Exam 2 Study Guide (ch 4-8)
Exam 2 Study Guide (ch 4-8) PSYC 405
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Morin on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 405 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Alison Kelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see History and Systems of Psychology in Psychology at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Possible Essay Questions Ch.4 (2+3, 12) 2) Why is Wundt, and not Fechner considered the founder of the new psychology? Wundt was very public about his scientific findings. He deliberately promoted and published his findings in the scientific community. Fechner did work in the psychology field before Wundt, but did not attempt to sell his idea in the community. + 3) Describe the differences between “founding” and “originating” in science? Founding: deliberate and intentional work toward publishing and establishing ideas in scientific community. (well known due to publicity) Originating: first person to work in the field but may not have publicized/advertised for their work in the field. (originator – but not known for work) 12)Trace the fate of Wundtian psychology in Germany. On what grounds was Wundt’s system criticized? Disapproval of Introspection - Differences in results obtained by different observers; who is correct? - Objectivity difficulties. - Can’t settle disagreements through replication. Personal Political Views - Malicious defense of Germany during WWI - Outshined by later Schools of Thought (two other schools of thought arose in Europe) Economic and Political Contextual Forces - Post WWI economic forces – economic collapse after Germany’s defeat - Financial ruin of German universities - Lab destruction during WWII bombing Ch.5 (3, 13+16) 3) Describe the paradoxical views of Titchener regarding the place of women in psychology. Did he help them in their careers or discriminate against them? Titchener supported women as scientists. He helped Cornell become a leading producer of PhD degrees. He favored hiring women, and many early significant women in the field originally worked with him. However, Titchener did not allow women to attend his meetings (with psychologists from other universities) “women are too pure to smoke”. - The first women to earn a doctoral degree in psychology (Margaret Floy Washburn) was Titchener’s first doctoral student. Despite exclusion, advocated for women’s advancement. 13)On what grounds was Titchener’s approach to introspection criticized? How did he answer his critics? * subjective reports of the elements of consciousness – data was not very objective or quantitative. * little agreement among introspectionists – even with the same stimulus * self-reports were unreliable and could not be trusted Titchener’s Introspection Rigorously trained observers described elements of conscious experiences (qualitative, subjective, reports of mental activities). Necessary to avoid stimulus error. Introspectors were to be “impartial, detached, habitual machines”. Titchener remained rooted in place with his ideas, even when everyone else moved beyond him. + 16) What additional criticisms have been made of Titchener’s structuralism? Experiences come to us as a unified whole Structuralism was too narrow to embrace new work in psychology. Ex: people see a whole tree, not individual pieces of the tree (leaves, trunk, bark) Ch.6 (14, 16) 14)What statistical tools did Galton develop to measure human characteristics? Describe Galton’s research on hereditary genius. Eminence occurred with in families more often than could be explained by the environment (eminent men had eminent sons). - Used statistical testing and normal curve of distribution (with biological and social data) to support his idea that genetics determine intelligence, not environment. Confirmed through biographical studies of influential scientists. Founded the science of eugenics. Encouraged birth of eminent (fit), discouraged birth of unfit. Improve human race by artificial selection (selective mating). Proposed tests and incentives to choose those to selectively breed. Galton’s statistical Methods Applied the normal curve to mental characteristics. Mean and standard deviation most useful for describing psychological data. Yielded the correlation in 1888. Developed first correlation equation – was later redone into Pearson R. Mental Tests Assumed intelligence can be measured with major capacity. - Originated concept of Mental Tests. - Smartest people would have keenest sense. Invented instruments to measure sensory-motor capacity. - Sound, color, olfaction, muscle sensitivity. Anthropometric lab in south Kensington Museum (London) Charged people admissions and used them in lab testing. 16)How did Darwin’s evolutionary theory stimulate the development of animal psychology? What was Wundt’s initial reaction to this development? Darwin’s theory of evolution was the stimulus for the development of animal psychology. Before Darwin, people were not concerned with animal minds because they still considered animal as “automata with no minds or souls”. Darwin had evidence that there was no sharp distinction between animal and human minds. Wundt also wrote about the intellectual abilities of multiple animals – beetles, beavers, etc. He assumed that animals that displayed even minimal sensory capacities must also possess judgment and conscious inference. The should not be considered inferior because their lack of education and training. 