EXAM 1 Review
EXAM 1 Review PHILOS 2120 - 0010
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mindy on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHILOS 2120 - 0010 at Ohio State University taught by Steven Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 358 views. For similar materials see Asian Philosophies in Political Science, Philosophy, & Religion at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
EXAM 1 REVIEW The relationship between philosophy and religion is that a lot of modern philosophical views come from religions Nussbaum’s Vices o Descriptivedescribing the way thing actually appear to be Errors associated Romanticism o wanting to experiences things that are different to our own culture Chauvinism o thinking that another culture is exactly the same as your own o Normative How they should be Errors associated Normative Chauvinism o Thinking that the individual’s own culture is superior to another Utopian o Seeing the other culture as perfect Atman is Brahman o All is God, Everything is connected Tat Tvam Asi o You are that o Originating from The Chandogya Upanishad Samsara o The reincarnation cycle of death and rebirth Karma o The idea of actions that you do come back to you eventually Moksha o The process of leaving Samsara, Enlightment Yoga o Techniques used to work towards Moksha o Techniques include: Body Poses Meditation Breathing Exercises Chanting(Ohm) The Buddha’s 4 Noble Truths o Life is suffering o The cause of suffering is Trishna Trishna desires that are selfish o To achieve Nirvana, you must get rid of your Trishna Nirvana state of peace, joy, and perfect health o The end of suffering is by following the 8fold path 8 fold path o Right Understanding: Happiness is not outside of us and that the things of the world pass away o Right Purpose: Pursue a way of being o Right Speech: Speaking kindly, are you really listening o Right Conduct: Watch what’s happening with your actions o Right Occupation: do not do any job that harms other creatures Vegetarianism pacifism o Right Effort: The appropriate amount of effort we put into changing our mental lives Possible to strive too hard in our pursuit of nirvana Also possible to strive too little o Right Attention: focus on things like the good of others, the peaceful, the kind, etc o Right Meditation / Mindfulness: Through meditation your mind will grow calm and kind Buddhism is a middle way o Between hedonism and asceticism Hedonism too much pleasure Asceticism too little pleasure o The problem is not pleasure but attachment o A moderate lifestyle that is largely compatible with everyday life within families and communities Anatman o The absence of a soul, No Atman Utilitarianism & Buddhist Ethics o Buddhist ethics can be seen as a close cousin of utilitarianism o Consequentialist and Egalitarian views fit into Buddhism well Vegetarianism & Pacifism o Vegetarianism to reduce the amount of individuals harmed o Followers of Jainism are very vegetarian Ex) will not eat potatoes because they have many lives and can house many plants "Tis better to have loved, and lost than never to have loved at all" o Suggests that Buddhism is possibly overvaluing suffering and undervaluing pleasure and happiness Krishna's arguments for Arjuna to go fight in the battle o Argument 1: Death is not forever, the soul continues to go on in Samsara o Argument 2: It is Arjuna's duty as a warrior o Argument 3: Act desirelessly because the result is out of his control Arjuna learns to devote obedience to a personal deity/Karma Jainism o Two major Sects (philosophically similar) Svetembara (“white clad”) Digambnara (“air clad”) Male monks are nude o 5 vows Non Violence (ahimsa) Truth (satya) Nonstealing (asteya) Celibacy/Chastity (brahmacharya) Nonattachment (aparigraha) o Harming/killing another being accumulates bad karma o In Jainism, Karma is matter that sticks to our souls Souls are individual and unique Your soul resides in your body The desires and passions that it has attract bits of karma Bad keeps you from reincarnating to better lives Good can shed your karma Jainism symbol o Line of text All life is bound together by mutual support and interdependence o Hand Has a word: Ahimsa surrounded by 24 spokes of a wheel also 24 spiritual leaders o Swastika 4 quadrants, 4 states of being within Samsara Hellish Beings, Non Human Animals, Humans, Heavenly Beings Beings more like mentors, not like a monotheistic God o 3 dots 3 paths to Enlightment Right Faith/Right Perception o Having a proper picture of the world Right Knowledge o Sensory o Spiritual o Clairvoyance o Telepathy o Omniscience Those who are fully enlightened, know everything Right Conduct o Following 5 vows Siddhashila: Realm of the enlightened Siddhasliberated ones Those who have conquered all of their passions Through ascetic practices
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