Carbohydrates Lab 18519
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shanell Coleman on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 18519 at Augusta State University taught by Thomas Buxton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Biology 1101 in Science at Augusta State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Lab #2 Carbohydrates 1. Carbohydrates Called Saccharides (Sugar) Simplest form of carbohydrates are monosaccharides 2. Pentoses Monosaccharides with 5 carbons Most common pentoses are ribose and deoxyribose, these are critical components of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). 3. Hexoses Four most important monosaccharides are called hexoses and have 6 carbons. Examples of hexoses: glucose, fructose, galactose, and mannose. Hexoses are the preferred energy source of almost all cell types. Hexoses (mostly glucose) are stored for later use when they condense to form large polysaccharides 4. Disaccharides When two monosaccharides are linked together Most common disaccharide it sucrose (containing glucose and fructose) 5. Oligosaccharide Contain more than two monosaccharides 6. Polysaccharides Contain large numbers of monosaccharides (over one hundred) Major storage polysaccharide in plant cells is called starch (composed of coiled helical chains of glucose) The major storage polysaccharide in animal cells is called glycogen, it is composed entirely of glucose in branch like chains. Cellulose: made from glucose; is used for structural purposes; composed of linear chains of thousands of glucose molecules (however every other glucose is inverted or upside down. Animals produce the enzymes (amylase) necessary to digest (breakdown) starch, and to synthesize and breakdown glycogen, but they do not produce the enzymes necessary to digest cellulose. Cellulose is what we commonly refer to as dietary fiber. 7. Benedict’s Reagent: can establish the presence of monosaccharides and most disaccharides (not sucrose) in a test sample. 8. Amylose in starch is responsible for the formation of a deep blue color in the presence of iodine. The iodine molecule slips inside of the amylose coil. IKI (Iodine Potassium Iodide) If starch is present, the color will change to blue – black If starch is not present, the color will stay orange or yellow Cellulose and disaccharides such as sucrose are negative in the starch test
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