Art History Midterm Study Guide
Art History Midterm Study Guide ARTH 173
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ARTH 173 Midterm Study Guide Fall 2016 D’Antonio Chapter 13 IDs: • Florence cathedral and baptistery seen from the air. Cathedral begun 1296. • Cathedral begun 1296. • Dome was not completed until 15th century Decided to add vaults instead of wood roo ier: column with any other shape than round/smooth • Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned. ca. 1280-90, Giotto, Madonna Enthroned, ca. 1310 • • Left: Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned. ca. 1280-90 Right: Giotto,Madonna Enthroned, ca. 1310 • Changes in perspective • Arena Chapel (Scrovegni Chapel), Padua: interior, looking toward the apse. Frescoes by Giotto, 1304-06 • • Giotto, Christ Entering Jerusalem, c. 1303. Fresco. Arena Chapel, Padua • Piety and empathy of people with figures in painting Intense emotion Use of “light”, lighter in foreground and casts shadows in background which gives perspective o Giotto, The Entombment of Christ, c. 1303. Fresco, Arena Chapel, Padua • • Emotional faces Rock formation draw attention to focus of scene Gornata: Separation into one day’s work • Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, begun 1297. Tower added after 1325 Communal government • • Rotation of government officials • Nove (the Nine): brief periods of rule in Sienna when they lived in the palace • Now used as normal Palazzo (meeting place) • Duccio di Buoninsegna, Virgin and Child with Saints (“Maesta”), main panel of altarpiece, 1308-11. Tempera on panel. Museuo dell’Opera del Duomo, Siena • Cult of the Virgin: she was city’s special protecter • Ducchio commissioned to paint altar piece in honor of previous idol that had protected the city • 4 Saints in front are patron saints of Sienna • Intercede on behalf of city to the Virgin o Duccio, Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin, from the back of the Maestà, 1308-11 • • Back faced the altar and the clergy o Duccio, Christ Entering Jerusalem, from the back of the Maestà altarpiece. 1308-11. o • Emphasis on texture • Cloth “sparkles” with levels of paint and gold • Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Good Government in the City and Countryside, 1338. Fresco. Palazzo Pubblico, Siena. • • Depicts good things in city Safety • People celebrating • New architecture Good things in countryside • Agriculture Hunting Safety and freedom of travel Idea that good government keeps people in countryside safe (unrealistic) • Threat of punishment indicated with person hanging from gallows Background: • Nicola Pisano. Pulpit. 1259-60. Baptistery, Pisa • • Modeled after classical Roman sarcophagi • Relief of nativity scene on side of pulpit (left) • Giovanni Pisano, Nativity, detail of pulpit. 1302-1310. Marble. Pisa cathedral. • • Giovanni’s son created the later carvings (right) • Later relief (right) has more movement/shadows/emotion • Plan of Santa Maria del Fiore & campanile by Giotto • Open nave • Pointed arches • Barn Church”: used to accommodate many people • Used for tombs of rich patrons (some Kings and Queens) who paid to buried in the churches o Plan of Santa Croce, Florence • Andrea Pisano, South doors, baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence. 1330-36. • Wavy lines typically show someone is being baptized • Saint Francis Preaching to the Birds, Fresco from Basilica of San Francesco, Assisi, 1290s • • Preached to the birds • Represents his engagement with nature Depicted by Giotto, San Francesco in Assisi, Italy • Simone Martini, Annunciation with Two Saints, c. 1330 Simone Martini, Annunciation with Two Saints, c. 1330 • Encapsulates 14th century style o Elongated figures o Pointed features o Figures are more stylized o Bending and twisting • Words are actually etched into paint, “word made flesh” is actually written • Architectural elements from Gothic and French styles • Pietro Lorenzetti, Birth of the Virgin. 1342. Tempera on panel. Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Siena. • Brother of Ambrogio Lorenzetti • Interested in volume and forms ◦ Accentuate depth • Frame in viewer’s space divides picture plane • Immaculate Conception: Conception of Mary Mother of God, not Jesus • Interior of Upper Church, Basilica of San Francesco, Assisi, begun 1228; consecrated 1253 • Church built to commemorate St. Francis, he was canonized 2 years after death Francis focused on poverty, most of his buildings are very small and not grand Chapter 14 IDs: • Limbourg Brothers. Pages for January and July of Les Très Riches Limbourg Heures du Duc de Berry. 1413-16. • Book of Hours (calendar with pictures) Labors of the month • January depicts feast and warm clothing ◦ Brothers died before they could complete top of January page ◦ July depicts hard work and agriculture ◦ At the time of shift from agrarian to merchant society, there was resistance to change from farmers to merchants. Propaganda shows “good peasants” to relieve worry of nobles • Robert Campin and workshop. Mérode Altarpiece. ca. 1425- 30. Oil on oak. