history test 2 study guide
history test 2 study guide HIST 2110 286
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Ekeleme on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2110 286 at Georgia State University taught by William Bryan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see SURVEY OF U.S. HISTORY in History at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Chapter 9 • Sally Hemmings: was an enslaved woman ofmixed race owned by President Thomas Jefferson. She is believed to have had a long-term relationship and six children of record with him, of whom four survived to adulthood; and were given freedom by Jefferson. • Task System: Each morning the owner or manager assigned a specific task to each slave. When the task was done, the rest of the day belonged to the slave. Slaves who did not finish their task were punished, and when too many slaves finished early, the owners assigned heavier tasks. • Private Fields: Slaves under the task system won the right to cultivate land as “private fields,” not the little garden plots common in the Chesapeake but farms of up to five acres on which they grew produce and raised livestock for market. • Eli Whitney: a Connecticut Yankee who had come south to work as a tutor, who made a model of a cotton gin (a southern contraction of “engine”) that combed the seeds from the fiber with metal pins fitted into rollers. • “Georgia Traders”: men who appeared in the Upper South, buying slaves on speculation and selling them farther south after international slave trade was abolished in 1808. States participated in interstate slave trade. • Slave Coffle: slaves chained together in a line • “Jumping the broom”: is a phrase and custom relating to a weddingceremony where the couple jumps over a broom. It has been suggested that the custom is based on an 18th- century idiomatic expression for "sham marriage", "marriage of doubtful validity" • Slave theology: Until the mid-18th century, neither enslaved Africans nor their masters showed much interest in Christianizing slaves. That changed with the rise of evangelical Christianity in the South. By 1820, most blacks in the Chesapeake considered themselves Christians. Between the Revolution and 1820, Chesapeake slaves embraced Christianity and began to turn it into a religion of their own. • Itinerant preachers:are Christian evangelist who preach the basic Christian redemption message while traveling around to different groups of people within a relatively short period of time After Chesapeake slaves turned to Christianity, they attended camp meetings and listened to itinerant preachers(those who usually lacked their own parish and therefore traveled from place to place), and joined the Baptist and Methodist congregations of the southern revival. • Gabriel’s Rebellion: In Richmond in 1800, a slave blacksmith named Gabriel hatched a conspiracy, which became known as Gabriel’s Rebellion, to overthrow Virginia’s slave regime. Gabriel had been hired out to Richmond employers for most of his adult life; he was shaped less by plantation slavery than by the democratic, loosely interracial underworld of urban artisans. In the late 1790s, the repressive acts of the Federalist national government and the angry responses of the Jeffersonian opposition along with the news from Haiti, drove the democratic sensibilities of that world to new heights. Gabriel, working with his brother and other hired-out slave artisans, planned his revolt with meticulous attention to detail. Working at religious meetings, barbecues, and the grog shops of Richmond, they recruited soldiers among slave artisans, adding plantation slaves only at the last moment. Gabriel planned to march an army of 1,000 men on Richmond in three columns. The outside columns would set diversionary fires in the ware-house district and prevent the militia from entering the town. The center would seize Capitol Square, including the treasury, the arsenal, and Governor James Monroe. • Denmark Vesey: a free black of Charleston, South Carolina (he had won a lottery and bought himself), stood trial for plotting rebellion. Vesey was a leading member of an African Methodist congregation that had seceded from the white Methodists and had been independent from 1817 to1821. Vesey and his coconspirators planned the destruction of Charleston in 1822. • Nat Turner: The revolt in Southampton County, Virginia, in August 1831 was led by Nat Turner, a Baptist preacher. He was not a republican visionary like Gabriel or Denmark Vesey. HE believed he was an instrument of God’s wrath. Turner and his followers hacked to death55 white men, women, and children before they were stopped. In the aftermath, Virginia executed at least 40blacks, including Turner, who managed to hide in the woods for two months. White mobs also responded to the revolt by killing dozens more blacks in Virginia. • Internal Improvements: The south experienced explosive economic growth between 1790 and 1860. Planters invested their profits in more slaves and more land. The result was a lack of diversification and an increasing concentration of resources in the hands of the planter class. The South was a poor market for manufactured goods. There were, however, few such innovations, and they had to do with the processing and shipping of cotton. Despite the experiments of a fewgentleman-planters, there were almost no improvements in the cultivation of cotton. Southern state governments spent comparatively little on internal improvements — there was no southern transportation revolution. Chapter 11 • Tariff of 1816: Congress drew up the nation’s first overtly protective tariff in 1816. Shut off from British imports during the war, the Americans had built their first factories, almost entirely in southern New England and the mid-Atlantic. British planned to flood the postwar market with cheap goods and kill American manufactures, and Congress deter- mined to stop them. Shepherded through the House by Clay and his fellow nationalist John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, the Tariff of 1816 raised import duties an average of 25 percent, protecting American manufactures at the expense of consumers and foreign trade. The Northeast and the West supported the tariff, and it had enough south-ern support to ensure its passage. Tariffs would rise and fall between 1816 and the Civil War, but the principle of