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Nutrition 112 chapter 4-5 notes & Key concepts

by: MelLem

Nutrition 112 chapter 4-5 notes & Key concepts NUTR 112

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Nutrition 112 chapter 4-5 notes & Key concepts
Introduction To Nutrition
Study Guide
Nutriton, key, concepts, Lipids, Macromolecules
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by MelLem on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NUTR 112 at Simmons College taught by Gallagher in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction To Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Simmons College.

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Date Created: 10/08/16
Chapter 1 Key Concepts and Terms You Should Know:  List some factors affecting an individual’s food choices o Ethnicity, culture, religion, taste, preference, emotions.  Name the six classes of nutrients o Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, water, vitamins, minerals.  Identify the essential nutrients o Water, vitamin, minerals.  Why is water considered an essential nutrient? o Necessary for life.  Why is alcohol not considered a nutrient even though it supplies calories? o It is not necessary for life, and does not provide energy.  Differentiate between macronutrients and micronutrients o Macromolecules are carbs, proteins, and lipids, they must be broken down  into smaller molecules while micromolecules are vitamins, minerals, and  water.  How to calculate the calories in a serving of food when given the grams of  protein, fat, and carbohydrate o Carbs = grams X 4 Proteins = grams X 4   fats(lipids) = grams X 9  How to calculate the percentage of calories from protein, fat, and carbohydrate in  a serving of food o Take the amount of grams of a particular portion in the food, multiply it  by the respective number above then divide that number by total calories.  How to identify nutrition quackery o Cure all o Promises to lose crazy amount of weight all at once.  What are characteristics of a reliable website? o Government website o Has a doctor with sources, and reputation Chapter 4 Key Concepts and Terms:  Identify the 3 monosaccharides, 3 disaccharides, and 2 polysaccharides o Monosaccharides – fructose, glucose, galactose o Disaccharides – maltose( gg), sucrose (gf), lactose (ggal) o Polysaccharides – glycogen and starch (gggggg – just different glycosideic linkages   What is the chemical structure (formula) of glucose?  o C6h12o6  What are the two sugars in lactose? o Glucose and Galactose  What are the two sugars in sucrose? o Glucose and Fructose  Describe condensation and hydrolysis o Hydrolysis – breaking apart the bonds – decomposing the molecule o Condensation – linking of two monosaccharides to form di­ polysaccharides   Where is glycogen found? What does it do for the human body? o Liver mainly, also found in muscles.   Why are starches different than glycogen? o Has amylopectin   Name the different types of fiber o Grains, legumes. tubers  Why is cellulose different from starch? o They have different bonds that are not recognized by the human body.  Identify the benefits of soluble fiber and some food sources o Dissolves in water, protects against heart disease and diabetes, easily  digested by bacteria.  Identify the benefits of insoluble fiber and some food sources. o Promotes bowel movements. Does not dissolve in water.  What is the name of the salivary enzyme? What does it do? o Amylase – begins the break down of carbohydrates in the mouth.  Describe the digestion of carbohydrate in the following organs: mouth, stomach,  small intestine, large intestine. o Mouth – amylase – begins the process of carbohydrate break down. o Amylase becomes in active in the stomach o Maltase, sucrose, lactase – breaks down sugars in the small intestine  What is the function of the pancreas in the process of carbohydrate digestion? o The pancreas secretes enzymes into the duodenum, which returns the ph to a more neutral state.  o Also produces and secretes insulin into the blood stream for the uptake of  glucose by the cells. Maintains a blood glucose level of 70­120 ish.  Name three enzymes involved in digestion of carbohydrate in the small intestine. o Maltase, lactase, and sucrose. (breaks down maltose, lactose and sucrose  the disaccharides.   What happens to fiber in the large intestine? o Fiber is broken down by bacteria in the large intestine.  