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, The Cloisters Collection • • Cloisters Collection • Setting of Annunciation • In a house • Virgin is refined and relaxed • Comforts of middle class house • Tiny baby Jesus flying about Gabriel • Triptych: three-part frame o Divides house into different settings • Hubert and Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece (closed), Chuch of St. Bavo, Ghent, Belgium. Completed 1432. Oil on panel. o Hubert and Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece (open). • Altar piece would have been closed all the time except Sunday • Adam and Eve in top corners • God and Christ in center, worshipers on bottom celebrating Christ’s sacrifice • Lamb of God o Symbolizes Christ’s sacrifice o Ritual on altar is mass, so it is happening during the mass and in the painting • Jan van Eyck, The ”Arnolfini Portrait.” 1434. • Thought to be wedding portrait, could be engagement or other marriage • Van Eyck signed the wall “Jan van Eyck was here" • He may have been there as a witness to event which required n otary • Details that suggest hope to bear children (dress, bed) • Fruit refers to wealth • Shoes off for respect • Rogier van der Weyden, Descent from the Cross. ca. 1435. Oil on panel • Van der Weyden was member of guild • Painter would start as apprentice and would eventually become journeyman, and after creating own masterpiece and approved by guild the could open own shop ◦ Extreme emotion in physical gestures, expressions, weight ◦ Fainted Virgin body echoes Jesus’s figure being taken down from cross ◦ See benefits of oil paint ◦ Saturated colors ◦ Texture ▯ • Meant to inspire devotion • Guiding viewers in proper response to Christ’s sacrifice Background: • Claus Sluter, The Well of Moses, Chartreuse de Champmol, France. 1395-1406. Stone. • • Claus Sluter, The Well of Moses, Chartreuse de Champmol, France. 1395- 1406. Stone. • Commissioned by Duke of Burgundy • End of 14th century • Horns: Due to mistranslation in Bible, Moses was depicted with horns when it should have been rays of light • Was painted • Melchior Broederlam, Infancy of Christ panels, wings of the altarpiece of the Chartreuse de Champmol. 1394-99. Tempera on panel. Musée des Beuax-Arts, Dijon, France • Annunciation, Visitation, Presentation, and Flight from Egypt • Architecture and building divide scene along with landscape • Façade of Bruges Town Hall. Begun 1376 • • Patronage in town centers • Seat of the town council • Symbol of city’s independence and privilege (windows, vaults, pointed arches) • Exhibited rulers in sculpture form • Jan van Eyck, Man in a Red Turban (Self-Portrait?). 1433. • Man in Red Turban • Thought to be self portrait • Rogier van der Weyden, St. Luke Drawing the Virgin. ca. 1435- 40 Rogier van der Weyden, St. Luke Drawing the Virgin. ca. 1435-40. • Ox represents St. Luke • Byzantine tradition said that Luke painted many icons ◦ Proliferation of St. Luke in the act of painting Chapter 15 IDs: • • Left: Filippo Brunelleschi,The Sacrifice of Isaac, 1401-1403. Right: Lorenzo Ghiberti,The Sacrifice of Isaac, 1401-1403 • 1401: competition held for new designs of doors Ghiberti (right) won • He was a sculptor by trade • Composition of figures all together (unified) Isaac is more classical figure • Brunelleschi’s Dome, 1423-38, Florence Cathedral • • Brunelleschi’s Dome, 1423-38, Florence Cathedral • Built over course of 14th century, couldn’t figure out how to span large space with dome • Brunelleschi solved problem with double dome (supports on inside and outside) • Filippo Brunelleschi, Old Sacristy, c. 1418-28. San Lorenzo, Florence • • Interest in shape and space Cubes • Clean, architectural forms Ionic and Corinthian columns • Leonbattista Alberti, façade of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, begun 1458. • • Confusion about classical antiquity • Modeled after what they thought was classical (San Giovanni) but was actually gothic • Donatello, Equestrian Monument to Gattamelata, 1447-53. Bronze, Piazza del Santo, Padua • • Padua: famous for large university • Venetians ruled city • Donatello, David, 1440-43 • • No precedent for portrayal o Not Herculean (muscular, over the top) o Youthful physique • Contrapposto • Carved into base in order to direct viewer how to read statue (Florentine patriotism) • Florentines had obsession with young boys o Love shown in Chariot of Cupid on helmet o Feather on helmet comes up David’s leg in suggestive way • Botticelli, Primavera, 1477-78 • • Based on poetry/fiction • Collaboration of humanist o Truth from stories • Defense of poetry because art/truth can be created by imagination • Botticelli, The Birth of Venus, c. 1485 • • Seasons being flown in • Story is being told in a specific way • Giovanni Bellini, St. Francis in Ecstasy, c. 1480 • • Commissioned for government official in Venice • Atypical