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BSC Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Hannah Tomlinson

BSC Exam 2 Study Guide Biology 114

Hannah Tomlinson

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Chapters 7-11
Principles of Biology
Dr. Stevan Marcus
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Tomlinson on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Stevan Marcus in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 179 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/08/16
Biology Exam 2 Chapter 7  When phospholipids are placed in water, they spontaneously form membranes  These membranes exhibit selective permeability -Allows some substances to cross it more easily than others  These are the most abundant lipids in most membranes  They are amphipathic (contains hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions)  Fluidity in the membrane can be increased by the presence of unsaturated hydrocarbon tails, which results in kinks and the inability to pack closely together  Fluidity in the membrane can be decreased by the presence of saturated hydrocarbon tails  The presence of cholesterol will reduce membrane fluidity because it restricts the lateral movement of phospholipids  The membrane will remain fluid at lower temperatures if it’s rich in unsaturated hydrocarbons  Plants increase their unsaturated phospholipids in the fall and winter to prevent the membranes from solidifying during cold temperatures  2 types of membrane proteins 1. Integral: transmembrane proteins with hydrophobic regions that span the membrane -They have hydrophilic ends that are exposed to solutions on either side of the membrane 2. Peripheral: not embedded in the lipid bilayer -Loosely bound to the surface of the membrane, often to the exposed portions of integral proteins -Attached to the cytoskeleton or ECM for structural support  Diffusion is a spontaneous process  Diffusion is passive transport because energy from ATP is not used  Each substance will diffuse down its concentration gradient, unaffected by the concentration of others  A substance will diffuse from where it is more concentrated (a substance will diffuse down its concentration gradient)  Osmosis is passive transport  It is the movement of water  If a solute cannot pass through a membrane but water can, the water will diffuse to the area of higher solute concentration  Hypertonic: the solution with a higher concentration of solutes  Hypotonic: the solution with a lower concentration of solutes  Isotonic: solutions of equal solute concentration  Isotonic environment: the volume of water flowing across membrane will be stable  Hypertonic environment: the cell will lose water to environment; shrivel up and die  Hypotonic environment: the cell will take up water faster than it can leave; cell will swell and lyse  Osmoregulation: the control of water balance -e.g.: paramecium  Facilitated diffusion: the process whereby polar molecules and ions (which are impeded by the lipid bilayer of a membrane) are able to pass through with help of transport proteins  Facilitated diffusion is spontaneous and passive transport  High concentration  Low concentration  Active transport: the movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient  It is the movement of a solute from a less concentrated side to more concentrated side  For active transport ATP and membrane proteins are required  Small molecules either pass directly though the lipid bilayer of a membrane or are pumped or carried across by transport proteins  Passive transport: no energy required  Exocytosis: the cell secretes macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane  Endocytosis: the cell takes in macromolecules by forming vesicles from the plasma membrane -Pinocytosis: the cell engulfs fluids -Phagocytosis: the cell engulfs food particles Chapter 8  Metabolism: all the chemical changes that happen in an organism  Enzymes: serve as catalysts (chemical agents that change the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction)  2 types of pathways metabolism can follow -Catabolic: breaks down complex molecules to simpler compounds (from proteins to amino acids) -Anabolic: consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones (synthesis of proteins from amino acids) -These work together in order to make energy coupling.  Energy coupling: interaction between catabolic and anabolic pathways  Energy= capacity to do work  Kinetic energy: when energy is associated with the relative motion of objects  Potential energy: an object not presently moving may still possess energy (this is not kinetic energy)  Chemical energy: the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction -Ex.- molecules store energy because of the atom arrangement -Catabolic pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules (through hydrolysis)  Thermodynamics: the study of energy transformation that occur in a collection of matter  2 important laws of thermodynamics apply to biological systems -1 law of thermodynamics nd st -2 law of thermodynamics 1 Law  Energy can be transferred and transformed but it cannot be created or destroyed  AKA conservation of energy -e.g.: an electric company does not produce energy but it converts it to a form we can use -e.g.: 2nd Law  Every energy transfer of transformation increases the entropy of the universe -Entropy is a measure of disorder -Entropy is less apparent tin biological systems because it takes the form of heat -Biological systems are not very efficient because of a great deal of energy is dispersed or lost through heat  Heat is energy in a random state, we have not created or destroyed energy.  