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Jesus and Early Christians- Midterm Study Guide

by: Monique Hercules

Jesus and Early Christians- Midterm Study Guide 3250

Marketplace > Florida International University > Religion > 3250 > Jesus and Early Christians Midterm Study Guide
Monique Hercules

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About this Document

Notes were taken in class dating from August to October 2016. Covering topics of Dating the gospels, Vocabulary, Timeline, Hellenism, Herod the Great.
Jesus and Early Christainity
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religion, Jesus, Early Christianity
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monique Hercules on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3250 at Florida International University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Jesus and Early Christainity in Religion at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 10/08/16
Midterm Review Apocrypha- A protestant term to a collection of Jewish writing, most included in the Septuagint but not part of the official Hebrew bible Christology- Theological discourse on Jesus Christ, particularly how the divine and human aspects of Jesus are related to ne another. Diaspora- Greek word meaning dispersion. Jewish people living outside the homeland, from the Babylonian exile. Eschatology – The study of the end times Essenes- Jewish faction in the Hellenistic period, characterized by sectarian teachings and strict community discipline. They do not appear in the New Testament but are mentioned in other ancient sources. Qumran community was identified by the majority of scholars. Form Criticism- A method of biblical criticism that analyses the narrative forms of the text to help determine the purpose of each form in community practices which in turn helps illuminate passage meaning. Hellenism-Greek culture Hellenistic Age- Period from the death of Alexander the Great 323 BC to the ascendency of Octavian(Caesar Augustus) in 31 BC. Herod- Historical Jesus – Modern scholars refer to the historical person of Jesus Christ and the attempt to reconstruct what his life was like using not only biblical sources but any other historical resources available. Maccabean Revolt- The insurgency of the Jewish people led by one Judas nicknamed Maccabeus” The Hammer” against the Seleucids (one of the Hellenistic Monarchies) in 168-164 BC. Which resulted in victory and the founding of the Hasmonean Dynasty. Sadducees- A Jewish faction in the Hellenistic period, drawn from the upper echleons of the priesthood and thus belonging to the ruling class. Rivals of the Pharisees, they were concerned primarily with the temple cult and rejected all beliefs(like the resurrection from the dead ) not found in the Torah. They appear in the gospels as opponents of Jesus, although not as frequently as the scribes and Pharisees. Source Criticism- A critical method that seeks to discover the written sources of a document. Synoptic gospels- The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke.” Seeing together” because they share a great deal of wording and sequence in common. Zealots- A coalition of freedom fighters probably formed in the late phrase of the Jewish rebellion against Rome in AD66-70. At one time, scholars believed the Zealots were long standing revolutionary party that would have been active during the time Jesus, but the recent trend is away from the view. Lingua Franca- The Common Language Apocalype- Reveal from God (REVEAL) Apocryphal- never really happened (HIDDEN) Pseudeprigraphic- False name: attributed to someone who never wrote it Apocrapha- Early Jewish works Ex- Philip or Mary Tabernacle- Tent Mysticism- Direct Aprehension of God REIMARUS - The Enlightment period of Europe Germany specifically - Wrote” Principles of Truth of Nature Religion” Believed not to trust the ideas of miracles, rejected ideas of supernatural revelation, natural religion can be seen and touched which produced logic and reason. ST - 1 person to separate the Jesus of History from the Christ of Faith. - Wrote” Apology for the Rational Worshipper of God” Did not publish for fear of public opinion, Book was then given to daughter at his death which was later given to G.E. LESSING. Apology- Given a defense for something. EX- Apologetics G.E. LESSING - Published Reimarus book ” Apology for the Rational Worshipper of God” in installments.