PSY 401 Midterm Study Guide
PSY 401 Midterm Study Guide PSY 401
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Key: highlighted= important concept highlighted= key term highlighted= important person red text= mentioned in class as something that will be on the midterm PSY 401 Midterm Study Guide Chapters 1-9 Chapter 1 Ø Why study history? o History: “the interpretive study of the events of the human past. The definition assumes empirical and explanatory components of the work of the Historian” (textbook definition) o History teaches humility § We are able to access great minds and solutions to our questions o History teaches a healthy skepticism § By looking and learning about history, the things that hold us back should be looked at more skeptically o History teaches us to rethink things Ø Presentism vs. Historicism o Historicism: understanding the past for its own sake o Presentism: difficulties in separating historical facts from current biases § Emphasizes difficulty in divorcing historical facts from current perspectives Ø 4 Hypotheses for a Pattern in history o The cyclical hypothesis § Things repeat themselves o The linear-progressive hypothesis § Things progressively get better over time, as we move on o The Linear-regressive hypothesis § Things progressively get worse as we move on from the past § "The good old days"—meaning it was better back then § Pessimistic view o The chaos hypothesis § No identifiable meaning or pattern § Pluralistic approach: many histories exist rather than one absolute history Ø What makes a person great? o Zeitgeist = time o Ortgeist = place o The great person theory: powerful/unique individuals are the most important in shaping history o William James: “causal interplay between people and their environment” § “The habit of always seeing an alternative” • We should always open rather than close doors—this is how history moves forward Chapter 2 Ø Terms o Epistemology: from the Greek term episteme, which means to understand or to know § The theory of knowledge § A priori knowledge: “from what comes before: • Knowledge that comes before experience § A posteriori knowledge: “from what comes later” • From experience o Nativism: innate—inborn into humans in our nervous systems § Ideas inborn o Empiricism § Tabula Rasa (blank slate) • All of our perceptions and experiences are learned § Ideas learned Ø Epistemology: Knowing about truth o Authority o Empiricism o Rationalism o Aestheticism § Crick and Watson: DNA model (double helix) • When they saw it, they said “Too pretty not to be true” o Pragmatism § Kant • That which is prudent § William James • “Cash value” o Skepticism Ø 3 Models of Science o Karl Popper: scientific claims must be falsifiable § Scientific theories are inductive in nature, and must be disconfirmed by data • The idea of the null hypothesis—trying to disprove what you think is true § Principle of refutability § Science vs. Pseudo science o Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions § Paradigm: “the entire constellation of beliefs, values, techniques, and so on, shared by members of a given community” • Framework for empirical research • When something isn’t working/fitting, that’s when you see scientific revolution § Emphasized understanding science in terms of community structures and historical development o Paul Feyerabend § Against the method § Anarchistic view of science § Breaking away from the past (traditional approaches) was necessary for progression of science • Breaking from history is what propels us in science Ø Mind Body Problem o Monism: Mind and body are manifestations of a single substance § There is one single substance; that is what's important o Dualism: mind and body are distinct and non-identical entities Ø Psychogeny o Identity theory maintains that the psyche is instilled into the organism at one point in time § Psyche remains identical throughout the lifespan o Psychogenic Emergentism suggests that psyche develops as the neurology develops Ø Aristotle’s 4 Causes o Material: the actual physical properties or makeup of a thing that is o Efficient: the thing or agent which actually brings something about o Final: the ultimate purpose for being o Formal: the structure of design of a being (like a blueprint) Ø Free Will and Determinism o Free will: libertarians = pro free will § Despite genetics and environment, we still have free will o Determinism: there are causes for everything o Article: The Tempering Effect of Determinism in the Legal System (VIney, 1990) Chapters 3 &4 Ø Thinkers of Early China o Confucius § Proposed different types of human relations, such as: • Ruler/minister; father & son; husband & wife § Interested in the moral life and harmony among people o Hzün Tzu § For rational and empirical methods § Against superstition § Emphasized the regularity and orderliness of nature § Can’t control natural phenomena • We should look to nature • Empiricism: look to things we can measure with our 5 senses Ø Greece o Thales § Believed in science, not religion § Water was the primal substance from which everything evolved § Problem of movement • Believed a magnetic stone possessed a soul, which is what makes movement possible o Anaximander § Student of Thales § First evolutionary theorist?