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TEXAS A&M / Biology / BIOL 201 / What is Globalization?

What is Globalization?

What is Globalization?

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Saturday, October 8, 2016


What is Globalization?



INTS 201 Midterm Review

Globalization

- Globalization refers to the expansion and intensification of social relations and  consciousness across world-time and world-space. (p.15)

- Globalization: set of social processes leading us to globality

- Globality is the existence of global economic, political, cultural, and environmental  interconnections and flows that makes many of the currently existing borders and  boundaries nonexistent

- Glocal: global + local

- Globalization is uneven

• People are affected differently and have different levels of impact on globalization - Not “natural” or inevitable (manmade courses of history)

- Time-space compression: word coined by David Harvey to mean how information  and other processes are no longer bound by distance or time

Global Scapes

- There was a fear that slowly the whole world was going to begin to look like the  United States


What is Global Scapes?



- Fear that the US was going to take over the world

- Globalization is not a one way flow, there are many linkages and flows - Homogenization: everything looks the same

- Scapes: they don’t take into account disjunctures

• emphasize fluid and regular nature of globalization

• Perspective is very important

• No two landscapes look the same  

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Saturday, October 8, 2016

• Ethnoscape: people in motion, each place has its own ethnoscape according to its  needs, always flowing and changing

• Technoscape: movement and distribution of technology, how they flow from one  place to another, Skype, we can maintain relationships differently, iCow, people can  change the technoscape We also discuss several other topics like human biology uva

• Financescape: the way that capital moves around, currency fluctuation directly  affects countries that have ties to that currency, immigrant workers


Who is Thomas L. Friedman?



• Mediascape: distribution of images and spread of technology to make these images  available

• Ideoscape: ideologies and political images that circulate the globe, differently  interpreted and applied in different countries  

• Disjuncture: non-isomorphic paths (they don’t all have the same shape) Don't forget about the age old question of aromantic test

Thomas L Friedman  

- Thomas Freidman said the world was only ten years.

- Globalization replaced the Cold war  

- Globalization round 1: large to medium/Globalization round 2: medium to small - Countries economically dependent on each other have too much at stake to get into  conflict with one another “Golden Arches Theory”

- Golden Arches Theory is seen as silly because not all governments are democratic or  authoritarian regimes

- Actually integration of two different countries may bring more problems - Ex: Russia and Ukraine over Crimea

- Steven Weber: the world is more dangerous and scary than it has ever been, the dark  side of globalization

- The intensification of evil in globalization is new but not globalization itself - Unipolarity: single superpower (US) means that the world is less safe because the  superpower is overburdened and can’t possibly monitor what happens in the  shadows of globalization We also discuss several other topics like darcy conant umd

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Saturday, October 8, 2016

- He thinks that if there were more superpowers that fewer places of evil would fall  through the cracks

- Opponents “going underground, going nuclear, or going ‘bad’”: must be sneaky in  order to oppose superpower

- More balance of power would make the world safer and more stable

Economic Globalization

- The intensification and stretching of economic connections across the globe - Global inequalities: “The world income pie has expanded greatly over the past two  centuries, but not everyone’s piece has expanded at the same rate” Glenn Firebaugh Don't forget about the age old question of unstructured decisions occur in situations in which no procedures or rules exist to guide decision makers towards the correct choice.

- Asian growth vs. Latin American crises

- Structural Adjustment Programs (in Africa)

- World bank and International Monetary Fund were created in the 1940s to regulate  buying and selling globally

- Neo-liberalization: free market and trade (the market self regulates, the market  naturally goes after the most efficient allocations of resources, to interfere with the  market would create social stagnation, political corruption, and the creation of  unresponsive state bureaucracies, abolish tariffs and other barriers to trade and  capital flows between nations) If you want to learn more check out bm 111

- “If you want to dispossess a people, the simplest way to do it is to tell their story  and to start with ‘secondly’” Mourid Barghouti

- too many employees in Tanzania and the government was getting too involved - The programs eliminated subsidies for local products

- They trimmed government departments

- They limited state power to regulate foreign businesses

- They also cut government social welfare and were privatized We also discuss several other topics like udel sakai

- One of the major outcomes was that the income gap became massive and  produced wealth disparities  

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Saturday, October 8, 2016

- “The theories that I helped develop explained why unfettered markets often not  only do not lead to social justice, but do not even produce efficient outcomes”  Joseph Stiglitz

- World bank was shut down

- There is no accountability and income inequality gets worse

WALMART

- A global giant

- 2.2 million employees

- $444 billion in sales annually

- families making <$40,000 a year make 42% of their purchases at Walmart - the average american family spends over $400/year at Walmart

- If Walmart were a country it would be ranked t26th largest economy of the world - The single largest importer from China in the U.S.

- Why are prices so cheap?

