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Art History Midterm Study Guide

by: Katie Truppo

Art History Midterm Study Guide ARTH 173

Katie Truppo
GPA 3.4

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Study guide for midterm/exam 1
Western Art History
Aurelia D'Antonio
Study Guide
Art, history
50 ?




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This 123 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARTH 173 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Aurelia D'Antonio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 150 views. For similar materials see Western Art History in Arts and Humanities at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

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Date Created: 10/08/16
ARTH 173 Midterm Study Guide Fall 2016 D’Antonio Chapter 13 IDs: •   Florence cathedral and baptistery seen from the air. Cathedral begun 1296. •   Cathedral begun 1296. •   Dome was not completed until 15th century
Decided to add vaults instead of wood roo
 ier: column with any other shape than round/smooth •   Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned. ca. 1280-90, Giotto, Madonna Enthroned, ca. 1310 •   •   Left: Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned. ca. 1280-90 Right: Giotto,Madonna Enthroned, ca. 1310 •   Changes in perspective •   Arena Chapel (Scrovegni Chapel), Padua: interior, looking toward the apse. Frescoes by Giotto, 1304-06 •   •   Giotto, Christ Entering Jerusalem, c. 1303. Fresco. Arena Chapel, Padua •   Piety and empathy of people with figures in painting
Intense emotion
Use of “light”, lighter in foreground and casts shadows in background which gives perspective o   Giotto, The Entombment of Christ, c. 1303. Fresco, Arena Chapel, Padua •   •   Emotional faces
Rock formation draw attention to focus of scene Gornata: Separation into one day’s work •   Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, begun 1297. Tower added after 1325 Communal government •   •   Rotation of government officials
 •   Nove (the Nine): brief periods of rule in Sienna when they lived in the palace •   Now used as normal Palazzo (meeting place) •   Duccio di Buoninsegna, Virgin and Child with Saints (“Maesta”), main panel of altarpiece, 1308-11. Tempera on panel. Museuo dell’Opera del Duomo, Siena •   Cult of the Virgin: she was city’s special protecter
 •   Ducchio commissioned to paint altar piece in honor of previous idol that had protected the city
 •   4 Saints in front are patron saints of Sienna •   Intercede on behalf of city to the Virgin o   Duccio, Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin, from the back of the Maestà, 1308-11 •   •   Back faced the altar and the clergy o   Duccio, Christ Entering Jerusalem, from the back of the Maestà altarpiece. 1308-11. o   •   Emphasis on texture •   Cloth “sparkles” with levels of paint and gold •   Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Good Government in the City and Countryside, 1338. Fresco. Palazzo Pubblico, Siena. •   •   Depicts good things in city Safety •   People celebrating •   New architecture Good things in countryside •   Agriculture
Safety and freedom of travel
Idea that good government keeps people in countryside safe (unrealistic) •   Threat of punishment indicated with person hanging from gallows Background: •   Nicola Pisano. Pulpit. 1259-60. Baptistery, Pisa •   •   Modeled after classical Roman sarcophagi •   Relief of nativity scene on side of pulpit (left) •   Giovanni Pisano, Nativity, detail of pulpit. 1302-1310. Marble. Pisa cathedral. •   •   Giovanni’s son created the later carvings (right) •   
Later relief (right) has more movement/shadows/emotion •   Plan of Santa Maria del Fiore & campanile by Giotto •   Open nave
 •   Pointed arches •  
 Barn Church”: used to accommodate many people •   Used for tombs of rich patrons (some Kings and Queens) who paid to buried in the churches o   Plan of Santa Croce, Florence •   Andrea Pisano, South doors, baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence. 1330-36. •   Wavy lines typically show someone is being baptized •   Saint Francis Preaching to the Birds, Fresco from Basilica of San Francesco, Assisi, 1290s •   •   Preached to the birds
 •   Represents his engagement with nature Depicted by Giotto, San Francesco in Assisi, Italy •   Simone Martini, Annunciation with Two Saints, c. 1330 Simone Martini, Annunciation with Two Saints, c. 1330 •   Encapsulates 14th century style o   Elongated figures 
 o   Pointed features 
 o   Figures are more stylized 
 o   Bending and twisting 