—Creatures § “Aperion”= meaning “without boundary” • This is what everything evolved from; it is not water, it has no boundary § Who nurtured the first infants? • Some other type of creature • The first humans came from fish-like creatures (this is his evolutionary theory) o Pythagoras § Immortality and the transmigration of souls § Coined the term “philosophy” § Valued women § Looked into quantifying things (valued data) • He pushed us toward science, rather than just looking toward the supernatural for data • Valued what is empirical o Leucippus & Democritus § Building block of the world around us = atoms § Fear motivated a belief in popular Greek gods • We have to fear the unknown to an extent in order to gain an understanding for it § Strict determinism o Hippocrates § 4 bodily humors, which must be in balance in order for us to function • When not in balance, we get sick (severe cases= death) § Dreaming= activity of the soul and indicators of illness § Used surgical techniques like trephining (poking holes in the skull to let the bad out) • Seeking natural explanation for people’s symptoms § First to classify mental disorders o Aesculapius § Therapy = sleep suggestion, diet, drugs, massage, baths § Used snakes in healing rites à medicinal symbol of snake around staff • Healing centers were inspired by him § Mythical figure that inspired 300+ temples across Greece for treatments o Alcmaeon § Tracing sensory channels to the brain • One of the first to use an empirical approach to anatomy and physiology § Sleep= blood moving away from brain to large channels in body § Homeostatic equilibrium Ø The Golden Age o Socrates § Argued against Relativism (as Protagoras said—humans are the relative of all things) § Psychological and philosophical rather than physical or biological methods § Evil comes from ignorance • Knowledge is important § Claims to be the most intelligent of them all because he knew he was ignorant • Admitted to not knowing everything § Convicted of corrupting youth and sentenced to death § The Socratic Method • Questioned every answer, made people come up with continuous reasoning o Plato § First European University: The Academy § Triparte soul: • Appetitive soul • Effective soul • Rational soul § When 3 parts are not in balance, there is conflict in human psychological disorders o Aristotle § Facts experienced by senses (Empiricism) § Hylomorphism-- the mind and the body are interdependent (connected) § Dreams are not divine messages • Lower animals can have dreams • Physiological explanation for dreams (not gods speaking to us) § Humans seek pleasure but should also seek good • The Golden Mean (moderation) • 4 factors that affect the human ability to do good: o Habit o Individual Differences o Social supports o Freedom of choice • Similar to modern day psychological thought (things that prevent human success in doing good) Ø Roman Period & Middle Ages o Galen § Animal model use of dissection • He was allowed to do dissections, but they were prohibited otherwise by the gov't • Government restricted what we could learn o Dissections if not allowed were punishable by death § Balance of humors= Good health § Personality linked to 4 humors • Cold, warm, dry, moist § Rigorous scientist of the time • Believed people can seek counsel for their mental symptoms § His ideas that "pneuma" (Spirit) consistent with early Christian ideas-- Adopted into the Christian doctrine Ø Medieval o Aurelius Augustine § Wealthy, playboy § Picked up a Bible and the first passage he saw spoke against his carnal behaviors § Study of human nature § Psychology • Infant motivation • Grief • Habit • Memory • Dreams o Knowledge comes from authority § Usually in the form of the church o Rhazes § Against demonic theory § Divergent behavior to cure mental illness • Social therapy • Offered music and games as a treatment for "melancholy" (today= depression) • Hippocrates was first to develop mental disorders § Empiricist (first to apply chemistry to medicine) • Limited by his religious beliefs • Tragic ending o Went blind by having chemicals thrown at his face by the king at the time § What happens when you step outside of the norm in this time period § Compared to Galen (who was compared to Hippocrates) o Avicenna § Reconciled faith and reason (his greatest contribution) § Speculated that the brain had a role in psychological disorders (similar to Galen again) • Frontal areas perception and reason • Occipital areas memory • Mental representation of external objects occurs in the ventricles § Must have a homeostasis between mind and body for both physical and mental health • Balance is key for psychological health § Triparte soul (like Plato) • Vegitative soul: manages functions of nourishment • Animal soul: functions of nourishment, growth, and reproduction • Human soul: governs powers unique to human beings such as intellectual and rational powers and ability ot comprehend universals o Averroes & Alhazen § First to discover retina is the sensitive organ of the eye (not the lens) § Optic discoveries in this time § Drawings of the eye and its function (sensation and perception first discoveries Ø Medival o Maimonides § Argued that we must use reason when we have a question • Don't just rely on supernatural • We have to deduct reason • Rationalist • "People have little need for reason…" § Intellectual Elitist § Conflict between reason and faith results when we interpret scripture in a literal manner Chapter 5 Ø The Plague (the Black Death) o Up to 1/3 of the population died; in some communities, up to 