Psych 280 Exam 1 Study Guide
Psych 280 Exam 1 Study Guide 280
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ilze Vizulis on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 280 at University of Michigan taught by Dr. Earl in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Michigan.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Intro to Social Psychology & Research Methods Social Psychology The study of how people feel, act and perceive Social Norms The “normal” thing to do in a social situation Ex: clap after a theater performance Power of the Situation Sometimes situations are powerful enough to make someone act in ways you would never expect Ex: If something trajic happened and was televized live at the Michigan Stadium, the whole crowd might be in tears. You would never expect this in the Big House otherwise. Proximal/Distal Influences Proximal is the immediate environment and the influence it has on you Ex: the news Distal is the intangible that still has an influence on you Ex: evolution and culture Channel Factors Shifts in the immediate environment (proximal influence) that could change the way you act Ex: If there was a gadget that reminded you to turn off all of your lights before you leave the house. Construal/True Stimulus The way that you interpret a situation Ex: you may personally think that the movie was hillarious, while others may not! Interactionist Perspective Behavior is influenced by personal characteristics and the situational factors Ex: You see someone punch your friend. You can’t just say that they are mean without evaluating the situation as well. They may have been acting out in self defense. 4 Common Goals of Social Pscyhology Research Descirption, explanation, prediction, control Observational Research Watching the situation unfold Ex: counting how many people have blue shirts on the bus Archival Needs Looking pack at existing information to find new connections Surveys Asking questions to gather info Experiment A systematic process to gather evidence for a proposed hypothesis Research Question vs. Hypothesis vs. Theory A research question vaguely questions the relationship between 2+ things, a hypothesis is a more detailed outline of an expectation, and a theory is when you compile a bunch of related evidence to support a finding Independent Variable What the experimenter controls or manipulates Dependent Variable What the experimenter measures as a result of the independent variable Constructs What we can never measure directly Ex: beauty, emotion Conceptual Definitions Explaining a construct in relation to other constructs Working Definitons Explaining how a construct will actually be measured in a study Correlation Coefficient Measures the dependece between 2+ random variables (r) Negative Correlation – one increases while one decreases Positive Correlation – both variables move in the same direction To infer Causation Need random assignemnt, independend and depenedent variables The Self Outer Self How we want others to see us Inner Self How we see ourselves Social Self The different ways we act in different social situations Self Concept The general way we see ourselves Working Self Concept Your self concept depends on the moment Ex: May be different in a high pressure situation of an interview than a comfortable situation with all of your best friends Self Reference Effect Relating information back to yourself helps you remember it better and retreive it faster Ex: When someone says your name in a crowd, you immediately turn, even if they weren’t talking about you Self Schemas How we organize ideas about what we think is true about ourselves in our heads. These are extreme characteristics. Ex: I am definitely an extrovert. Reflected Self Appraisals How you think of yourself is influenced by what you think others are thinking Everyone thinks I am humerous, therefore I am! Social Comparison Theory We dent to evaluate ourselves in comparison to tohers How did I do compared to the rest of the students in my class on the exam? Self Esteem The overall emotional evaluation (positive or negative), about your self concept Self Worth We put our worth into several things that we find important. If we fail in one, than we can still be saved by the others! Social Cognition Social Cognition The way we process information in social situations Innatentional Blindness Sometimes you fail to notice the obvioius, when your mind is consumed by a different focus Ex: we miss information in class when we are focused on social media Change Blindness When you fail to notice change Ex: You may fail to notice your someone changed your coffee to a different mug when you went to the bathroom Priming Schemas can “prime” us with previous influence to influence how we think in the future Self Fulfilling Prophecy When we have an expectation of what someone will be like, and treat them based on that expectation. When we do this, sometimes they end up responding the way we envision them because of your attitude towards them Ex: You think someone is mean, so you act cold towards them. They notice your rude attitutde and act rude back. Self Affirmation We try to reaffirm the values that we believe to be consistent and true about ourselves. This increases our self eseteem. Ex: My action was because I am essentially a good person. I like to remind myself that. Pluralistic Ignorance When people act in ways that conflict with their own beliefs, to protect themselves from standing out in social situations Ex: Even though half of the class is confused, no one raises their hands because they don’t want to be the only one looking confused. Confimation Bias We typically don’t seek information to disprove our ideas, but rather seek information to confirm them. Ex: You may have a very strong political belief, but you don’t try to see it from the other perspective. Gamblers Falacy The idea that if something is happening a lot right now, then it is unlikely to happen in the future Ex: In the casinos, you typically don’t bet on the number that has recently been picked, because you think its less likely that it will happen again. Bad News Bias People pay a lot of attention to negative news, and orient themselves in a way to believe that they are more at risk than they really are. Ex: People hear of this desease from the news, and they start taking that they are at risk, without evaluating the fact that it can only happen old people. Order Effects Switching the order of which information is presented will influence your response because of what comes to your mind first Ex: When asking the two questions of how happy are you, and how many dates have you been on