30 years later he was less generous in this idea. Ch. 7 (8+9, 12, 13+1) 8) Why was James considered to be the most important American psychologist? What was his attitude toward laboratory work? James was very good at presenting his ideas clearly and effectively. (this clarity was rare) He opposed Wundt’s goal for psychology (the analysis of consciousness into elements). James thought Wundt’s goal for psychology was too narrow. James offered an alternative way of looking at the mind, a view congruent with the functional approach to psychology. + 9) How did James’s view of consciousness differ from Wundt’s view? According to James, what was the purpose of consciousness? *James believed that conscious experiences are simply what they are (immediate experience, brain and body) and not groups or collections of elements as Wundt clamed. James did not agree with introspection and structuralism. - Wundt’s trained observers can analyze their conscious experience in psychology lab, but that does not mean that the elements they report are present in the consciousness of anyone else exposed to the same experience. “Psychologists’’ fallacy” James declared that simple sensations do not exist in conscious experience (completely opposite of Wundt) James believed the mind is continuous. “stream of consciousness” 12) How did the work of Witmer and Munsterberg influence the growth of clinical psychology? Witmer was the world’s first clinical psychologist. Witmer made many efforts to apply psychology to the assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior. He was the first use the term “clinical psychology”. Founded “Psychological Clinic” the first journal in the field. Developed programs of assessment and treatment. Munsterburg was a powerful consultant to business and government leaders and counted among his acquaintances the rich and famous. Munsterburg described techniques for treating a variety of mental disorders, and described specific ways in which disturbed people could be helped. Focused on psychotherapy. Believed mental illness was a behavioral maladjustment. 13) How did Witmer and Munsterberg differ in their views of clinical psychology. Witmer complained that Munsterberg “cheapened” the profession by hawking claims of cures in the marketplace. Munsterberg treated patients in his laboratory rather than a clinic and never charged a fee. Witmer treated patients in the clinical that he developed. 15)Discuss the roles of Scott and Munsterberg in the origin of industrial-organizational psychology. Scott First person to apply psychology to personnel selection, management, and advertising Founder of first psychological consulting company Realized that consumers could easily be influenced by advertising Defined intelligence as judgement, quickness, and accuracy - for employee selection Munsterberg Worked with vocational guidance, advertising, personnel management, mental testing, employee motivation, and the effects of fatigue and monotony on job performance. Argued that the best way to increase job efficiency, productivity, and satisfaction was to select workers for positions that matched their mental and emotional abilities. Did research on diverse occupations. Suggested increasing space between desks to reduce talking. (forerunner of today’s office cubicles) People and their major contributions Wilhem Wundt: Founder of psychology, analyzed conscious using basic elements (sensations and feelings), first psychological laboratory, Fechner: Originator of psychology Hermann Ebbinghaus: studied memory and learning, used non-sense syllables to study memory process Edward Bradford Titchener: outrageous forms of introspection, despite exclusion of women – advocated for their advancement, structuralism Darwin: survival of the fittest, “The Origin of Species”, natural selection Sir Francis Galton: Darwin’s cousin, Heredity Genius – eminence occurred due to heredity not environment, natural selection, application of normal curve to mental characteristics, mean and standard deviation for psychological data, correlation equation, Mental Tests George John Romanes: Animal Intelligence, Mental ladder, Herbert Spencer: survival of the fittest should operate freely within society, social Darwinism William James: Epidemic of Neurashenia “Americanitis”, known for clear writing, opposed Wundt’s goal for psychology, James’ goals congruent with functional approach, stream of consciousness Mary Whiton Calkins: First woman president of APA, Harvard refused to grant her a PhD, developed paired-associate technique, conducted first formal studies of dreams Helen Thompson Woolley: tested biological notion that women were inferior to men, found no difference in emotional functioning Leta Stetter Hollingworth: refuted variability hypothesis, undercut idea that menstrual cycles were related to performance deficits, challenged concept of innate instinct for motherhood Titchener vs. Wundt Analyzing consciousness into its component parts vs. determining the organization of consciousness. Wundt looked at whole picture - Titchener looked at parts individually Conscious experience that depends on the person who is actually experiencing it. Ex: light, sound, or temperature Studied by: Physicist vs Psychologist -Physical processes of phenomena vs. how phenomena are experienced. - Independent vs. dependent on experiencing individual. Wundt Elements of Conscious Experience: 3 Goals for Wundt’s Psychology 1) Analyze conscious processes into their basic elements (sensations and feelings). 2) Discover how these elements are organized. 3) Determine the laws of connection governing the organizations of the elements. Basic elements of consciousness (Wundt) Sensations Stimulation of a sense organ Dimension: intensity, duration, sense modality Feelings Subjective complements of sensations Tridimensional Theory of Feelings (Metrome Experimens) Feeling states based on 3 dimensions - Pleasure/ displeasure - Tension/relaxation - Excitement/depression Method of Introspection: Observing and reporting of one’s own subjective “inner experience”. Wundt’s 4 rules for introspection: 1) Observer must know when experience ends and begins. 2) Observer must maintain “strained attention”. 3) The phenomenon must bear repetition. 