100% of their population died o Reactions to the plague § Religious precessions to pray for wellness (looked to religion) § Blame-- they blamed the Jews for being "dirty" and bringing the disease § Believed it was punishment for something they had done wrong § Fear § Moving and ostracism-- trying to flee the plague, which changed the geography of Europe o What effect did this have on the middle ages? And why? § Make them question authority • Everyone was getting sick-- even priests, same as the beggars o This undermines system of social status and authority o All answers come from the church and those who are now sick, and they can't help or give answers § To understand the importance of this time, we have to understand the context (like the Plague) o Magellan's Expedition (1519) § First to successfully circumnavigate the globe § Changed the perception of the world almost overnight--how? • Rocks the foundation of the trust in the church--to find out the church was wrong • Exposed Europeans to a whole new set of knowledge • Development of "Revolutionary ideas" • Greek manuscripts § Could this happen in 2016? What would cause such a change in all human thinking? • What could happen to unify us all? Think about how technology has separated us § What else is happening to the "Authority" of the time? • Medieval era dominated by Roman Catholic church… o Geography changing --causing disputes o Printing press o Martin Luther and the protestant reformation-- power/authority is being diffused Ø New World Views o Authority § Development of the printing press (Guttenburg) § New translations of the Bible (Martin Luther) • Index of “forbidden books” o If caught reading these books, you could be put to death § The reformation • Breakaway or change the Roman Catholic Church (Luther, Calvin) o Science and Knowledge § Mapmaking as a science—Magellan § Quantification • Driven by Idea of pragmatism – a practical need • Rediscovery of Pythagoras & Euclid o Figure it out for yourself; investigate and push for science § Human Anatomy—Andreas Vesalius • Dissections weren't allowed at one time, but now they're having public dissections o Purpose: to learn about the body • First early (very detailed) drawings of the human anatomy § Ptolemy & The Geocentric Model • The Earth is the center of the Universe § Cosmology • Dante o Dante's Inferno o Above us and below us o Renaissance view following on from Ptolemy § Nicolaus Copernicus: argues for Heliocentric Theory • That we and other planets revolve around the sun • Sun-centered o Earth turns one daily; annual path around the sun § Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): • Phases of Venus • In order to understand space, they would go to the same spot every night for months (no telescope) o Challenges they faced logistically • Heliocentric pattern proven with his telescope • Venus has similar lunar phases • Pope granted him permission to compare Geocentric/Heliocentric o Needed him to come back saying Copernicus was wrong (prove the church right) § Copernicus (Revolutions)-- Galileo (Dialogue) • Dialogue said that Copernicus was right o Placed on forbidden books list • Pope is angered by this: Galileo--Roman Inquisition o He was found "vehemently suspected of heresy"-- punishable by death § Forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest § But the book was already out there, despite him taking his word back § This is how he died-- so he suffered for his discoveries Ø Psychology in the Renaissance o Petrarch (1304-1375)-- influential in today's Humanism § Loyal Christian wanting to reconcile Christian and Classical thought § Humans should be understood in terms of their natural setting, not just in terms of theology § Set the stage for expansion of humanistic studies • Influential for how we counsel people today o Niccolo Machiavelli & Social Influence § Machiavelli scale • Avg score: 25 • High score= more likely to bargain in social situations (high match) o Can be very persuasive • Low score- less likely to bargain in social situations (low match) • This is a sort of personality scale indicating what sort of bargain/deal a person will make in social situations-- i.e., how much will someone bargain for another person o How are you impacting those around you? By argument/bargaining? • People have different set points on this scale-- i.e. their temperament § "An amoral, manipulative attitude towards other individuals" (Gutteram, 1970) § "What people do" § His Methods • Descriptive objective approach to science (political) • Rejection of the moralistic approach • Role of social influence in human life • Social psychology of power § Influence on psychology? How do we gain authority among others? How do we keep it? • • How do we persuade people to believe us? • Was counseling people with money to gain authority, security, and power • Social psychology of power-- influence o Jean Luis Vives (1492-1530) § "Father of modern psychology" § "What the soul is, is of no concern for us to know; what it is like, what its manifestations are, is of very great importance" • Instead of focusing on the miniscule things, or the physical appearance of the soul, let's focus on what it means • Focusing on the functions of it, that's what matters § Emotions-- • Nature and Nurture o "sadness causes black bile, black bile causes sadness" § Similar to what Hippocrates laid out § Learning-- • Pedagogy • Education