recently, the order will effect the way you respond. Spin Framing Wording things differently, to make it more favorable Ex: treated wastewater vs. recycled water Temporal Framing Timing and distance of the matter influences how deep we think about something Ex: we don’t think too much about the hurricanes because it doesn’t effect us very much. We are more likely to vow to give a donation later rather than right now. Positive/negative framing People prefer to hear positive wroding Ex: 90% effective > 10% ineffective Availability Heuristic We judge the frequency or probability of a situation based on how easily it comes to mind Ex: You just read some articles of people getting layed off, and now you become more nervous at work. Fluency Heuristic If something is presented more smoothly, then we tend to think htat that task will reflect the way it was presented Ex: you read two recipes, one in cursive and one in normal font. You tend to think that the one in cursive will take longer even though it will take the same time as the other one. Representativeness Heuristic We tend to judge characteristics based on our preexisting ideas of how they should be, based on the larger population they represent Ex: Given some characteristics, are they more likely to be a student or a teacher? Base Rate Neglect When we ignore statistical information, we tend to misjudge frequency Ex: when guessing the frequency of heads or tails, sometimes we forget that it will always be a 50/50 chance Regression Effect We tend to think that it is more common to have higher values that are “average” (clustering around the mean) than have values that are extremely high or low. Ex: frequency of car accidents decreased from the previous record high after a stop light has been put in…is it because of the the stoplight or just because of the trend? Planning Falacy We tend to underestimate the time it takes to do things Ex: you plan 2 hours to finish your homework, when actually, it ends up taking you 4 hours. Social Attribution Social Attribution The way we try to explain the causes of certain behaviors Attribution Theory We try to make sense of why people behave in certain ways, by figuring out their motivations Covariation Theory When we can’t pinpoint the reason for behavior, we try to assess the consistency, consensus, and distinctiveness of the situation External Attributions High consistency, consensus and distinctiveness Internal Attributions High consistency, low consesnsus an low distinctiveness Discounting Principle When there are lots of reasons of why people might act a certain way, so we put less weight on a particular cause (ambiguous attribution) Ex: You hear a professor gets a really good score on a college history exam. There could be many reasons why, so you don’t put a lot of weight on the idea that he might be a genious. Augmenting Principle When you put more weight on a particular cause because the other possible causes of behavior would normally produce a different outcome Ex: You hear a 15 year old gets a really good score on a college history exam. You attribute that he is a genious, because any other explanation would point do different outcomes. Fundamental Attribution Error We tend to worngly attribute internal characteristics to explain other’s behavior, without taking the situaion into consideration Ex: a guy punches someone, you think that they are mean, but you didn’t consider that maybe it was out of self defense Actor-Observer Difference Attributions depend on who is making the assessment. Actors tend to make situational attributions, while observers tendt to make internal attrubutions of the actor. Self Serving Attribution Bias When we succeed, we tend to take credit and make internal attributions. When we fail, we tend to blame it on the situation. Ex: when you do well on an exam, you tell yourself that it is because you are smart. When you do badly, you blame it on the poor instruction of the professor. Percpetual Saleince The more we pay attention to something, the more we feel as if it was the cause of behavior People are set up in a room to face one other person as they are informed of a crime. You tend to think the person across from you did it. Counterfactual Thoughts Thinking about “what if” situations. We tend to have emotional amplification of events that almost happened. Ex: What if I would have gotten on that plane that crashed? Explanatory Styles Internal/external, stable/unstable, global/specific Social Influence Social Influence How one might be influenced by real or immagined social pressures Social Norm The way you are supposed to act in a situation Ex: to clap after a performance Descriptive Norm Typical behavior exhibited by people in a given context Ex: do you actually wash your hands after using the bathroom? Prescriptive (injunctive) Norm The way you are supposed to act in a given context Ex: the fact that you are supposed to wash your hands after using the bathroom Compliance When someone explicitely requests you to do something Commitment/Consistency Compliance is high when you feel like you need to follow through or want to feel like a consistent person Foot in the Door Technique First asking a small favor, then asking a bigger favor that then they can’t resist Door in the Face Technique Starting with a rediculously big favor, then asking a smaller (the actual) favor that then they can’t resist Reciprocity Compliance is higher when you feel like you need to return the favor Social Proof/Validation Compliance is higher when you think everyone is doing it Scarcity Compliance is higher when you think that it is your last chance Friendship/Liking Compliance is higher when interacting with people that you think like you Authority Compliance is higher when someone that looks important is asking you the favor Negative State Relief Hypothesis We tend to help people out to feel better about ourselves Obedience When an authority figure demands you to do something Conformity When you change your behavior based on the beliefs around you either because you want to fit in, or because you believe that they are right Autokinetic Effect You tend to change your own ideas when you hear other’s ideas first. You tend to change yours to be similar to theirs. Informational Social Influence Observing and learning from others how to act/what are the social norms Normative influence Behaving in ways to avoid social dissaproval and fulfill other’s expectations Reactance theory Threatened freedom is perceived as more attractive Ideomotor action The more you think about something, the more likely you are to act towards it.
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