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EXAM 1 Review

by: Mindy

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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on our Midterm
Asian Philosophies
Steven Brown
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mindy on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHILOS 2120 - 0010 at Ohio State University taught by Steven Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 358 views. For similar materials see Asian Philosophies in Political Science, Philosophy, & Religion at Ohio State University.

Similar to PHILOS 2120 - 0010 at OSU

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Date Created: 10/08/16
EXAM 1 REVIEW  The relationship between philosophy and religion is that a lot of modern  philosophical views come from religions  Nussbaum’s Vices o Descriptive­describing the way thing actually appear to be  Errors associated  Romanticism o  wanting to experiences things that are different to  our own culture  Chauvinism o thinking that another culture is exactly the same as  your own o Normative­ How they should be  Errors associated  Normative Chauvinism o Thinking that the individual’s own culture is  superior to another  Utopian o Seeing the other culture as perfect  Atman is Brahman o All is God, Everything is connected  Tat Tvam Asi o You are that o Originating from The Chandogya Upanishad  Samsara o The reincarnation cycle of death and rebirth  Karma o The idea of actions that you do come back to you eventually  Moksha o The process of leaving Samsara, Enlightment  Yoga o Techniques used to work towards Moksha o Techniques include:  Body Poses  Meditation  Breathing Exercises  Chanting(Ohm)  The Buddha’s 4 Noble Truths o Life is suffering o The cause of suffering is Trishna  Trishna­ desires that are selfish o To achieve Nirvana, you must get rid of your Trishna  Nirvana­ state of peace, joy, and perfect health o The end of suffering is by following the 8­fold path  8 fold path o Right Understanding: Happiness is not outside of us and that the  things of the world pass away o Right Purpose: Pursue a way of being o Right Speech: Speaking kindly, are you really listening o Right Conduct: Watch what’s happening with your actions o Right Occupation: do not do any job that harms other creatures  Vegetarianism  pacifism o Right Effort: The appropriate amount of effort we put into changing  our mental lives  Possible to strive too hard in our pursuit of nirvana  Also possible to strive too little o Right Attention: focus on things like the good of others, the peaceful,  the kind, etc o Right Meditation / Mindfulness: Through meditation your mind will  grow calm and kind  Buddhism is a middle way o Between hedonism and asceticism  Hedonism­ too much pleasure  Asceticism­ too little pleasure o The problem is not pleasure but attachment o A moderate lifestyle that is largely compatible with everyday life  within families and communities  Anatman o The absence of a soul, No Atman  Utilitarianism & Buddhist Ethics o Buddhist ethics can be seen as a close cousin of utilitarianism o Consequentialist and Egalitarian views fit into Buddhism well  Vegetarianism & Pacifism o Vegetarianism to reduce the amount of individuals harmed o Followers of Jainism are very vegetarian  Ex) will not eat potatoes because they have many lives and can  house many plants  "Tis better to have loved, and lost than never to have loved at all" o Suggests that Buddhism is possibly overvaluing suffering and  undervaluing pleasure and happiness  Krishna's arguments for Arjuna to go fight in the battle o Argument 1:   Death is not forever, the soul continues to go on in Samsara o Argument 2:   It is Arjuna's duty as a warrior o Argument 3:   Act desirelessly because the result is out of his control  Arjuna learns to devote obedience to a personal deity/Karma  Jainism o Two major Sects (philosophically similar)  Svetembara (“white clad”)  Digambnara (“air clad”)  Male monks are nude o 5 vows  Non Violence (ahimsa)  Truth (satya)  Non­stealing (asteya)  Celibacy/Chastity (brahmacharya)  Non­attachment (aparigraha) o Harming/killing another being accumulates bad karma o In Jainism, Karma is matter that sticks to our souls  Souls are individual and unique  Your soul resides in your body  The desires and passions that it has attract bits of karma  Bad keeps you from reincarnating to better lives  Good can shed your karma  Jainism symbol o Line of text  All life is bound together by mutual support and  interdependence o Hand  Has a word: Ahimsa surrounded by 24 spokes of a wheel also  24 spiritual leaders o Swastika  4 quadrants, 4 states of being within Samsara  Hellish Beings, Non Human Animals, Humans, Heavenly Beings  Beings more like mentors, not like a monotheistic God o 3 dots  3 paths to Enlightment  Right Faith/Right Perception o Having a proper picture of the world  Right Knowledge o Sensory o Spiritual o Clairvoyance o Telepathy o Omniscience  Those who are fully enlightened, know  everything  Right Conduct o Following 5 vows  Siddhashila: Realm of the enlightened  Siddhas­liberated ones  Those who have conquered all of their passions  Through ascetic practices  


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