( chapter by chapter) Renamed “ Fragments of the Unknown” - Did not believe in Miracles - -Believed morals were self authenticated EX-Murder - -Wanted the New Testament to be more logical and morals to be self authenticated. Sandra Frankiel “ChristianityJUXTAPOSE E.P Sanders “ The Historical Figure of Jesus” 1. The question of the supernatural 2. The question of the inconsistencies in the texts Ex- Mark and Matthew has same list of the 12 apostles while Luke says Simon the Canaanite vs. zealoite 3. Historical context Tuesday 8/31/2016 Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) 39 books Genesis: A universal history - Creation did not come by mistake - Since God is creator we are subject to him - Adam and Eve caused 1 sin to enter the world - World is cursed - As human race grows so does evil - God plans flood and has Noah make Ark Noah&Wi fe fe SHEM HAM JAPHETH Abraha Abraha m Sarah m Hagar Jacob Esau Ishmael Israel(12 tribes) Ernst Troeltsch (1865-1928) Theologian - Influential at the School of Religion - Autonomy and Enlightment concept - Correlation cause and effect (no room for revelation) - Analogy and Probability - History is and History task is September 6, 2016 Major Holidays 1. Passover- Spring 3. Feast of Tabernacles- Late SummerSummer - A lot of traveling to Jerusalem but many went to synagogues closer to home (synagogues are not a temple) - Temple is for animal sacrifice - Synagogue is not prayer not sacrifice and reading scripture an act of worship. Living Outside the Land - After Exile - Jndaism becomes a movement - 1 temple in Jerusalem - Scripture is more important Elephantine - Small island in the middle of the Nile, guarding the south entrance to Egypt - Warriors lived on this island that protected Egypt Tithe - 1 and 2 ndtithe= turns out that there is more - When God brings you to the promise land Israel you are still suppose to pay tithe. - Rahab’s said no you only pay tithe if you love in the land and you are a farmer YEHUDI -Monothestic - Every 7 days no work -Strict dietary laws -Became a culture because of religious beliefs Greek Civilization - After Persia Wars - “ A sound mind in a sound body” - Mastering perspective - Democracy was established in small city states Hellenistic (Greek) - Hellenism (adopting Greek ways) 1. Linguistic 2. Cultural 3. Political- Democracy - Independent City States - 300’s Philo conquered all city states then died his son was Alexander the Great Alexander the Great ( Great Genreal) - Attacks Persia and Egypt and WINS - Establishes City of Alexander - CONTROLS EVERYTHING - His own men gets sick of him - Aristotle was his teacher - Marries and has non Egyptian children - Dies in Babylonia - September 8, 2016 Hellenism 1.Linguistic 2. Cultural 3. Political- Democracy 4.Philosophical 5. Religious- Polytheistic, Greek Gods open and tolerant Greeks believed -“The Spirit was good but the body/physical is bad” Stoics- Live a life of reason (According to reason) Ptolemies- Took over Egypt Seleucids- Took over Syria Judea - Ruled by Ptolemis 1 st Agreed keep the culture and tradition as is as well as stay under there own laws - Ruled by Seleucids in 198 BCE - 175-164 BCE Antioehus Epiphanes Jason buys high priest hood stolen from brother Simon- IN BLOODLINE Menelaus the tribe of Benjamin made highpriest- NOT BLOODLINE During war the Romans came while Antiochous was about to win - Popillius Laenas tells Antichous to withdraw from Egypt he draws a circle in the sand around and told him to make his decision in the circle - Jason comes back hearing a rumor that Antichous died - Antichous out rule Jewish religion, burns copy of scripture and then built a Greek alter on a Jewish Temple sacrificed a pig which is an unclean animal MODIN (Maccabean Revolt) 167 BCE - Mattathias priest is pressured to sacrifice to other Greek gods refuses; a the official forces someone else to sacrifice but before they can Mattathais killed the other Jew and kills the solider that pressured him - Judah(The Maccabee) is the son who starts the guerilla warfare HASMONEANS 164BCE - Judah retakes Jerusalem - Anti- Hellenism rises- Judah is killed in battle; brother takes over- This family has political power. POMPEY- Roman Period starts (Jesus Period) - Sent to clean out pirates so Roman ships would be safe - Both brothers ask for him to recognize them as highpriest- He chose the weaker brother. - Romans take over when gates are opened - 63 BCE Pompey takes over Jerusalem - Romans did not want to rule so they appointed people - The stronger brother attacks - Pompey allied with Caesar TRI-MGives deal to Herod: To rule if he drives out the Paranians. - Then Herod rules over the Jews HEROD THE GREAT RULES - Octavian(partners with