for poor and women Education and knowledge essential for social reform (School psychology) o Education is essential for us to have access to rationality (he was a rationalist) § Memory-- • Association • "Memory is sustained by an entire regimen of nourishment, food, drink, exercise, relaxation, sleep, moderation, and things suitable for the improvement of this faculty" o Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) § "First consult experience, THEN reason" He's an empiricist • § Big on the senses-- most primarily sight • Gave us extensive info on vision § Anatomy § Engineering § Art § Psychology • Vision= "the sovereign sense" • Eye is the root of human knowledge • Eye= responds to light, does not emit light o Images are inverted o Distance o Retinal disparity Ø Michael de Montaigne (1533-1592) o Catholic with strong protestant tendencies o Resurrected the idea of skepticism (a cornerstone of science) § We follow faith too blindly § Humans arrogant and vain § We are not superior to animals § Motivation and emotion on belief § We should not believe the accuracy of our senses o Apology for Raymond Sebond-- not a genuine apology; an attack on human arrogance o Montaigne & Psychology § Introspection § Child rearing • Brutal punishment is for revenge not effect • Corporal punishment; public beatings of children were normal o Every child was beaten, except for his daughter Stepping outside of the box for child development • § Experience is never pure • Is joy a pure experience or is it a combination of lots of things? § Inconsistencies of human action • We follow our "appetites" but they constantly change • We have many roles and this causes inconsistencies § Naturalistic study of human behavior • Methods are important • As opposed to supernatural causes o Olivia Sabuco (1562-1590) § Psychology and physiology § "Pew philosophy of the Nature of Man" book she wrote • Her father claimed to have wrote it when he realized people liked it • She came back and claimed credit for her book o Big deal; this was before women's education § Authority & Science • Study: Why Journalists Scam the Media into Spreading Bad Chocolate Science • "for in the sciences the authority of thousands of opinions is not worth as much as one tiny spark of reason in an individual man" (Galileo) • Reason was not just a matter of understanding or observation; it referenced scientific inferences based on measurement, quantification and demonstration-- all things religion could not provide. Chapter 6 Ø The “Who” of Empiricism o Francis Bacon § In the running for title "Father of Modern Psychology" § Methodological unity § Science is the key! • But he was not a scientist…oops § Life • Died from stuffing a chicken with snow o This is how he is a scientist-- he got pneumonia from being outside in the snow studying animals (specifically a chicken) o Studied the effects of freezing on the preservation of meat § Our quest for knowledge can be successful • He saw value in Skepticism, but challenged that it is flawed • Had no real methods but… o The "art of discovery may advance as discoveries advance" o Being like a spider (one end of the extreme) § Teamwork § What are you generating by yourself/with others? o Or like an ant (other end of the extreme) o We should be in between the two animals, like a bee § Argued against rationalism and said we should be inductive and gather data o John Locke (1632-1704) § Life • Natural sciences and medicine • Law and parliament (common theme) § Idea of Tabula Rasa • "white paper" • No innate ideas of morality and God o No knowledge of good or bad o No knowledge of God • Mind is a blank slate, you're born with nothing innate § What's important to empiricists is our mind-- therefore education is key § Locke & Psychology • Primary and secondary qualities (like Galileo) o Qualities of stimulus objects in the physical world o Primary quality: the structure, the given way it is o Secondary quality: the color, etc. it's unique to YOU, can be argued, dependent on the perceiver • Education is important over nature (**school psychology) • Children o Let children question everything, let them be educated o Fresh air, sleep, exercise o Brutal & corporal punishments for children at this time o Believed in hardening-- turning physical punishment into a disheartening way of punishing § Letting children cry it out, sleep on hard bed, be uncomfortable, etc. o Punishment is ok, but not as good as positive reinforcement § Punishment isn't effective for path of education o David Hume- causality and REAL empiricism § Maintain that our experience is simply a chain of events § Very close to psychology § Life Scottish- University of Edinburgh • • Age 15 after leaving had a nervous breakdown, sent to France to recover • "A Treatise of Human Nature"-- poor seller! o Had a good sense of humor; joked about his enemies (the Christians) § They hated him because his views differed from the church at the time • Unorthodox religious views o All of his books were on forbidden book list! § Experience is the primary subject matter of philosophy • Don't look to reason, but look to experience § Causality is a secondary quality; a psychological problem • Don’t rely on causality, it could drive you crazy trying to find the one true cause of everything; there is no one true cause § Mental life cannot be reasoned about… it's all about impressions & ideas • Ideas are fainter