How are monosaccharides absorbed in the small intestine? o Through microvilli and villa. It is highly cardiovascular and the blood is  able to absorb the nutrients. The villa and microvilli increase surface area  so more nutrients can be absorbed.   Describe lactose intolerance (causes, prevalence, dietary changes, symptoms) o The body does not produce the enzyme lactase which breaks down lactos  (milk­sugar) and cause discomfort and malaise.   Define gluconeogenesis. o The breaking down of non­carbohydrate substances to produce energy for  the body.   Describe what happens to the body when there is inadequate dietary carbohydrate. o The body breaks down protein and fat, which can be used as energy,  What happens to excess dietary carbohydrate? o Displaces energy and nutrient dense foods. Abd discomfort. Nutrition  112     Lipids     • Triglycerides  –   o  three  fatty  acids  attached  to  a  glycerol   o formed  via  a  series  of  condensation  reactions   o usually  contains  a  mixture  of  fatty  acids   • Glycerol  –   o Glycerol  forms  the  base  of  a  triglyceride   o Contains  3  carbon  molecules  with  an  oh  group,  and  hydrogen  filling  the   remainder  of  available  bonds.   • Fatty  Acids  –     o May  be  4-­‐24  carbons  long   o Acid  (COOH)  and  methyl  groups  (CH3)  at  each  end   o Can  be  saturated  or  unstaturated   o Saturated  Fats  –  No  double  bonds  in  the  chemical  formula,  filled/  saturated   with  Hydrogen  at  all  bonding  points  to  carbon  atoms   o Unsaturated  –  determined  by  the  visualization  of  a  double  bond  which   removed  hydrogen  from  the  equation.   o Unsaturated  –  may  have  one  or  more  points  of  unsaturated,  can  be  either   mono  or  poly.     o Polyunsaturated    fatty  acids  –  can  be  omega-­‐3  fatty  acids  or  omega-­‐6  fatty   acids.   • Acetic  acid   o The  simplest  fatty  acid.  Chemical  formula  is  CH3COO2   • Condensation  of  glycerol  and  fatty  acids  to  form  a  triglyceride   o Condensation  –  a  condensation  reaction  is  a  synthesis  reaction.  It  bonds  two   components  together  to  yield  a  new  product.  Typically  leaves  H2O/  water  as   an  additional  product.   • Double  Bonds  –   o Chemists  identify  polyunsaturated  fatty  acids  by  the  position  of  the  double   bond  nearest  the  methyl  group:  the  omega  number   • Firmness  of  Fatty  Acids   o At  room  temperature,  unsaturated  fats  tend  to  be  liquid  (such  as  oil)  whereas   saturated  fats  (like  butter)  are  usually  solid   o Firmness  is  determined  by  the  length  of  the  carbon  chain  and  the  degree  of   unsaturation.   o Most  polyunsaturated  oils  are  liquid  at  room  temperature  and  the  more   unsaturated  animal  fats  are  solid.  Shorter  carbon  chains  are  usually  softer   (therefore  have  a  lower  melting  point)   • Stability  of  Fatty  Acids   o All  fats  can  become  rancid  when  exposed  to  oxygen   o Polyunsaturated  fats  tend  to  spoil  most  readily  because  the  double  bonds  are   unstable  and  are  prone  to  oxidation   o Saturated  fats  are  more  stable   o Manufacturers  may  add  antioxidants  such  as  BHT  or  Vitamin  C  to  protect  the   fat   o You  can  also  prevent  rancidity  by  storing  away  from  light  and  in  airtight   containers.   • Fatty  Acids  in  Foods   o Most  foods  contain  a  combination  of  different  fatty  acids   o You  can  predict  the  degree  of  softness  based  on  those  fatty  acids   o Coconut  oil  is  very  saturated,  but  IS  NOT  a  hard  fat   • Hydrogenation   o A  chemical  process  where  hydrogen  is  added  to  mono  or  polyunsaturated   fats  to  reduce  the  number  of  double  bonds.   o Fats  become  more  saturated  and  therefore  more  solid  with  less  degrees  of   unsaturation.   o Hydrogenated  fats  are  more  resistant  to  oxidation  (This  prolongs  shelf  life)   • Disadvantages  to  Hydrogenation   o Hydrogenation  creates  trans-­‐fatty  acids     o Many  health  experts  believe  the  process  of  hydrogenation  is  more  harmful   than  consuming  saturated  fats  in  terms  to  ones  cardiovascular  health.   o Trans  fatty  acids  are  found  in  margarines,  shortenings,  commercial  frying   and  baked  goods   • Phospholipids   o Used  by  the  food  industry  as  emulsifiers   o Lecithin  is  an  example  of  a  phospholipid   o Phospholipids  are  also  constituents  of  cell  membranes.   • Sterols   o Compounds  with  a  multi-­‐ring  structure   o Sterols  function  as  bile  acids,  sex  hormones,  adrenal  hormones  and  vitamin   D.   • Cholesterol   o Used  to  synthesize  vitamin  D  and  is  a  structural  component  of  cell   membranes.   o Your  body  makes  and  uses  cholesterol  (endogenous),  but  can  also  be   obtained  from  foods(exogenous).   o Cholesterol  is  harmful  to  the  body  when  deposited  in  artery  walls.  This  is   known  as  atherosclerosis.   • Digestion  and  Absorption  of  Lipids   o Fats  are  hydrophobic,  meaning  they  do  not  dissolve  in  water.   o Digested  triglycerides  (Tg)  are  broken  down  into  glycerol,  fatty  acids  and   monoglycerides     o The  latter  two  compounds  are  then  packaged  into  micelles  which  are   emulsified  by  bile.   • Lipid  Digestion:  Mouth  and  Stomach   o In  the  mouth,  the  salivary  glands  release  lingual  lipase   o Muscle  contractions  in  the  stomach  disperse  fat  into  smaller  droplets.  Fat  is   exposed  to  gastric  lipase  enzyme.   • Lipid  Digestion:  Small  Intestine   o Cholecystokinin  (CCK)  signals  to  the  Gallbladder  to  release  bile   o Pancreatic  and  intestinal  enzymes  hydrolyze  lipids  to  monoglycerides  and   fatty  acids   o Phospholipids  and  hydrolyzed   o Sterols  are  absorbed  as  it   • Lipid  Transport   o After  absorption,  monoglycerides  and  long-­‐chain  fatty  acids  are  reassembled   into  new  triglycerides  which  are  packaged  into  lipoproteins  that  transport   lipids  from  the  intestinal  cells  to  the  rest  of  the  body   o Lipoproteins  –  clusters  of  lipids  associated  with  proteins  that  serve  as   transport  vesicles  in  lymph  and  blood.   • Lipoproteins   o Chylomicrons  –  transports  diet-­‐derived  lipids  from  the  small  intestine  via  the   lymph  system  to  the  entire  body.   o VLDL  –  lipids  made  in  liver  and  collected  from  chylomicrons.  Contains  mostly   Tg   o LDL  –  derived  from  VLDL,  composed  primarily  of  cholesterol.   o HDL  –  Made  by  the  liver,  transports  cholesterol  back  to  the  liver  from  the   cells.  Composed  mainly  of  protein.   • Improving  Lipoprotein  ratios   o Health  implications   ▯ Factors  that  lower  LDL  and  Raise  HDL   • Weight  control   • Replace  saturated  fat  with  monounsaturated  fat  and   polyunsaturated  fat  in  the  diet   • Soluble  fibers   • Phytochemicals   • Moderate  alcohol  consumptions   • Physical  activity   ▯ Genes  also  influence  lipoprotein  activity   • Lipids  in  the  Body   o The  triglycerides  have  important  roles  in  the  body   o Essential  fatty  acids  also  play  important  roles   o The  body  can  store  unlimited  amounts  of  fat  when  fat  is  consumed  in  excess   o The  liver  can  also  covert  excess  carbohydrate  and  protein  to  fat   o Fat  needs  carbohydrate  to  break  down  efficiently   o Inefficient  break  down  of  fat  forms  ketone  bodies   • Functions  of  Fat   o In  the  Body   ▯ Are  the  body’s  chief  form  of  stored  energy   ▯ Provide  most  of  the  energy  to  fuel  muscular  work   ▯ Serve  as  an  emergency  fuel  supply  in  times  of  illness  and  diminished   food  intake   ▯ Protect  the  internal  organs  from  shock  through  fat  pads  inside  the   body  cavity.   ▯ Insulate  against  temperature  through  a  fat  layer  under  the  skin   ▯ Form  the  major  material  of  cell  membranes   ▯ Are  converted  to  other  compounds  such  as  hormones,  bile  and   vitamin  D  as  needed.   o Fats  in  Food   ▯ Provide  Essential  fatty  acids   ▯ Provide  a  concentrated  energy  source  in  foods.   ▯ Carry  fat-­‐soluble  vitamins  A,  D,  E  and  K  and  assist  in  their  absorption     ▯ Provide  raw  material  for  making  needed  products   ▯ Contribute  to  taste  and  smell  of  foods   ▯ Stimulates  appetite   ▯ Contributes  to  felling  of  fullness   ▯ Help  make  foods  tender   • Essential  Fatty  Acids  (CANNOT  BE  MADE  BY  THE  BODY)   o Linoleic  Acid  –  Omega  6  fatty  acid   o Linolenic  acid  –  omega  3  fatty  acid   o Previous  research  has  debated  the  optimal  ratio  of  omega  6  to  omega  3  in  the   diet,  current  though  is  to  increase  omega  3  intake  ,  but  no  need  to  decrease   the  omega  6  intake.   