protectionism would persist. • American System: Henry Clay of Kentucky, retaining his power in the postwar Congress, headed the drive for protective tariffs, the bank, and internal improvements. He called his program the “American System,” arguing that it would foster national economic growth and harmony between geographic sections, thus a happy and prosperous republic. • Corrupt Bargain: After the election of 1828, Jackson had received 42 percent of the popular vote to his nearest rival ’ s33 percent, and he was clearly the nation ’ s choice, but his 99electoral votes were 32 shy of the plurality demanded by the Constitution. And so, acting under the Twelfth Amendment, the House of Representatives selected a president from among the top three candidates. As the candidate with the fewest electoral votes, Henry Clay was eliminated, but he remained Speaker of the House and had enough support to throw the election to either Jackson or Adams. There is speculation that Henry Clay offered to make John Quincy Adams president in exchange for Clay’s appointment as secretary of state--an office that traditionally led to the presidency. Adams accepted what became known as the corrupt bargain. • Nullification: the legal principle that any federal enactment which is not "made in Pursuance" of the Constitution under Article VI, Clause 2 is ipso facto null and void. After the tariff of 1828 which affected southern traders was passed, South Carolina, with John C Calhoun’s leadership and support called a state convention that nullified the tariffs of 1828 and 1832. • Kitchen Cabinet: was a term used by political opponents of President of the United States Andrew Jackson to describe his ginger group, the collection of unofficial advisers he consulted in parallel to the United States Cabinet (the "parlor cabinet") following his purge of the cabinet at the end of the Eaton affair and his break with Vice President John C. Calhoun in 1831. Martin Van Buren offered to resign his cabinet post and engineered the resignations of nearly all other members of the cabinet, thus allowing Jackson to remake his administration without firing anyone. Many of those who left were southern supporters of Calhoun. Jackson replaced them with a mixed cabinet that included political allies of Van Buren. Also at this time, President Jackson began to consult with an informal Kitchen Cabinet that included journalists Amos Kendall and Francis Preston Blair, along with Van Buren and a few others. • Spoils system: is a practice in which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its supporters, friends and relatives as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party—as opposed to a merit system, where offices are awarded on the basis of some measure of merit, independent of political activity. Jackson filled cabinet posts with old friends and political supporters who, in many cases, proved unfit for their jobs. Jackson was replacing able public servants with political hacks who had been promised government posts in return for political support. He removed about1 in 10 executive appointees during his eight years in office, and his replacements were most decidedly political appointees. Acting out of his own need for personal loyalty and on the advice of Van Buren and other architects of the Democratic Party, Jackson filled vacancies — down to postmasters in the smallest towns — with Democrats who had worked for his election. • Panic of 1819: The origins of the Panic of 1819 were international and numerous. European agriculture was recovering from the Napoleonic wars, thereby reducing the demand for American foodstuffs, while revolutionary wars in Latin America cut off the supply of precious metals, the base of the international money supply. American bankers and businessmen met the situation by expanding credit and issuing banknotes that were mere dreams of real money, thereby creating an inflationary bubble. When the price of cotton collapsed in 1819, the bubble burst. The president of the Second Bank of the United States, Langdon Cheves of South Carolina, responded to the crisis by curtailing credit and demanding that state banknotes received by the Bank of the United States be redeemed in specie (silver and gold). By doing so, Cheves rescued the Bank from the paper economy created by state-chartered banks, but at huge expense: When the state banks were forced to redeem their notes in specie, they demanded payment from their own borrowers, and the national money and credit system collapsed. • Roger B. Taney: Taney, aJacksonian Democrat, was made Chief Justice byAndrew Jackson. Taney was a believer instates' rights but also the Union, a slaveholder who manumitted his slaves.He believed that power and liberty were extremely important and if power became too concentrated, then it posed a grave threat to individual liberty. • Langdon Cheves: The president of the Second Bank of the United States • Tariff of Abominations: In 1828, a Democratic Congress passed a tariff, hoping to win votes for Jackson in the upcoming presidential election. Assured of support in the South, they fished for votes in the Mid-Atlantic States and the Northwest by protecting raw wool, flax, molasses, hemp, and distilled spirits. The result was a patchwork tariff that pleased northern and western farmers but that worried the South and violated Jackson ’ s own ideas of what a “judicious” tariff should be. Protective tariffs hurt the South by diminishing exports of cotton and other staples and by raising the price of manufactured goods. Calling the new bill a “Tariff of Abominations,” the legislature of one southern state after another denounced it as unconstitutional, unjust, and oppressive. South Carolina, guided by Vice President Calhoun, led the opposition to the Tariff of 1828. • Monroe Doctrine: the internal concerns of European countries. It stated that further efforts by European nations to take control of any independent state in North or South America would be viewed as "the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States.” At the same time, the doctrine noted that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in • Martin Van Buren: was an American politician who served as the eighthPresident of the United States (1837–41). A member of the Democratic Party, he served in a number of senior roles, including eighth Vice President(1833–37) and tenth Secretary of State (1829– 31), both under Andrew Jackson • James Monroe: was the fifth President of the United States, serving between 1817 and 1825 • John Quincy Adams: was an American statesman who served as the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829. He also served as a diplomat, a Senator and member of the House of Representatives. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic- Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties. • Andrew Jackson: candidate in the presidential election of 1828. He won and became the seventh president of the United States from 1829-1837. • Rachel Jackson: Andrew Jackson’s wife who was estranged but not divorced from a man named Robards. She died shortly after her husband won the election in 1828. • Peggy O’Neal Timberlake (Eaton): a Washington tavern keeper’s daughter who, in January 1829, had married John Henry Eaton, Andrew Jackson’s old friend and his soon-to-be secretary of war. • Nicholas Biddle: was an American financier who served as the third and last president of the Second Bank of the United States (chartered 1816–1836). • Adams-Onis Treaty: was a treaty between theUnited States and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the U.S. and defined the boundary between the U.S. and New Spain. It settled a standing border dispute between the two countries and was considered a triumph of American diplomacy. • Missouri Compromise: was a United States federal statute devised byHenry Clay. It regulated slavery in the country's western territories by prohibiting the practice in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30′ north, except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri. The compromise was agreed to by both the pro- slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congressand passed as a law in 1820, under the presidency of James Monroe. • Democratic Party: formed by Van Buren and John C Calhoun, the Democratic Party was formed to support Andrew Jackson in the election of 1828. The new Democratic Party committed to states’ rights and minimal government and dependent on the votes of both slaveholding and no slave-holding states, to ensure white democracy and the continuation of slavery, and the preservation of the Union. • Whigs: It originally formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson (in office 1829–37) and his Democratic Party. In particular, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the Presidency and favored a program of modernization, banking and economic protectionism to stimulate manufacturing. It appealed to entrepreneurs and planters, but had little appeal to farmers or unskilled workers. • Force Bill: refers to legislation enacted by the 22nd U.S. Congress on March 2, 1833, during the Nullification Crisis. Passed by Congress at the urging of President Andrew Jackson, the Force Bill consisted of eight sections expanding presidential power and was designed to compel the state of South Carolina's compliance with a series of federal tariffs, opposed by John C. Calhoun and other leading South Carolinians. Among other things, the legislation stipulated that the president could, if he deemed it necessary, deploy the U.S. Army to force South Carolina to comply with the law. • Trail of Tears: was a series of forced relocations ofIndian nations in the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The relocated people suffered from exposure, disease, and starvation while on route, and more than four thousand died before reaching their various destinations. The removal included members of the Cherokee, Muscogee, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations, from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern to an area west of the Mississippi River that had been designated as Native Territory.In 1838, the U.S Army, under the command of Andrew Jackson, marched the Cherokees out of their home territory. At least 4,000 of them died during the march. • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia: The Cherokees in Georgia declared themselves a republic with its own written constitution, legislature, courts, police, and appointed principal leader — a sovereign indigenous nation within the state of Georgia. The Georgia legislature promptly declared Cherokee law null and void, extended Georgia’s authority into Cherokee country, and began surveying the lands for sale. The Cherokees, with the help of New England missionaries, had taken their claims of sovereignty to court in the late 1820s. In 1831, John Marshall’s Supreme Court ruled in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia that the Cherokees could not sue Georgia because they were not a foreign nation but a “ domestic dependent nation ”— a dependent of the federal government, and not of the state of Georgia. In a consequential formulation, Marshall noted that the relationship between the tribes and the United States “resembles that of a ward to his guardian.” • Worcester v. Georgia: was a case in which the United States Supreme Courtchose the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional. The Court’s decision in Worcester v. Georgia (1832) declared that Georgia’s extension of state law over Cherokee land was unconstitutional. • William Henry Harrison: was the ninth President of the United States (1841), an American military officer and politician. He was also the first president to die in office. • John Tyler: was the tenth President ofthe United States (1841–45). He was also, briefly, the tenth Vice President (1841), elected to that office on the 1840 Whig ticket with William Henry Harrison. Tyler became president after Harrison's death in April 1841, only a month after the start of the new administration. • “Log Cabin Campaign”: Harrison was the first president to campaign actively for office. Whigs took advantage of this quip and declared that Harrison was "the log cabin and hard cider candidate", a man of the common people from the rough-and-tumble West. • Gag Rule: A gag rule is a rule that limits or forbids the raising, consideration, or discussion of a particular topic by members of a legislative or decision-making body. • John Marshall: was the fourth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1801–1835). His court opinions helped lay the basis for United States constitutional law and many say made the Supreme Court of the United Statesa coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches. Chapter 13 • Manifest Destiny: was a widely held belief in theUnited States that its settlers were destined to expand across North America. • John L. O’ Sullivan: was an American columnist and editor who used the term "manifest destiny" in 1845 to promote the annexation of Texasand the Oregon Country to the United States. O'Sullivan was an influential political writer and advocate for the Democratic Party at that time and served asUS Minister to Portugal during the administration of President Franklin (1853–1857), but he largely faded from prominence soon thereafter. He was rescued from obscurity in the twentieth century after the famous phrase "manifest destiny" was traced back to him. • James K. Polk: was the 11th President of the United States (1845–49) • Stephen F. Austen: Known as the Father ofTexas, and the founder of Texas. He led the second, and ultimately successful, colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States to the region in 1825. In addition, he worked with the Mexican government to support emigration from the United States. • Sam Houston: was an American politician and soldier, best known for his role in bringing Texas into the United States as a constituent state. • Compromise of 1850: was a package of five separate bills passed by the United States Congress in September 1850, which defused a four-year political confrontation between slaves regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican–American War (1846–48). The compromise, drafted by Whig Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky and brokered by Clay and Democratic Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois, reduced sectional conflict. Controversy arose over the Fugitive Slave provision. The Compromise was greeted with relief, although each side disliked specific provisions. • Anthony Burns: was born a slave in Stafford County, Virginia. As a young man, he became a Baptist and a "slave preacher" at the Falmouth Union Church in Falmouth, Virginia. In 1853 he escaped from slavery and reached Boston, where he started working. The following year, he was captured under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 and tried under the law in Boston. The law was fiercely resisted in Boston, and the case attracted national publicity, large demonstrations, protests and an attack on US Marshals at the courthouse. Federal troops were used to ensure Burns was transported to a ship for return to Virginia after the trial. He was eventually ransomed from slavery, with his freedom purchased by Boston sympathizers. Afterward he was educated at Oberlin College and became a Baptist preacher, moving to Upper Canada for a position. • Fugitive Slave Law (or Act): were laws passed by the United States Congress in 1793 and 1850 to provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another state or territory. • Overland Trails: was a stagecoach and wagon trail in the American West during the 19th century. While portions of the route had been used by explorers and trappers since the 1820s, the Overland Trail was most heavily used in the 1860s as an alternative route to the Oregon, California, and Mormon trails through central Wyoming. • Harriet Beecher Stowe:was an American abolitionist and author. She came from a famous religious family and is best known for her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). It depicts the harsh life for African Americans under slavery. • Uncle Tom’s Cabin: is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel "helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War", according to Will Kaufman. • “Mr. Polk’s War”: • Spot Resolutions: were offered in the United States House of Representativeson 22 December 1847 by future President Abraham Lincoln, then a Whig representative from Illinois. The resolutions requested President James K. Polk to provide Congress with the exact location (the "spot") upon which blood was spilt on American soil, as Polk had claimed in 1846 when asking Congress to declare war on Mexico. So persistent was Lincoln in pushing his "spot resolutions" that some began referring to him as "spotty Lincoln." Lincoln's resolutions were a direct challenge to the validity of the president's words, and representative of an ongoing political power struggle between Whigs and Democrats. • The Alamo: Founded in the 18th century as a Roman Catholic mission and fortress compound, it was the site of the Battle of the Alamo in 1836. • Lone Star Republic: republic of Texas • Popular Sovereignty: is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power • Lewis Cass: was an American military officer, politician, and statesman: he was longtime governor of the Michigan Territory (1813–1831), Secretary of War under President Andrew Jackson, and Secretary of State under President James Buchanan • Wilmot Proviso: proposed an American law to ban slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War. [1The conflict over the proviso was one of the major events leading to the American Civil War. • Free Soil Party: was a short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections, and in some state elections • Slave Catchers: were people who returned escaped slaves to their owners in the United States in the mid-19th century. • “Personal Liberty Laws”: were lawspassed by several U.S. states in the North to counter the Fugitive Slave Acts of 1793 and 1850. Different laws did this in different ways, including allowing jury trials for escaped slaves and forbidding state authorities from cooperating in their capture and return. States with personal liberty laws included Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, Maine, NewHampshire, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisco nsin, and Vermont. • Underground Railroad: was a network of secret routes andsafe houses used by 19th- century enslaved people of African descent in the United States in efforts to escape tofree states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.The term is also applied to the abolitionists, both black and white, free and enslaved, who aided the fugitives.  • Stephen A. Douglas: was an American politician from Illinois and the designer of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. • Goliad: is a city in Texas, United States
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