Free energy (G) is the portion that is available to perform work  Spontaneous does not necessarily mean fast, simply that it can occur eventually without energy -Spontaneous reactions have negative change in G value -Process that have a positive or zero change in G are never spontaneous  Max stability=equilibrium  Most chemical reactions are reversible (and proceed forward and backward at the same rate)  Exergonic: reactions proceed with a net release of free energy (“energy outward”) and delta G is negative  Endergonic: reactions absorb free energy from the environment (“energy inward”) and delta G is positive  Catabolic processes DOES involve hydrolysis.  Anabolic processes DOES involve dehydration reactions.  Eating is an example of the First law of thermodynamics.  An enzyme catalyzes a reaction by lowering the activation energy to the reaction.  Enzymes act upon substrates Chapter 9  Ultimate source of energy is the sun  Autotrophic organisms (green plants) convert sunlight into energy  Heterotrophs eat the plants to obtain energy catabolically  Autotrophs: convert sunlight into energy that is stored in the bonds of organic molecules (glucose) - Anabolic process of photosynthesis  Heterotrophs: obtain energy catabolically via the breakdown of organic nutrients that must be ingested  The mitochondria of eukaryotes use the organic products of photosynthesis as a fuel for cellular respiration  Cellular Respiration: C 6 O12 6O  6C2 + 6H O2+ ATP 2 heat  Glucose plays an essential role in cell metabolism  A cell must use the energy stored in food molecules to make ATP  Redox reactions: a chemical reaction resulting in the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another  Oxidation: loss of electrons from a substance  Reduction: addition of electrons to a stubstance -OIL RIG (oxidation is loss, reduction is gain)  Na + Cl yields Na + Cl - -Na is oxidized and Cl is reduced -Sodium is the reducing agent -Chlorine is the oxidizing agent  In cellular respiration: glucose is oxidized because it loses electrons and oxygen is reduced (it gained water) and energy will be generated in the process  By oxidizing glucose respiration takes the energy out of storage and makes it available to ATP synthesis  After electrons are cleaved, they are usually passed first to an electron + acceptor—a coenzyme called NAD  Each NADH + H molecule formed during respiration represents stored energy that can be used to make ATP  Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol  Breaks glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate  Pyruvate is not completely oxidized, energy remains  Glycolysis uses 2 ATP and produce 4 ATP  This ATP is generated directly in a few steps of glycolysis by substrate- level phosphorylation -A mode of ATP synthesis that occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP  Glycolysis is harvested by -Fermentation pathway—anaerobic process (no oxygen) -Aerobic Respiration—aerobic process (with oxygen)  2 types of fermentation -Lactic acid fermentation: lactic acid is the end product -Alcohol fermentation: ethanol and CO are2the end products  Fermentations do not oxidize glucose completely  Still much energy left in fermentation end products- lactate and ethanol  Without O ,2cannot extract more energy  Wasted energy…  Electrons end up in fermentation end products, no energy obtained  Carbon ends up in fermentation end products, still energy present since not completely oxidized  Aerobic respiration Consists of -Glycolysis -Oxidation of pyruvate -Citric acid cycle -Electron Transport System  Citric Acid Cycle occurs in the mitochondria matrix - Decomposes a derivative of pyruvate to CO 2 -Donates electrons to the electron transport chain - A small amount of ATP is generated by substrate-level phosphorylation -2 different electron carriers: NAD and FAD (Flavin adenine dinucleotide)  There is energy in the electrons removed by NAD and FAD in citric acid cycle  Energy of electrons converted to ATP energy by Electron Transport System  The electron transport chain is embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion  As electrons are passed from one carrier to the next, they lose energy, which can be converted to ATP energy  Electrons are passed down a series of steps from one molecule to another until they reach the final electron acceptor (O ) 2  They are combined with hydrogen ions and molecular oxygen to form water  Electron transport accepts electrons from the breakdown product of + 2 both glycolysis and citric acid cycle (from NADH + H to FADH )  Mitochondrion: powerhouse of the cell- most of ATP of respiration made there  Chemiosmosis: a mechanism for energy coupling +  A H gradient is used to transfer energy from redox reactions to the synthesis of ATP  Protein complex called ATP synthase is used  ATP synthase is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria (many of the copies of it)  It is the enzyme that actually makes ATP  It has specialized channels in the inner membrane of the mitochondria that allow hydrogen ions to pass through  How it works: as electrons are passed down the chain, protons (hydrogen) are pumped out into the matrix  A H gradient forms and then they flow down their gradient through an + H channel in ATP synthase molecules  If a single glucose molecule is used. Then 2 pyruvates are produced.  In a specific glycolysis reaction, 10 pyruvate molecules are produced. From this info, we know that this reaction started with 5 glucose molecules.  