depiction of St. Francis • Light from heavens hitting Francis in chest • Emphasis on natural landscape • Venetian emphasis on light vs dark • Pietro Perugino, The Delivery of the Keys. 1482, Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican. • • Christ giving Peter keys to kingdom of heaven • Idealized space Background: • Filippo Brunelleschi, Foundling Hospital (Ospedale degli Innocenti), Florence, designed 1419, built 1421-44 • • Waiting room for people going into hospital • Adorned Piazza • Classical figures adorn top of arches • Antonio del Pollaiuolo, Hercules and Antaeus, ca. 1475. • • Hercules in battle with Antaeus • ifting to deprive him from power of the ground • Piero della Francesca, Resurrection, ca. 1463 • • Resurrected Christ stepping out of tomb • Resurrection paralleled in trees (dead on left, alive on right) • Detailed soldiers, Christ’s majestic pose • Piero della Francesca, Double Portrait of Battista Sforza and Federico da Montefeltro, ca. 1474 • • Netherland style o Diptych o Background • Filippo Brunelleschi. Nave of church of San Lorenzo, Florence. ca. 1421-69 • • Traditional plan • Nave and side aisles • Coffered ceiling • Perspectival space • Ca’ d’Oro, Venice, 1421-40 • • Commissioned by Matteo Raverti • Delicate and graceful • Not like fortresses since surrounded by lagoon • Ground floor open to receive boats • eception and private spaces on upper floors • Tracery: way stone intercepts window space • Multi colored stone on right side of facade • Michelozzo, Palazzo Medici, begun 1444 • • Places for personal use and cultural centers (events, feasts) • Rusticated coursing (worn stones in line on bottom of building) • Increasingly smooth stone up the building • Cornice: where the roof meets building o Michelozzo, Palazzo Medici, Florence: Courtyard • Reception space, both private and public • Sgraffiti: scratched dark color off of light background to get dark pattern • Paolo Uccello, The Battle of San Romano, 1436-38 • Evoked pageantry of battle, not realism • Fallen weapons and soldiers show perspective up until hedges and orange trees in background • Armor on faces gives abstract quality and focuses on subject • Andrea Mantegna, Camera Picta, 1466-75. Castello San Giorgio, Mantua • “The Painted Room" • Private space for patron’s family and guests • Plays on illusion • Painted curtains that appear to come into space • Political • Who Lubewego belongs with in power Chapter 16 IDs: • Donato Bramante, “Tempietto,” cloister of San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, begun 1502 • • First classical building built in the Renaissance • Bramante was most important architect under Julius the 2nd • Commissioned by King and Queen of Spain in 1502 • Sistine Ceiling, general view with vault frescoes by Michelangelo, 1508-1512 • • Not focusing on perspective and space, but the figures that occupy it o Foreshortening • Most figures/depictions are from book of Genesis • Naked figures because church changed views on body o Incarnation means bodies are good o Michelangelo, Sistine Ceiling, detail: Libyan Sibyl o o Super human physical abilities § Connection between her abilities and Michelangelo’s artistic • Michelangelo, Pietà, 1498-99. Marble, St. Peter’s, Rome • • Commissioned for chapel dedicated to Virgin in St. Peter's o Possibly intended as a tomb sculpture • Unreal beauty • Emphasis of Virgin’s grief o Her youthful face, corresponded to contemporary ideas of perfection • Band says “Michelangelo is making this" o Draws attention to process • Michelangelo, David, 1501-04. • • Emphasis on hero’s muscular body o Exaggerated muscles and body o 13 feet tall • David was hero of Florence • Leonardo da Vinci, Virgin of the Rocks, ca. 1485 • • Evocative, mysterious o Hazy background o Mysterious figures and setting • Commissioned for Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception • Virgin with hand over Christ child, Christ baptizing John the Baptist, John the Baptist praying to Christ, angel pointing to John’s good behavior • Represents Mary’s eternal purity (immaculate conception) • More two dimensional (not receding background) o Focus on nature, figures, and light • Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, ca. 1495-98. Tempera wall mural. Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan • • Traditional subject for refectories o Refectory: Where monks/nuns ate • Arrangement of apostles o Judas seated at table and leaning away o See emotions • Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome. 1508-11 • • Julius the 2nd hired Raphael to paint his then library o Organization called Segnatura signed documents there • Walls show 4 themes of learning o Philosophy, theology, law, poetry o Raphael, School of Athens, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome, 1508-11, Fresco. o o Philosophy o Plato (left) vs. Aristotle (right) § Plato: Interested in pure ideas § Aristotle: Wrote on natural world, and arguments • Giorgione, The Tempest, c. 1509 • • Giorgione o Met Da Vinci o Didn’t take his methods of underdrawing to build shapes o Painted on surface o Died young, few paintings • Mysterious setting and figures o Storm in background o Shepherd discovering woman breast feeding • Possibly philosophical meaning o Frailty of humans in face in nature o Explain natural world without divine interpretation (caused by things other than God) Background: • Leonardo da Vinci, Ginevra de’ Benci, 1478-80 • • Portrait evokes three dimensional sculpture • Chiaroscuro: contrast between light and dark, shadows • Sfumato: dark, blurred background (hazy) • Leonardo da Vinci, Vitruvian Man, ca. 1487 • • Reading Vitruvius and was interested in perfect proportions of human body o Demonstrates “perfect” proportions • Titian, Man with a Blue Sleeve, ca. 1510 • • Intense focus on light and shadow, how falls on forms o Sleeve projects into viewer’s space • Raphael, La Belle Jardinière, 1507 • • Raphael: Active in Rome at the same time as Michelangelo o Taught by Perugino • Full figured forms • Attention to light, chiaroscuro • Response to Virgin of the Rocks, gentler take • Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, 1503-05 • • Portrait of Lisa Garodini • Famous because Da Vinci kept it and worked on it, died with it in his possession • Giorgione or Titian, Fête Champêtre (Pastoral Concert), ca. 1510 • • Most people think Titian painted • Titian: Dominant painter throughout 16th century • Nude women with clothed men o Men are situated in contemporary world o City man and farmer, shepherd in background § Shepherd: pastoral, escape of countryside § Women function as muses (love interests) • Contrast of light and dark, thick atmosphere • Not obsessed with anatomical representation, more suggestions of shapes • Titian, Bacchanal, 1518 • • Figure dynamism o Active, colorful • Foreshortening of bodies • Titian, Madonna with Members of the Pesaro Family, 1526, Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice • • Altar in Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari • Votive altar piece Chapter 17 IDs: • Rosso Fiorentino, The Descent from the Cross. 1521 • • Mannerism: Exaggerated colors, positions, etc. • Flagellating committee commissioned • Jacopo da Pontormo, Pietà, ca. 1526-28, Santa Felicità, Florence • • Commissioned for Caponi Chapel, dedicated to the Pieta • Removed perception of where they are • Recognize the characters but not the location, space less scene • Pontormo’s self portrait in middle far right • Michelangelo, New Sacristy (also known as the Medici Chapel), 1519-34. San Lorenzo, Florence • • • Michelangelo worked on it for 15 years for the Medici • Used “serene stone,” used more marble than Old Sacristy • More visually dynamic . Taller structure . Fake doorways, blind niches o Michelangelo, tomb of Giuliano de’ Medici, 1519 -34. • • Fathers and sons entombed • Statues of Giuliano and Lorenzo sitting over tomb • Idealized images • Vestibule of the Laurentian Library, initially designed by Michelangelo, 1524-34, completed by Bartolomeo Ammanati, 1559. San Lorenzo, Florence • New take on classical forms • Scrolls used as banister • Pediments taper • Pediment over doorway is split • Columns set inside wall • Michelangelo, The Last Judgment, 1534-41. Fresco, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City • • Reanimated bodies rising from the ground • Christ as the center o Ambiguous pose (can see stigmata and wounds in side) • Left side: damned • Legend that flayed skin of St. Bartholomew on cloud is Michelangelo’s self portrait • Giulio Romano, Palazzo del Tè, Mantua, 1527-34 • • Combination of columns and architraves • Coffer tunnel vault (classical) • Correggio, Jupiter and Io, c. 1530 • • Jupiter is cloud, woman is Io • Seductive, suggestive • Palladio, Villa Rotonda, Vicenza, ca. 1567-70 • • Idealized vision • Completely symmetrical on all four ides • Not designed for practicality, but for perfection of form • Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538 • • Venus looks at beholder • Play on modesty and whether it is modest • Covers herself like Venus statues • Contemporary setting • Same model is in another painting owned by family • Would have been in bedchamber Background: • Palladio, San Giorgio Maggiore, begun 1566 • • Son of miller, trained as stone mason • Wrote book inspired for Vitruvius for the client and the architect • How to make classical Roman temple that has uneven heights inside . Superimposed composite order (columns) over second pediment with Corinthian order . Combined two shapes into unified facade • Giorgio Vasari, courtyard of the Uffizi, Florence, begun 1559 • • Designed to be offices • Left some older building standing • Not ornamental, sober and severe composition • Bartolomeo Ammanati, Courtyard of the Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 1558-70 • • Doric, Ionic and Corinthian capitals trapped inside intense rustication o Creates fortress like feeling • Agnolo