Augustus) and Mark Anthony(partners with Cleopatra) fight= Octavian wins - Great empire that Jesus lives in is born - Crucifixion is a Roman punishment not a Jewish punishment Herod Archela Antipas us September 13, 2016- September 15,2016 Origins of the Gospels - Reading is recreating speech - Reading was almost always done aloud - Writing is a recording device - Silent reading was not developed till the middle ages Gospel( Evangelion)- “ Good News” ( Greek) - All gospels end with the death and resurrection of Jesus - The timeline is about 3 years since John mentions Passover 3 times. GRIESBACH st - Made the 1 gospel synopsis (4 parallel column) - The first 3 gospels are more closely related IRENAEUS - Bishop in France - Why 4 gospels? Because gospels go to the four corners of the earth - Matthew was the published in its own dialect TATIAN - Put all the gospels together so that you can read in in order “ DIATESSARON” - Became so popular that people forgot about the separate copies which none have been found Statements in Ancient Sources 1. Eye witnesses 2. Earlier Accounts 3. Gospel of Luke - 3 generations; Luke was written 60 years later from eye witness stories PAPIAS - Earliest statement about the gospels M.HENGEL - Article on titles of the gospel: You didn’t have to put a title on the gospel until another gospel comes around so the titles had to happen early - There is only 1 gospel but it is told in 4 different ways Telling the Common Story - Matthew 3:13-17 Longest account - Mark 1:9-11 - Luke 3 Shortest Account Literary Asides “ He said to the paralytic Matthew 9:5-6 Mark 2:9-11 Luke 5:23-34 Literary Dependence Matthe w w Mark Luke Mark Matthe Luke w Dominant View Luke Matthe Mark w w Least popular st -Early church believed that Matthew was the 1 ; since Matthew was the an apostle - The view of the bible being in order of how its written in the bible was also regarded. EVIDENCE OF MARKAN PRIORITY - Study of individual accounts within the gospels reveals that at certain places either Matthew of Luke will omit details that are crucial to the proper understanding of the account while the details are always present in Mark. This would agree with the view that both Matthew and Luke used Mark but would be less likely that a) Mark omission of the creed b) Luke omission of the Pilate customs THE ARGRUMENT FROM ORDER -Pericope Matthew, Mark, Luke with each other against -Matthew & Luke never agree on the other of events on Mark Mark is the common denominator - This lead people to conclude that Mark is the earliest but logically could be explained that Mark was last. W.F FARMER st - Favors idea Mark is last not 1 MATERIAL COMMON TO MATTHEW & LUKE BUT NOT IN MARK -Matthew 6:9-13 -Luke 11:2-4 Quelle- “ Source”- No mention or manuscript - A source lost to us that Matthew and Luke must have used - Examples “Lords Prayer “ - A scholarly creation - The material that only in Matthew and Luke but not in Mark - Mainly parables, prayers, sermon on mount, Jesus sayings 1. Q consists mostly of saying 2. There is some narrative material since Q refers to the Baptism and Temptation of Jesus 3. Luke follows the order of Q more closely than Matthew so the chapter and verse that we see given from Q is just chapters and verses of the corresponding material in Luke. TWO SOURCE HYPOTHESIS - Dura(upesus) A paper of Greek writing called diatera - No reference no copy - Prologue to gospel of Luke would have the source of Q if it does exist, but there is no mention - Ancient times writings were done with the scroll on knee and read aloud Four Source Hypothesis 1800’s 1900’s - Arguing questions of miracle - Some say Q is the earliest Q - Q doesn’t have any miracles; so for modern scholars - Except Q is a document we have no evidence of DATING OF GOSPELS - Q could be an oral source there’s no copy or reference to it. - M,L could be multiple documents - Once you say the gospels are anonymous the less likely people are going to read them - Matthew and Mark 1 generation - Luke is 3 generation but goes by eyewitnesses - The Fall of the Temple of Jerusalem 70 CE is the best dating of the gospels - MASADA Strong hold to sustain - Vaticinium ex eventu- Prophesy after the fact - After 70 CE the gospel would be dated - J.A.T Robinson 40 yrs ago Redated the New Testament 1976 book - The priority of John-Argued John as the first book Early Christians believed that Jesus would return quickly so they didn’t immediately write it down - Parallels the dead sea scrolls they always thought Jesus was coming soon


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