- outsourcing labor abroad

- 112 dead after preventable fire at Bangladesh garment factory

- average monthly salary for those employees was $38

- in 2011 Walmart declines to pay for safety improvements for supplier factories - in 2012 Walmart shareholders made $13 billion

- neoliberal employment practices at home

- majority of employees live below the poverty line

- they have to face a work turnover and complaints about customer service so they  changed their domestic labor practices

- They have competition like Amazon

- After the raise increase, Walmart reduced the amount of hours employees  worked

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Saturday, October 8, 2016

- flexible accumulation: less stable and part time work

- Union-busting

- In 2015, CEO Doug McMillion’s annual salary was $25.6 million

- benefiting from public subsidies  

- the six heirs of Walmart’s founder have more money than the bottom 41.5  percent of all Americans

AFRICA

- Myth: Africa is a country and the people speak a language called African - There is incredible diversity in Africa

- Myth: Africa is mostly jungle with some desert

- Myth: Africans come in tribes - tribes is seen as a word to describe those less than - Primitive comes with the connotation of inferiority

- Myth: Africans are not real people

- Everything Africans do is worthless, a failure, and Africans can essentially only do  bad things. Africans are basically devils.

- Everything Africans do is perfect, worthy, harmonious, better than anything  anybody else can or did do. Africans are essentially angels.

- How do we get around the single story problem?

- Ask good questions

- Fredrick Cooper: argues for a historical approach to globalization - “presentist”: that it’s only happening now

- Africa’s history shows globalization is not new

- “lumpiness”: globalization is uneven, they are not uniform, discontinuous - Africa is often left out of the discussion in globalization and if it is mentioned, it is  used as an exception to the topics in globalization

• Remotely Global focuses on Alternative Modernity (being remote doesn’t mean that a  place is stagnant to change

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Saturday, October 8, 2016

• Many times Africans feel left out of modernity because the recognize the differences in  quality of life and other areas

• “Capital does not flow, it hops” capital jumps from point to point, enterprises don’t  encompass the world but overflows from certain points

• Economic investment has been concentrated on secure enclaves and has not spread  to other industries, off-shore oil extraction in Angola (the wealth it produces never  reaches shore)

• These enclaves are essentially isolated from the rest of the region • Capital hops to enclaves and does not flow evenly across nations • This is a major part of globalization and Africa is an important part of it

• Resource Curse: Abundance of resources doesn’t mean prosperity, conservation of  wealth in very few hands occurs, political and economic instability, governments  monopolize resource wealth which leads to an impoverished population

• The weakest and most corrupt states often attract the most investment from other  nations

• Example: Sudan was made the rising economic star in Africa despite civil war

• Dictators and bad governments can be more easily exploited for resources, you can  pay off one person instead of an entire nation for its resources

Refugees, Migrants and the EU’s Crisis

- Illegal immigrant and refugee hold two different connotations

- Overfishing and migration on the coast of west Africa: Europeans are fishing too  much off the coast causing migration to Europe, disrupting customary livelihood and  causing an exodus

- A watery grave: 218,000 migrants crossed the Mediterranean in boats and 3,500  people died in the attempt

- Many people are going from West Africa to places like the Canary Islands, Malta, and  Sicily

- Many of the boats sank in the ocean because they were overcrowded  6

Saturday, October 8, 2016

- Dublin Regulation: whatever country you land in, you have to remain there until your  asylum is processed and approved, you cannot travel anywhere else  

- This is a threat to the European Union as a whole

- Greece and Italy have the most influx of migrants and it is a burden on them to pay  for them

- The crisis is really stirring up political trouble

- This migrant crisis has been going on for a long time

- What is a refugee versus a migrant?

• the right to living is being displaced from the political sphere to the compassionate  sphere

• Humanitarian reasons are much more compelling for letting people stay • economic refugees don’t count, political refugees maybe count

• Syrians paperwork is being processed faster because they are more high profile • refugees are fleeing something and migrants are not

• most will stay as undocumented migrants if they’re paperwork is denied 7

Monday, October 10, 2016

INTS 201

Global Media (Pirates and Film)

- Bollywood is one of the biggest film industries from India

- It is a multibillion dollar industry

- The target audience for Hindi movies is India and Pakistan

- First produced in 1913, most of them are in the national language of Hindi - Bollywood movies were heavily censored by the government, kissing or sexual  scenes were edited out

- 80% of popular songs in India are from films so the music and film industries are  tightly linked

- Nollywood comes from Nigeria, about 40 films released a week

- They don’t come out in theatres but go straight to video

- The Bollywood and Nollywood film industries dwarf the Hollywood industry in terms of  film producition

- Nollywood:

• Nigeria’s film industry employs over 1 million people

• the second largest employer in the country after agriculture

• generates $600 million for the economy annually

• produces about 50 movies per week second only to India’s Bollywood - It is very easy to pirate movies because they are direct-to-video

- There are only 12 cinemas in all of Nigeria  

- Hollywood is even struggling with pirating

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