impressions of images • Relates everything back to experience • Our bundles of sensation are all physiology-- NOT a higher power Ø Empiricism and Education o David Hartley-- 7 social ideas o Utilitarianism § Jeremy Bentham-- Laws & Psych (forensic today*) • Every law is an infraction of liberty • Greatest good for the greatest number of people • Doubted innate knowledge • Life o Oxford o Law o Donated his body to science (unheard of at the time) § Principle of Utilitarianism • Psychological hedonism-- a sensation of feeling good… Freud's ideas perhaps stemmed from this? • Actions should be judged in terms of their social consequences for pleasure or pain o It's not right for it to be judged on the revolution of the crime • Cruel and unnecessary punishment should be avoided o What is justice? It's been based more on emotion-- our consequences based on our emotion, which isn't right • Utalitarianism applied o Is our current legal system stressful? Yes! o For jurors o For victims (children, elderly, mentally ill) o For lawyers, police officers o Therapeutic jurisprudence: legal system's role as a therapeutic agent § Bentham would call for this § Being smarter about effects on those in the room (court) § Being a support system for victims and perpetrator to be more understanding o Mary Wollstonecraft § Early pioneer in the battle for women's emancipation § Argued against essentialism § "If mind is white paper, education is permanent" § Life • Father gambled and drunk his inheritance • Informal education (women not educated formally) o Women seemed too "emotional" to be educated o "Ignorance is a frail based virtue" § Mary challenged women to not be frail-- to stand up for themselves and demand education • Teacher • Her second daughter married Shelley-- Mary Shelley: wrote Frankenstein • Train women in fields like medicine, law, etc. • Importance of empiricism for women across all fields o John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) § Modernizing empiricism § Looking at the mind in mechanical terms § Life • Coined term utalitarian (19th century liberalism) • Harriet got him interested in love (his lover) • Suffered severe depression • Used poetry and art to bring himself back (and love) § Didn't want to push psychology into a science by "biologizing it" • All states of mind are understood by other states of mind or by states of the body Chapter 7 o Rene Descartes • I think therefore I am--"Cogito ergo sum" • In the running for father of modern psychology (as well as Bacon and Vives) • While he was doubting, he could not doubt that he was doubting, and therefore he was thinking § While he is thinking, he is existing • Dualist § The mind and the body are physically different entities § He believed they interacted in the pineal gland (believed that was the center of our brain) • Distinct senses; we can rely on the senses • Rationalist § Pushed his ability to doubt • Founder of modern philosophy • Mathematician** § He uses a mathematical approach to debate his messages § His use of math helps us to separate him from the field of philosophy • Emphasis on deduction and mathematical proof • The Descartes Method § He pushes the limits of his ability to doubt • Never accept anything as true unless it is clear and immune from doubt • If it's complex, break it down into different parts; divide all difficulties into as many parts as possible • Take comprehensive notes; complete and comprehensive reviews so nothing is omitted • Start with easiest and simplest elements and then proceed to the complex § Do you have your own method? Think about your individual method for approaching problems • Typically, methods help us • Always work on refining your method (can change and learn from others) • Gave us "Testable" hypotheses! • Ex. Testing the nerve and muscles • A lot of movements are "non reflective" • Have their origins in senses which activate spirits • Animals as God's creations better than man made machines • No qualitative difference though • Animals do not have pineal glands (which was wrong)-- saying they didn't have a soul • Used animals for research • Dissected them while they were alive • He was amused by their screams; said their cries were mechanical • Believed if animals didn't have a soul, then they couldn't experience suffering o Baruch Spinoza • "God is one, that is, only one substance can be granted in the universe. Whatsoever is, is in God, and without God nothing can be, or be conceived." • He was excommunicated from his church (shunned), which is a big deal • What motivates people? Fear §People in church fear Hell • If there is only God, according to Spinoza, then it's impossible that demonology would even exist (no Hell) §He is radically monist (one God one view) • Radical • Life §Jewish §Moved to Holland to escape Spanish persecution of Jews §Heidelberg • Ethics • Was offered very lush positions to be a philosopher, but refused them all because they meant compromising his monist views §Ended up working on lenses (low level society) and this is said to have led to his death--inhaling chemicals at work • Spinoza on Descartes and Religious Authority § Against Descartes ideas of Dualism § Founded the beginnings of a rebellion against religious authority • Against demonology • People cannot be possessed • Pantheist o Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz • The Great Unifier • Life §Influenced by father's