Bronzino, Allegory, c. 1545 • Cupid grabbing breast of mother Venus • Anguish of love figure in middle left (syphilis) • Father Time holding up scene in top right • Bronzino’s own invention/idea • Michelangelo, Pietà, c. 1547-55 • • 4 figures from 1 block of marble • Meditation on the meaning of Christ’s death o Why we are saved o Virgin is hidden behind Christ’s body (unlike first Pietà) • Correggio, Assumption of the Virgin, 1522-28. Fresco, Parma Cathedral • Ecstatic scene, but religious ecstasy • Traditional and conservative • Represents the marriage of Virgin and Christ (Virgin is married to the church) • Parmigianino, Madonna with the Long Neck, ca. 1535 • Extreme elongated forms • Francesco Primaticcio, Stucco Figures, Gallery of Francis I, designed for the Room of the Duchesse d'Étampes, Château of Fontainebleau, France • • Idea of Primaticcio posing himself painting the scene • Jacopo Sansovino: Venice, Library of St Mark’s, begun 1537, façade o Sansovino o Becomes primary architect of Venice • Former site of executions, redesigned as positive space for the state • Aloga: Open walkway space on ground floor Chapter 18 IDs: • Gilles le Breton. Cour du Cheval Blanc (Court of the Whi te Horse), Fontainebleu, 1528-4 • • Uniformity and horizontality o Interrupted by vertical pieces, gives more of palace quality • Evocative of French architecture • Pierre Lescot, Square Court, the Louvre, Paris, Begun 1546 • • Was originally the Paris palace for the King • Italian style (windows, columns, etc.) • Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera. Escorial. Begun 1563. Near Madrid • • Italian palace style • Symmetry • Stripped down horizontal planes • No pediments • El Greco, The Burial of Count Orgaz, Santo Tomé, Toledo, Spain, 1586 • • Inquisition: Rooting out heretics o Jesuits and Carmelites o Emphasized meditations in order to communicate with God • El Greco o Greek painter, went to Venice and then Spain until death o Painting deals with faith and works o Abstract forms in heaven represent divine ecstasy • Albrecht Dürer, Adam and Eve. 1504 • Attention to shadow and modeling even in a woodcut • Comes from study of idealized form (Vetruvius) • Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait, 1500 • Display of luxury and status • Northern style • Christ like • Severity, sober attitude towards his role as painter • Hans Baldung Grien, The Bewitched Groom. ca. 1544 • Intense foreshortening • Witch or horse has done something to the man causing him to become unconscious • Fear of witches was common • Hans Holbein the Younger, Jean de Dinteville and Georges de Selve (“The Ambassadors”). 1533 • • Jean on left, Bishop on right • Depiction of textures and their interests • Anamorphic skull: Distorted skull depicted at bottom • Jan Gossaert, Neptune and Amphitrite. 1516 • Intentionally models Dürer’s Adam and Eve • Influenced by both Dutch and Italian styles/texture • Pieter Aertsen, The Meat Stall. 1551 • • Still life in foreground, religious event (flight from Egypt) in background • Rich church goers ignoring poor o Contrast of excess and poverty (charity vs. selfishness) • Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Return of the Hunters. 1565 • • Part of meditations of the year o Medieval tradition Background: • Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Peasant Wedding. ca. 1568 • • Boisterous celebration • Social class that’s not his own, outsider looking in • Idealized o Slightly offensive, depicting people as stereotypes • Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Blind Leading the Blind. ca. 1568 • • Proverb from gospel of Matthew o Blind are leading each other into a ditch o Maybe offensive (blind peasants) • Allows speculation • Cornelis Floris and Willem van den Broek. Town Hall, Antwerp. 1561-66 • • Influenced by Italian architecture o Rusticated o Doric and Corinthian columns • Mix and of Italian and Dutch (Dutch style roof) • Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Judgment of Paris, ca. 1528 • Paris has to choose who is most beautiful woman • Erotic • Contemporary clothing makes it more profane • Albrecht Altdorfer, The Battle of Issos, 1529 • • Landscape has potential to become subject of scene • Depicts battle of Alexander the Great and Darius of Persia o Ancient scene represented in contemporary dress and modern city • Matthias Grünewald, St. Sebastian; The Crucifixion; St. Anthony Abbot; predella: Lamentation. Isenheim Altarpiece (closed), ca. 1509-10-15. • • Reformation ◦ Martin Luther was a Catholic º Complaints about selling of indulgences ◦ Taking time off of purgatory time, certain people were selling them • Crucifixion exterior view • Eerie light and background • John the Baptist is lamb and Christ’s sacrifice o Matthias Grünewald, The Annunciation; Madonna and Child with Angels; The Resurrection. Second view of the Isenheim Altarpiece. ca. 1509/10-15 • • On Sundays and feast days, opened up to reveal “happy” moments • Redemption of Christ’s sacrifice • Golden orb moves across panels • The Unicorn in Captivity, from the Unicorn Tapestries. South Netherlandish or French. ca. 1500 • Story of resurrection • Interest in medieval patterns o Symbolizes Christ’s resurrection along with marriage and love • Francesco Primaticcio and Germain Pilon, Tomb of Henry II and Catherine de’ Medici. 