) Lower mortality in eggs, still high larval mortality Bearers External mouth brooders (Apogonids) Internal (live bearers) Poeciliids Decreasing mortality of eggs and larvae, better chances of survival once released as juveniles o Mating systems Promiscuous Breeders show little or no mate choice Polygamy: only one sex has multiple partners Polyandry: one female with several males (clownfish) Polygyny: more common: one male with multiple females o Spotted seatrout Monogamy Pairs of fish spawn with each other exclusively
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