death §Alchemist §Refused University positions in preference of working for Princes and Politicians (took the cushy life) • Unified… §Medicine & Science §Catholics and Protestants • Invented the first "Calculating Machine" §*Math is important again • Also struggling with Descartes idea of dualism • Leibniz-- Uniformitarianism § Perception vs. Appreciation • Monads and petites perceptions • The petite perceptions (sensory information) can interact to create the large things that we sense (for example the thunder we hear outside) • *Sensation and perception in today's psychology • We don’t attend to all the little bits of information, only what we need to attend to create our perceptions (this is today's view on it) • The mind and the body act like two clocks on the wall, separate from each other, working in sync but never interacting with each other § Nature Never makes leaps • Change is gradual and takes place over periods of time • Uniformitarianism • Changes in consciousness gradual not "jumps" o Immanuel Kant-- "Critique of Pure Reason" • He saw a reason between empiricism and rationalism (the grey area) • Life §Prussian (German Philosopher) §Unmarried § University of Koenigsberg (never left his hometown-- revered by the people there still) §Very strict upbringing focusing on religion • Dwelling on "heaven and hell" rather than life §"The starry heavens above me, the moral law within me" • All knowledge begins with experience § Similar to Locke-- Tabula Rosa (blank slate); so Kant does acknowledge empiricists • Knowledge begins with sensory experience § We must also have this rational mind outside of empiricism • Mind is active unlike Locke who said it was passive § Mind makes experience intelligible, rather than just relying on senses • Kant-- Social Psychology § Theory of moral development • Heteronomy • Government from outside • Rule that governs moral behavior from the outside o Lay out the rules, tell us how to live • Autonomy • Leading to self-government • Ruling from within oneself Chapter 8- Mechanization/Quantification Ø The Who and How of early measurement o Thomas Hobbes—“fearless intellectual adventurer” § Argued with Descartes; considered a corruptor of morals • Spoke against biblical literalism and the authority of the Pope o Don’t take everything so seriously, or word for word § Ideas • Rationalist: Against Bacon's empiricism o Sought truth from facts…but must be done through deduction o Reason is important; must gain knowledge through deduction • Knowledge has its origins in sensory impressions from physical movement activating the sense organs o He called these "Phantasms"= motions in the brain • Experience= knowledge • Knowledge = science • He was a materialist o Even argued that God was a material being o The church didn't like that because God is supposed to be an all-powerful ominous being, not a structured material thing • Powerful drives governed behavior o Self interest and self preservation • Without the structure and idea of a civil state we have o "continual fear and danger of violent death; and the life of man (is) solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short" o People would criticize him on being so pessimistic, but then he'd ask "Do you lock your doors at night?" when people said "yes," his point was proven § Levithan (1651) • Important psychological and Political Work • Look at how we function as a society o Jan Swammerdam § Spirits… I don't think so! • Didn't agree with Descartes-- so he tests it! § Tested Descartes theory of movement • Proved that spirits did not inflate the muscles • Cut muscle and found that it still contracts § Distinction between sensory and muscle nerves • Note: Group of researchers that fueled the quest for mechanization and quantification o Unzer § Was fascinated by the body in the same way § Reflexes • Discovered reflexes are Identical in decapitated and intact people and animals • Very interested in mechanization-- how the body works § Afferent and efferent • Nervous activity into and out of the nervous system § Studied the relationship between consciousness and nervous activity • Was all nervous activity contributing to consciousness? • Was it just high level activity generated by the brain? • What level of pain are we injecting up on someone with this method of death? o Juulien Offray De La Mettrie § "Thinking machine" (*cognitive psych, animals) § Determinist § L'Homme Machine • "Man a machine"-- we as humans are like machines (much like Descartes' mechanist point of view) • Origins in Descartes ideas-- deterministic evolutionary mechanistic point of view § Mental events depend on bodily events • Clarity of thought related to body temperature • Good physical health= good mental health (ability to think clearly) • Brain injuries = mental debilitation (lucid thinking) o PTSD's effects on the brain § "The model of a 'thinking machine' into which sense perceptions feed ideas in the form of coded symbols that are in turn, stored, classed, compared, and combined by the cerebral apparatus in order to engender all the known varieties of thought" • Birth of cognitive psychology; hold this idea for 1950's psychology § He said there is No qualitative difference between man and animal • Yes, humans have language, but that's not enough to make us unique • Teaching apes to speak… Why not? He said we could do that, so we are no better from animals • Hold this