1563-70. Abbey Church of Saint- Denis, Paris o Gisants of the king and queen, detail of the Tomb of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici, Abbey Church of St. - Denis, Paris • • Idealized • Decrepit, decaying style • Albrecht Dürer, The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, 1498 • Concern for the apocalypse • Taking advantage of people’s fear of the end of the world • Albrecht Dürer, Melancholia I. 1514. Engraving • Angel’s pose associated with melancholy o Enigmatic, tortured artist • Lucas Cranach the Elder, An Allegory of Law and Grace. ca. 1530. Woodcut • • Shading suggested but not three dimensional • Allegory of law and grace • Joachim Patinir, The Penitence of St. Jerome. ca. 1518 • • Saints depicted in separate panels and across consistent landscape o Landscape takes up more space and effort than central figures • Gerard David, Virgin among Virgins, 1509 • • Virgin child surrounded by Virgin saints • Painter and wife represented in corners, not donors Chapter 19 IDs: • Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew, 1599 • • Eerie, direct light source coming from outside painting o Light shines on St. Matthew o On right is Christ calling saint Matthew § Christ’s hand position • Contemporary clothes, Christ and Matthew are barefoot • Tenebrism: dramatic, accentuated light source coming from outside of picture • Caravaggio, The Conversion of St. Paul, 1601 • • Dramatic light and scene • Paul is shown in dramatic foreshortening • Mysterious, creates wonder • Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, ca. 1625 • • One of first woman painters • Story of virtuous overcoming powerful • Drama surrounds part of story we don’t know, heightens drama • Artemisia Gentileschi, Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting, 1638-39 • • Self portrait where she represented herself as the allegory of painting o Used specific references to text (hair, jewelry, position) • Carlo Maderno, Façade of St. Peter’s, Rome. 1607-12 • • Inside and outside space o Similar to Palazzo dei Conservatori • Unites church and area as a whole • Increased visual gains • Francesco Borromini, Façade and Plan of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome. plan: 1638-41, Façade, ca. 1665-7 • • Other architect of St. Peter’s • San Carlino (little church) • Scultpural façade o Concavities/convexities: façade curves in and out o Also found in the entablatures o Extended to plan of church, oval shape • Dome of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, 1638-41 • • Dome also looks pinched, oval shape • Coffers decrease in size, perspective makes it look higher • Guarino Guarini. Dome of the Chapel of the Holy Shroud, Turin Cathedral. 1668-94 • • Temple of Shroud o Relic of Shroud that was on Christ when he was placed in the tomb, his likeness imprinted on • Indented with coffers and windows • Web of ribs in dome, exaggerated depth • Stefano Maderno, Santa Cecilia. 1600. Marble, life-size. Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome • • 5th century martyr, decapitated • Sculpture depicts her dead body o Dramatic, visceral • Gianlorenzo Berlini, The Ecstasy of St. Teresa (full chapel view). 1645-52. Marble, life-size. Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome • • Pierced by arrow of angel • Experiences intense pain and pleasure • Shown in her expression • Echoed with intense drapery and floating position • Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas, 1656 • Velázquez shown painting portrait • Canvas of painting taking up part of actual painting o We can’t see what he’s painting, viewer is subject o Mirror shows King and Queen as potential subjects o Testament of importance of his artwork Background: • Annibale and Agostino Carracci, vault frescoes in the Farnese Gallery, 1597-1602. Palazzo Farnese, Rome • • References to Sistine Chapel • Mythological scenes o Love of the gods o Able to because it’s private space, not religious o Satire of gods behaving badly • Bernini, Baldacchino, 1624-33. At crossing. St. Peter’s, Rome • • Became head architect after Maderno’s death • Took bronze from interior of Pantheon to create Baldacchino • Baldassare Longhena, Santa Maria della Salute. Venice. 1631- 87 • • Church that welcomes people into the Grand Canal • Octagonal centrally planned • High pediments, break up surface of facade • Dedicated to the Virgin for delivering the city from plague • Juan Sánchez Cotán, Quince, Cabbage, Melon, and Cucumber. ca. 1602 • • Staged scene intentionally o Intense light and dark o Shows strings used to assemble scene • Diego Velázquez, Surrender at Breda. 