Following the breakdown of glucose by glycolysis, if there are no oxygen present organisms will undergo fermentation  Fermentations are inefficient and waste some energy. Chapter 10  Photosynthesis: The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy  Autotrophs: they sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other living beings and they produce their organic molecules from CO 2nd other inorganic raw materials obtained from the environment  Photosynthesis occurs mostly in the leaves in tissue called mesophyll (tissue in the interior of leaf)  Green leaf color is from chlorophyll, the green pigment located within the chloroplasts  The light energy absorbed by chloroplasts drives the synthesis of food molecules in the chloroplast  CO 2nters a leaf and O ex2ts through pores called stomata  Stroma: the fluid within the chloroplast  Thylakoid membranes are a system of interconnected membranes that divide the stroma from the thylakoid space  Chlorophyll is located in thylakoid membrane  Grana: when thylakoid are stacked on top of each other  2 sets of reactions that cooperate to convert light energy to chemical energy -Light reactions (photo) occur in thylakoid membrane -Calvin cycle (synthesis) occurs in the stroma  Light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy - Light and Water that go into the reaction and generate ATP - NADPH is the electron carrier - Solar power generates ATP (energy) and NADPH (electron carrier) - They shuttle over to the Calvin cycle - All the energy (ATP) is dedicated to powering the Calvin cycle  Calvin cycle incorporates CO fr2m the air into organic molecules by attaching CO2 to a 5-carbon sugar named ribulose biphosphate (RuBP) - Occurs in stroma - Uses ATP and NADPH (generated form light reaction) to produce sugar - Rubisco is the enzyme that catalyzes this reaction - The light reactions sustain the Calvin cycle by regenerating ATP and NADPH  3 phases of the Calvin cycle - Carbon fixation (Carboxylation) - Reduction - Regeneration of RuBP  When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a direct by- product of splitting water molecules  The NADPH required for the Calvin Cycle comes from light reactions  The primary function of the Calvin Cycle if to synthesize simple sugars from CO 2  Photosynthesis is a redox reaction. This means H O i2 oxidized during the light reactions and CO i2 reduced during the Calvin cycle. Chapter 11  Signal transduction pathway: a process by which a signal on a cell’s surface is converted into a specific cellular response through a series of steps  3 types of cell communication in animal cells -Local regulators -Distant communication -Direct contact between cells  Local regulators: substances that are secreted from one cell and then influence cells in the vicinity  2 types -Paracrine signaling: a secreting cell acts on nearby target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator into the extracellular fluid (growth factors) -Synaptic signaling: a nerve cell releases neurotransmitter molecules into a synapse (the narrow space between transmitting and target cell)  Distant communication: hormone signaling - Hormones signal target cells at much greater distances - In animal cells, specialized endocrine cells secrete hormones into body fluids, often the blood - Hormones may reach almost all body cells - Only specific target cells recognize and respond to a given chemical signal  Direct contact between cells: cell junctions - Allow signaling substances to pass freely between adjacent cells - Occurs by direct contact between molecules on their surfaces - Important for embryos to develop and in immunology  3 stages of cell signaling -Reception -Transduction -Response  Reception: the target cells detection of a signal coming from outside the cell - A chemical signal is detected when it binds to a cellular protein - This is usually at a cell’s surface - The chemical signal behaves as ligand -Ligand binding causes a receptor protein to undergo a shape change - Ligands are usually water soluble and too big to freely diffuse through the cell membrane - The receptor is usually a plasma membrane protein  G-protein systems are involved in many diseases including infections like cholera and botulism. These bacteria make their victims ill by producing toxins that interfere with G-proteins.  Transduction: the binding of the signal molecule changes the receptor protein in some way, initiating the process of transduction  The transduction stage converts the signal to a form that can bring about specific cellular response  G-proteins act like ON/OFF switches  Bind guanine nucleotides: -GDP bound = OFF (inactive) -GTP bound = ON (active) -GTP powers the entire reaction  Binding of ligand to G-protein-coupled receptor leads to displacement of GDP for GTP and subsequent binding to a downstream protein (usually an enzyme)  Extremely wide-spread -Blood vessel development -Olfaction (smell) -Vision  Highly conserved across species  Ras -50% of colon cancers -90% of pancreatic cancer  The molecules in transduction pathway is known as relay molecules  Protein phosphorylation: a widely used process for regulating protein activity  The general name for an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein is a protein kinase -They act on substrate proteins  Cellular response: the transduced signal finally triggers a specific cellular response  Many different responses -Enzyme response -Rearrangement of the cytoskeleton -Activation of specific genes in the nucleus  G-protein coupled receptors are composed mainly of alpha helix secondary structure with many nonpolar type amino acids.  The type of enzyme that added a phosphate onto this molecule is called a kinase.


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