o Dietary  fatty  acid  deficiencies  are  rare  in  the  US,  most  often  seen  in  infacts  of   children  that  are  fed  ft  free  milk  and  low  fat  diets   • Eicosanoids   o Made  from  omega  3  and  6  fatty  acids   o Similar  to  hormones;  has  health  benefits   o Includes  prostaglandins  ,  thromboxanes  and  leukotrienes.   • Lipid  Metabolism   o Adipose  cells  store  fat  after  meals     ▯ Lipoproteins  lipase  –  enzyme  that  breaks  down  fats.  Hydrolyzed   triglycerides   ▯ Triglycerides  reassembled  inside  adipose  cells   o Using  fat  for  energy   ▯ Fat  supplies  60%  of  energy  needs  durin  rest   ▯ Energy  deprivation   ▯ Fasting:  Fat  and  lean  protein  tissue  used  for  energy   • Fat  Storage   o Triglycerides  (Tg)  are  stored  in  fat  cells  of  adipose  tissue,  this  is  a  virtually   unlimited  capacity  source   o 1  pound  of  body  fat  =  3500  calories   o adipose  cells  have  an  enzyme  on  their  surface,  lipoprotein  lipase  that   hydrolyzes  Tg  and  directs  the  parts  into  the  cell   o the  body  can  reassemble  Tg  from  dietary  fat,  carbohydrate  and  protein   sources.   • Risk  Factors  for  Health  Disease   o Smoking   o Obesity   o Genetics   o Elevated  Blood  Pressure   o Elevated  LDL  cholesterol   o Lack  of  Exercise   o Poor  Diet   o Age   o Diabetes  (Type  2)   • Blood  Lipid  Profile   o Desirable  Results   ▯ Total  Cholesterol:  <  200  mg/dl   ▯ LDL  cholesterol:  <  100  mg/dl   ▯ HDL  cholesterol:  >  60  mg/dl   ▯ Triglycerides:  <150  mg/dl   • Heart  Disease  and  Diet   o Saturated  Fats  increase  LDL  cholesterol  in  the  blood,  promotes  blood  clotting   o Transfats  –  increase  LDL  cholesterol  and  lower  HDL     o Dietary  cholesterol  –  not  as  significant  a  risk  factor  as  the  type  of  fat   consumed   o Omega-­‐3  fatty  acids  in  the  diet  appear  to  have  a  protective  effect  (suppresses   inflammation)   • Risks  of  Saturated  Fats   o There  are  different  types  of  saturated  fatty  acids   o In  terms  of  heart  health  risk,  they  may  behave  differently.   o Best  advice  –  reduce  exposure  by  avoiding  solids  fats  (fatty  meats,  whole   milk  products)   o Current  recommendations  are  questioning  the  impact  of  coconut  oils.   • Risks  of  Trans  fats   o Trans  fatty  acids  in  the  diet  increase  LDL  cholesterol  and  decrease  HDL   cholesterol.   o Food  sources  include  commercially  deep  fried  foods,  vegetable  shortening   commercial  baked  goods,  margarine,  imitation  cheese   o Debate  over  butter  versus  margarine   o Use  of  trans  fats  is  being  banned.   • Risk  from  Cholesterol   o Dietary  cholesterol  has  less  effect  on  blood  cholesterol  than  saturated  fat  and   trans  fat   o Food  sources  of  cholesterol  include  egg  yolks,  milk  products,  meat  poultry   and  shellfish.   • Benefits  of  Omega-­‐3   o Promotes  an  optimal  blood  lipid  profile   o Reduces  blood  triglycerides   o Reduces  blood  clot  formation   o Lowers  blood  pressure   o Reduces  inflammation   o Serves  as  precursors  to  eicosanoids   o One  must  be  cautious  of  the  use  of  fish  oil  supplements.   • Heart  Disease  and  Diet   o Benefits  from  monounsaturated  fats  and  polyunsaturated  fats   ▯ Replacing  saturated  fats  and  trans  fats  with  mono  and   polyunsaturated  fat  is  the  most  effective  way  to  prevent  heart  disease   • Cancer  and  obesity   o Cancer   ▯ Dietary  fat  has  an  association  with  risks  for  some  types  of  cancer,  but   it  is  not  as  strong  as  the  link  to  heart  disease   ▯ Fat  does  not  initiate  cancer  development  but  may  be  a  promoter  once   cancer  has  developed   o Obesity  can  be  a  consequence  of  high  fat,  high-­‐kcal  diets  in  excess  of  energy   needs.   • Recommended  intake   o Daily  values  on  food  labels   ▯ 65g  fate  based  on  30%  of  2000-­‐kcal  diet   ▯ 20  saturated  fat  based  on  10%  of  2000-­‐kcal  diet   ▯ 300  mg  cholesterol   o The  USDA  food  guide  considers  saturated  fats  to  be  discretionary  calories   • Heart  health  conclusions   o Saturated  fat  and  trans  fat  are  poor  for  heart  health   o Unsaturated  fat  in  moderation  is  good  for  heart  health   o Food  is  a  mixture  of  good  and  bad  fat   o Manufacturers  are  complying  with  consumer  requests   o Try  the  Mediterranean  eating  habits.  


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