thought for 1960s-70s psychology: Comparative psychology o Comparing animal and man; we don't focus on this type of psychology anymore Ø Figures in the Localization of Function ( o Francois Magendie § Father of experimental physiology § Proved Charles bell's Theory… "the Bell-Magendie law" • Looking at afferent and efferent nervous system routes of the spinal column § Founder of experimental pharmacology § Previous way of knowing was through other people, but in 1817, we had books, ways of knowing on different syjects § 1817: wrote Précis elementaire de physiologique (intro to physiology) o Franz Joseph Gall § "…gave psychology its most extreme theory of localization of function" § Personality and intelligence traits localized in particular areas of the brain § Ideas about phrenology offensive to religious and political authority § Folk psychology at its worst… pseudoscience § Phrenology: Extreme localization of function to the head § "You ought to have your head examined" § A second look at phrenology: Video clip • 1800s phrenology originated • Phrenology= assessing the person based on the structure of their skull • People divided into 4 body types: o Nervous o Bilious o Sanguine o Lymphatic • The mind is not a single entity; divided into 37 faculties • The size of the different mental faculties are proportionate to that aspect playing into a person's personality o By feeling the bumps on the skull, can tell if someone is prone to certain trait • Behavior truly influenced the health of the mind o Phrenologists emphasized fresh air and exercise to benefit the mind and your well being • Neuroplasticity= phenomenon that brain can change its structure based on experience • The components of the brain are not static -Gall Different parts of the brain controlled/facilitated different mental processes -- • Gall was the first to think of this • Phrenology = "Science of the mind" § With changing cognitions, we can change our makeup. Ø Critics of Phrenology o Pierre Flourens § Against phrenology, and supported the idea of localization of function • Respiratory function in the Medulla Oblongata • Cerebrum = higher level cognitive function and perceptions § He said the brain functions as a whole • Highly interconnected networks • There is some localization of function, but for the most part, the brain is highly interconnected § Theorized plasticity of the brain o Paul Broca § We do have some localization • Broca’s area—areas of the brain control speech production, which is localized in the brain o Carl Wernicke § Superior portion of the left temporal lobe interferes with speech comprehension § People could speak but not understand language • Following damage, can understand one component of speech or language (i.e. the word) but not understand production • How they discovered more localized areas Ø Observing and Measuring o Fritsch & Hitzig § Pioneers in electrophysiology How stimulations effect specific functions of the brain • • Sensitivity to specific areas on the brain § Using dogs stimulated one side of the cortex § Measured response in the opposite side of the body § Methods developed influenced evolution of psychology as a discipline! o Jaques Quetelet § One of the most underestimated figures in psychology § Relationship between age and criminal activity… § Statistics! • Normal bell curve • Standard deviation Data is important, but it's your interpretation of what you're discovering that • matters § "Average man" • There is a predecessor associated with each behavior relevant to the judicial system § Developed the BMI scale § Influenced Florence Nightengale • Major reformer and statistician • Developed figures and ways to visualize statistics that were being found at the time o Ways to interpret data from the bell curve that was being commonly used o Sir Francis Galton § Proposed a connection between genius and insanity (during nervous breakdown at university) • Hereditary genius (1869) • People's hereditary genius interferes with their mental disorders (i.e., insanity) which effects their day to day life § Obsession with counting § "Statistical inquiries into the Effectiveness of Prayer" (1872) § Co-relations and their measurements (1888) § Eugenics § First to use questionnaire in psychology § He doesn't fit the trait of the "average man" • The way he navigated the world and viewed others then made it easy for him to be above others or treat people as lower because he was a prodigy • He had a very rigid framework for what was good/bad in the world and what was success/failure o When he viewed other cultures, races, etc. he had a clear easy definition for what was superior and inferior in comparison § "There is no body or mental attribute… Which cannot be gripped and consolidated into an ogive with a smooth outline" § Attempt to rationalize prejudice by self-fulfilling prophecies • If he had a different objectivity to what was viewed, he made the occurence of the world fit to what he wanted to hear/see § This approach is non-objective; we must look at objectivity in a different way • Have an approach that fits every subject of the population to make the method reliable Chapter 10: Naturalism & Humanitarian Reform Ø Definitions o What is Naturalism? § Definition: a philosophical perspective, states that scientific procedures and laws apply to all phenomena (textbook) § Naturalism: replacing demonology o Humanitarian Reform § Psychology