1634-35 • • 1620’s: became court painter o Painted many portraits for the crown • Embraced interest in light, shadow, and now color o Exposure to works of Titian • Scene of battle between Spain and the Netherlands o Dutch general is handing keys to condescending Spanish general, shows defeated Dutch soldiers • Borromini, Sant’Agnese, 1653-63 • Where Romans had chariot races • Created competition between Borromini and Bernini • Guarino Guarini, Façade of Palazzo Carignano. Turin. Begun 1679 • Turin, North Italy o Site of a lot of Baroque architecture • Brick building with concavities and convexities • Stories broken up into units • Diego Velázquez, Juan de Pareja. 1650 • • Sent to Rome to work for Pope, while waiting for Pop he painted his assistant • Similar to Leonardo’s portraits o Pose o Shadows • However, Velázquez focuses on light on face and texture that begins to change texture of paint • Gianlorenzo Bernini, David. 1623. Marble, life-size. Galleria Borghese, Rome • • Extreme, intense facial expression • Classical action shot • Francesco Borromini, Exterior of Sant’Ivo, Rome. Begun 1642 • • Cutaway plan of Francesco Borromini’s Sant’Ivo o Added church to end of cloistered space o Hexagonal star shape, Varvorini V o Coherence between different stories • Annibale Carracci, Landscape with the Flight into Egypt, ca. 1603 • • • Mary and Holy family depicted small in comparison to landscape • Mysterious, picturesque landscape • Pietro da Cortona, Allegory of Divine Providence. 1633-39 • Varborini family commissioned, represented with “V” • Illusionistic, fake architecture • Taking of individual scenes and sticking them on stealing • Taking into account viewer’s perspective looking up • Subject: Divine Providence, Varborini shown as divinely chosen • Giovanni Battista Gaulli, Triumph of the name of Jesus. 1672- 79. Ceiling Fresco, Il Gesù, Rome • • Stucco sculptures are real sculptures, rest is painted o Spilling out of frame • Metaphor for divine light of Christ • Jusepe de Ribera, The Club-Footed Boy. 1642 • • Disability depicted in painting o Shown begging for alms • Diego Velázquez, The Water Carrier of Seville. ca. 1619 • • Depicting class not his own, but showing dignity • Focus on texture • Theme of good works Chapter 20 IDs: • Peter Paul Rubens, Marie de’ Medici, Queen of France, Landing in Marseilles (November 3, 1600). 1622-25 • Cycle of 21 paintings • Scene is from earlier event of Marie's arrival in France after marriage to Henry the 4th o Accompanied by court o Man in blue cape with flour de lis represents France welcoming her o Fame is allegorical character above her announcing her arrival wit trumpet o Neptune in water with other humans/creature accompanying her • “Ruben’s bodies" • Anthony van Dyck, Portrait of Charles I Hunting, 1635 • Interest in picturesque landscape • Not very regal for a royal portrait o Doesn’t take away from status, shows other side than official • Jacob Jordaens, The King Drinks, 1638 • Takes place on Epiphany o Family celebration, they would call someone “the King" • Similar to Ruben’s style o Depiction of figures • Frans Hals, Married Couple in a Garden: Portrait of Isaac Massa and Beatrix van der Laen. ca. 1622 • • Couple with setting of country villa o Relaxed environment • Frans Hals, The Jolly Toper, ca. 1628-30 • • Casual take on the once formal style of portraits • Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait, ca. 1633 • • Casual take on the once formal style of portraits • Judith Leyster, The Proposition, 1631 • • Subject is stitching • Common for scenes of “the approach" o Normally painted by men, but painted by woman shows different reaction o Men showed acceptance of advances, Judith showed rebuffing • Rembrandt van Rijn, The Blinding of Samson. 1636 • • Baroque light • Interest of drama in scene o Visceral reaction to gore • Rembrandt van Rijn, Bathsheba with King David’s Letter. 1654 • • Sorrow and anxiety because she is pregnant with David’s child • Rembrandt van Rijn, Self-Portrait. 1658 • • Self advertising his skills in how self portrait • Technique of imposto: thick layering of paint o Naturalistic, but playing with light and paint • Jacob van Ruisdael, The Jewish Cemetery. 1655-70 • • More mysterious than realistic scene • Tombs, tree, ruins of church all point to decay of civilization Background: • Jacob van Ruisdel, View of Haarlem with Bleaching Grounds. ca. 1670 • • Recognized because of the skyline • Jan Brueghel the Elder and Peter Paul Rubens, Allegory of Sight. 1617 • “The Wonder Room" o Opportunity for painters to depict vast collections of patrons • Showed variety of objects owned by patrons o Roman portrait busts o History paintings o Allegorical scenes o Religious o Portraits/Landscapes • Allegory of Sight personified and sitting to take in the visual arts • Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross. 1610-11 • One of most important painters in Europe • Painted for high altar • Figures have massive, steroidal quality o Even though immense mass, very expressive (women in distress) • Pairing of devotional grief with soldiers on each side • Hendrick Goltzius, Farnese Hercules, ca. 1597, Engraving • Dutchmen on journey to Italy looking in awe at Hercules • Frans Hals, Banquet of the Officers of the St. George Civic Guard, 1616 • Commission for common space • Ritualistic and ceremonial quality, flaunts status • Anthony van Dyck, Rinaldo and Armida. 