4) The phenomenon must be capable of variation Criticisms of Wundt’s Psychology Disapproval of Introspection - Differences in results obtained by different observers; who is correct? - Objectivity difficulties. - Can’t settle disagreements through replication. Personal Political Views - Malicious defense of Germany during WWI - Outshined by later Schools of Thought Economic and Political Contextual Forces - Post WWI economic forces - Financial ruin of German universities - Lab destruction during WWII bombing Hermann Ebbinghaus Research on learning and memory Sole subject for his own research Used non-sense syllables to study memory processes Ex: lef, bok, yat Meaningless material is 9 times harder to learn than meaningful material Memoring non-sense syllables vs. a poem passage. - 80 repetitions vs. 9 repetitions o Forgetting happens most quickly immediately to 1/2 hours after learning material. o Majority of forgetting happens before 2 days. Edward Bradford Titchener A man could not hope to become a psychologist until after he’d learned to smoke Ceased coming to campus after 1917 ban on smoking. Titchener’s Experimentalists Regular meetings with psychologist from other universities. No women allowed “women are too pure to smoke”. Despite exclusion, advocated for women’s advancement. Titchener’s Structuralism Structuralism Discover the structure of phenomena rather than functions. Discovering the Elements of Consciousness Sensations: Elements reflected by physical objects. Images: Elements reflected by experiences not immediately present. Affective States: Elements found in affective (emotional) experiences. Criticisms of Structuralism Introspection - Different observations for the same stimulus or experience. - Self-report experiences couldn’t be trusted. Experiences come to us as a unified whole Structuralism was too narrow to embrace new work in psychology. Ex: people see a whole tree, not individual pieces of the tree (leaves, trunk, bark) Darwin Published on “The Origin of Species” months later; complimentary reception from Wallace. Darwin’s influence on psychology Opened the door for research on mental functioning of animals. Change in psychology’s subject matter and goal (functions of consciousness). Inspired psychologists to use more diverse research methods. Sir Francis Galton Galton’s Mental Inheritance Heredity Genius Eminence occurred with in families more often than could be explained by the environment (eminent men had eminent sons). Founded eugenics. Encouraged birth of eminent (fit) Improve human race by artificial selection (selective mating). Galton’s statistical Methods Applied the normal curve to mental characteristics. Mean and standard deviation most useful for describing psychological data. Yielded the correlation - Developed first correlation equation Francis Galton: Mental Tests Assumed intelligence can be measured with major capacity. - Originated concept of Mental Tests. Invented instruments to measure sensory-motor capacity. - Sound, color, olfaction, muscle sensitivity. Anthropometric lab Charged people admissions and used them in lab testing. George John Romanes Published “Animal Intelligence” “Mental Ladder” arrayed species in order of degree of mental functioning. Herbert Spencer Social Darwinism - Application of evolutionary theory to human nature and society. “Survival of the fittest” should operate freely within society - No government regulation, assistance from the state, or welfare. William James Epidemic of Neurasthenia “Americanitis” - Widely affected upper-class, educated Americans. - Resulted from overwork, pressure, working too frantically. - Americanitis elixir; lifestyle modifications. Men- travel more, exercise, get out of the house and have fun. Women- gain weight with high fat diet, limit work, lay in bed. First psychology course Explaining James’s Influence Wrote with a rare clarity Opposed Wundt’s goal for psychology. He thought Wundt’s goal for psychology was too narrow. Goals congruent with the functional approach. Shift in psychology from structuralism to functionalism. Consciousness is a continually flowing process; any attempt to reduce it to elements distorts it. - Consciousness is always changing (constancy is an illusion). - The mind is continuous, there are no distractions between the flow of consciousness (e.g. sleep). - The mind is selective, choosing from among the many stimuli to which it’s exposed. Similar to selective attention – pay attention to more important stimuli. Mary Whiton Calkins First woman president of the APA Harvard refused to grant her a PhD, despite her work. Offered a degree from Radcliffe College by Harvard. She declined Contributed to understanding of short-term memory process and formal studies of dreams Helen Thompson Woolley Experimentally tested the biological notion that women were inferior to men. No sex differences in emotional functioning. Small, non-significant differences in intellectual abilities. - Social and environmental factors (child-rearing, expectations) - Accused of bias, “feminist interpretation”. The Functional Inequality of Women The variability hypothesis - Men: wider range and variation of talents, physical characteristics. - Women: average in variation; lack mental and physical functioning to adapt to stimulating environment. Darwin’s idea of male variability from study of species. Education leads to physical and emotional damage; endangers biological imperative to motherhood. Studying will weaken maternal urge. “If women were to be educated at all, it should be to motherhood.” – G. Stanley Hall Leta Stetter Hollingworth Empirically refuted the variability hypothesis. - No difference in variability of physical characteristics explored. Undercut the myth that the menstrual cycle is related ot performance deficits. Challenged the concept of an innate instinct for motherhood.
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