emerging from changes in society § Abolition of slavery, education, etc. § Changes leading to reform in: • Slavery, education, sanitation and health, equality for women, etc. Ø Early Evolutionary Theories of naturalism o Sir Charles Lyell § Reference Anaximander: nurturing first infant § Getting away from geocentric toward heliocentric: Copernicus § Lyell is building off of these ideas • He is applying them to geology; founder of modern geology § Uniformitarianism • Evolutionary changes on earth occur over a long time • As opposed to a catastrophe theory § Huge influence on Darwin o Comte De Buffon § Denied "Mutability" and did not openly support organic evolution § Studying humans developmentally-- looking at changes over time § Did wonder about apes and humans having a common ancestry § First modern figure to study developmental history & mortality statistics • Looking for the natural explanation of human changes o Why is an infant more likely to survive in such and such environment? Getting into environment-- because it's what God wants o Erasmus Darwin—Evolutionary Theory § Inheritance of acquired characteristics • This is the mechanism by which we evolved § Evolution as inheritance of acquired characteristics § All traits develop from a need (Not in accordance with church teachings) § Plant life preceded animal life § Animals all evolved from the same basic material o Jean-Baptise Lamarck § Progressionism § Steady linear advance from simple to complex species § Progression in nature from simple to complex forms § Transmutation of species § Characteristics of a species changed based on external conditions • Use/disuse model: animals/creatures are steps in this process o Proposed inheritance of acquired characteristics as the mechanism of evolution § Environmental pressure --> behavioral change --> biological change --> pass on to offspring § Ex. Trees get taller, so giraffes biological genes change to have longer necks to adapt o Charles Darwin § Evolutionary Theory § Darwin's work was presented with Alfred Russell Wallace's (1858) • Why wait so long to present? Because he was afraid of this controversial knowledge-- didn’t want to put family at risk § Then wrote-- "on the Origin of Speices by Means of Natural Selection" (1859) • Species tend to overpopulate • There is variation in all populations (this is random!) • There is struggle for survival o Learned from Fuegans on voyage; seeing humans act in animalistic ways • Individual differences with survival values are passed on to later • generations (i.e., adaptive traits) § When writing on natural selection, he felt he was "confessing a murder" because it went against church and views of the time o Herbert Spencer § Gave us the term “survival of the fittest” § Social Darwinism § Society at large § “Principles of Psychology” written in 1855 o A return to witchcraft § Johann Weyer—first to suggest that perhaps “witches” were suffering from a mental illness § People accused him of being a witch because of this suggestion § Franz Anton Mesmer (today we say: to mesmerize) o Magnets across the body § Claimed to cure epilepsy and hysteria § Method of curing: had a robe and want, very theatrical guy, going around commanding people to "sleep" § Ran out of town (Vienna) after claiming to restore sight § Psychotherapy as Theatre § Animal magnetism § Essentially: a bucket of water with metal stone and glass in it Ø Humanitarian Reform and Emotional Health o Philippe Pinel § Questions why people are being treated like this in asylums (similar to Dorothea Dix) § Modern Pinel Restriant system § Reform of asylums and Founder of Psychiatry? • Bicetre Hospital (1792) o Disgusting physical conditions o Released from their chains § Questioned why a man was chained, no one knew, then he unchained him § Why don't we think about patient history? -Pinel o Did use restraints, but was more humane o Patient history • Mental health and physiology o Environmental factors and lifestyle o Father of modern humanistic psychology • "treatise on insanity" o Dorothea Dix § Reformer: • Of asylums § Witnessed appalling conditions in asylums-- got things changed by appeal • Used statistics in conducting her own social research into bad conditions • Founded 32 "mental hospitals"-- moved away from term asylum • Brain was the organ of the mind, but mental illness was also "The offspring of civilization" § Treatment: good diet, exercise, amusement, meaningful occupation o Margaret Sanger § Active in women’s rights to birth control § Opened one of the first planned parenthood clinics • 1916—first American Birth Control Clinic o she was charge don trial for opening it, won the trial, which is how we have these clinics today; today, what we know as Planned Parenthood § Women’s rights are linked to reproductive choice o Benjamin Rush § Advocate for reform in all areas § Mental Health reform (1792) • Patients aren’t possessed by Satan Sought a real, organic, medical explanation • § Investigated/Case histories • Emphasizing people's history and background, like Pinel---> for correct treatment § Treatment • Blood letting o Not the correct method today (obviously), but at least he tried for an organic method • Gyrator • Tranquilizing chair § Article: Public Health Then and Now • Details the reform of Benjamin Rush in which he attempted to create a change in public health
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