1629 • Ruben’s assistant • Fantastical recreation of the First Crusade o Sorceress falls in love with Crusader she was supposed to kill • Peter Paul Rubens, The Garden of Love. ca. 1638 • • Style similar to what will come in the Rococo movement • Celebration of love o Wife depicted in center but also in faces of other women o Statue of Venus in right corner o Bright blue sky o Ancient Roman building garden setting • Textures shown in fabric o Moving away from higher naturalism, more towards playing with light • Jan Davidsz. de Heem, Still Life with Exotic Birds. Late 1640s • • Prince still life: ostentatious • Colonial theme represented with exotic animals/objects • Pieter Saenredam, Interior of the Choir of St. Bavo’s Church at Haarlem. 1660 • • White washed walls • Stripped of liturgical furnishings • Willem Claesz, Heda. Still Life with Oysters, a Roemer, a Lemon, and a Silver Bowl. 1634. • • Everyday use combined with luxury • Frozen in time o Staged but interrupted (overturned) • Hendrick Terbrugghen, Singing Lute Player. 1624 • Used style of Carravggio o Including colors and outfit • Ideas of antiquity combined with dramatic teneberism being brought to Dutch painting • Clara Peeters, Still Life with Fruit and Flowers, 1612 • Represents early still life • Fruit, wine, coins, knife, grasshopper, flowers, o Variety and artist’s eye o She is reflected in pewter vase o Hypothesized that knife has her name inscribed to commemorate her wedding • Rembrandt van Rijn, Portrait of Saskia van Uylenburgh. 1633 • • Silver point drawing of his wife • Reminiscent of countryside life and being in love • Frans Snyders, Still Life with Dead Game, Fruits, and Vegetables in a Market. 1614 • Became more elaborate • Focus on variety • Rembrandt, The Night Watch (The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq). 1642 • • Dramatic scene and lighting • Jan van Goyen, Pelkus Gate Near Utrecht. 1646 Chapter 21 IDs: • Georges de La Tour, Joseph the Carpenter. ca. 1642 • France: Classicism returned under Louis the 14th • Georges de La Tour never went to Italy, inspired by people who studied Caravaggio • Quiet, introspective scenes with religious subjects o Joseph (Christ’s father) with child Christ o Christ’s hand around candle similar to blessing gesture • Nicolas Poussin, The Death of Germanicus, 1627-28 • Structured, strict emphasis on history painting o Mythological, biblical, historical scenes • Heroic death scene o Perspective o Not as idealized/colorful as baroque • Nicolas Poussin, The Abduction of the Sabine Women. ca. 1633-34 • • Theft of women from another town • Meant to be heroic narrative • Display of Roman architecture • Claude Lorrain, A Pastoral Landscape. ca. 1648 • One of the first to paint oil paintings outside • Because of forgers, he kept records of his paintings and who he sold them to • Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart. Garden front of the center block of the Palace of Versailles. 1669-85 • Increasingly horizontal • Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Louis Le Vau, and Charles Le Brun. Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors), Palace of Versailles. Begun 1678 • • 240 feet long • Rooms of War and Peace and either side • Mirrors used to make room feel larger o Mirrors were very expensive, showed wealth Background: • Jules Hardouin-Mansart. Church of the Invalides, Paris. 1677 - 91 • • One of architects from Versailles • Corner chapels • Chapel where wounded soldiers were taken • Nicolas Poussin, Landscape with St. John on Patmos. 1640 • • Landscape shows ruins of city (ruins of past) o Melancholic, contemplative atmosphere o By putting St. John with classical elements, makes landscape more than just a landscape o Elevates subject matter • Simon Vouet, The Toilet of Venus. ca. 1640 • • Richly colored fresco • Venus shown in “primping" scene o Even though mid undressed, not overly erotic but subtly suggestive • Similar to Venetian style • Color and light • Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Charles Le Brun (the room and decoration), and Antoine Coysevox (for the relief, The Triumph of Louis XIV). Salon de la Guerre (Salon of War), Palace of Versailles. Begun 1678 • • Combination of sculptures create theatrical ensemble • Different Textures and colors to create an effect o A little Baroque • Hyacinthe Rigaud, Portrait of Louis XIV. 1701 • Way to succeed in academy was to paint history painting (high status) • Return to formal environment and setting
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