 •   Words are actually etched into paint, “word made flesh” is actually written •   Architectural elements from Gothic and French styles •   Pietro Lorenzetti, Birth of the Virgin. 1342. Tempera on panel. Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Siena. • Brother of Ambrogio Lorenzetti • Interested in volume and forms ◦ Accentuate depth • Frame in viewer’s space divides picture plane • Immaculate Conception: Conception of Mary Mother of God, not Jesus •   Interior of Upper Church, Basilica of San Francesco, Assisi, begun 1228; consecrated 1253 •   Church built to commemorate St. Francis, he was canonized 2 years after death Francis focused on poverty, most of his buildings are very small and not grand Chapter 14 IDs: •   Limbourg Brothers. Pages for January and July of Les Très Riches Limbourg Heures du Duc de Berry. 1413-16. •   Book of Hours (calendar with pictures) Labors of the month •   January depicts feast and warm clothing ◦   Brothers died before they could complete top of January page ◦   July depicts hard work and agriculture ◦ At the time of shift from agrarian to merchant society, there was resistance to change from farmers to merchants. Propaganda shows “good peasants” to relieve worry of nobles •   Robert Campin and workshop. Mérode Altarpiece. ca. 1425- 30. Oil on oak. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, The Cloisters Collection •   •   Cloisters Collection •   Setting of Annunciation •   In a house 
 •   Virgin is refined and relaxed 
 •   Comforts of middle class house 
 •   Tiny baby Jesus flying about Gabriel 
 •   Triptych: three-part frame 
 o   Divides house into different settings •   Hubert and Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece (closed), Chuch of St. Bavo, Ghent, Belgium. Completed 1432. Oil on panel. o   Hubert and Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece (open). •   Altar piece would have been closed all the time except Sunday 
 •   Adam and Eve in top corners 
 •   God and Christ in center, worshipers on bottom celebrating Christ’s 
 •   Lamb of God o   Symbolizes Christ’s sacrifice 
 o   Ritual on altar is mass, so it is happening during the mass and 
in the painting 
 •   Jan van Eyck, The ”Arnolfini Portrait.” 1434. •   Thought to be wedding portrait, could be engagement or other 
 •   Van Eyck signed the wall “Jan van Eyck was here" 
 •   He may have been there as a witness to event which required n
 •   Details that suggest hope to bear children (dress, bed) 
 •   Fruit refers to wealth 
 •   Shoes off for respect 
 •   Rogier van der Weyden, Descent from the Cross. ca. 1435. Oil on panel •   Van der Weyden was member of guild •   Painter would start as apprentice and would eventually become journeyman, and after creating own masterpiece and approved by guild the could open own shop ◦   Extreme emotion in physical gestures, expressions, weight 
 ◦   Fainted Virgin body echoes Jesus’s figure being taken down 
from cross 
 ◦   See benefits of oil paint ◦   Saturated colors ◦   Texture
▯ •   Meant to inspire devotion •   Guiding viewers in proper response to Christ’s sacrifice Background: •   Claus Sluter, The Well of Moses, Chartreuse de Champmol, France. 1395-1406. Stone. •   •   Claus Sluter, The Well of Moses, Chartreuse de Champmol, France. 1395- 1406. Stone. •   Commissioned by Duke of Burgundy •   End of 14th century •   Horns: Due to mistranslation in Bible, Moses was depicted with horns when it should have been rays of light •   Was painted •   Melchior Broederlam, Infancy of Christ panels, wings of the altarpiece of the Chartreuse de Champmol. 1394-99. Tempera on panel. Musée des Beuax-Arts, Dijon, France •   Annunciation, Visitation, Presentation, and Flight from Egypt •   Architecture and building divide scene along with landscape •   Façade of Bruges Town Hall. Begun 1376 •   •   Patronage in town centers •   Seat of the town council •   Symbol of city’s independence and privilege (windows, vaults, pointed arches) •   Exhibited rulers in sculpture form •   Jan van Eyck, Man in a Red Turban (Self-Portrait?). 1433. •   Man in Red Turban
 •   Thought to be self portrait •   Rogier van der Weyden, St. Luke Drawing the Virgin. ca. 1435- 40 Rogier van der Weyden, St. Luke Drawing the Virgin. ca. 1435-40. •   Ox represents St. Luke 
 •   Byzantine tradition said that Luke painted many icons 
 ◦ Proliferation of St. Luke in the act of painting Chapter 15 IDs: •   •   Left: Filippo Brunelleschi,The Sacrifice of Isaac, 1401-1403. Right: Lorenzo Ghiberti,The Sacrifice of Isaac, 1401-1403 •   1401: competition held for new designs of doors Ghiberti (right) won •   He was a sculptor by trade •   
Composition of figures all together (unified) Isaac is more classical figure •   Brunelleschi’s Dome, 1423-38, Florence Cathedral •   •   Brunelleschi’s Dome, 1423-38, Florence Cathedral •   Built over course of 14th century, couldn’t figure out how to span large space with dome •   Brunelleschi solved problem with double dome (supports on inside and outside) •   Filippo Brunelleschi, Old Sacristy, c. 1418-28. San Lorenzo, Florence •   •   Interest in shape and space Cubes •   Clean, architectural forms Ionic and Corinthian columns •   Leonbattista Alberti, façade of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, begun 1458. •   •   Confusion about classical antiquity
 •   Modeled after what they thought was classical (San Giovanni) but was actually gothic •   Donatello, Equestrian Monument to Gattamelata, 1447-53. Bronze, Piazza del Santo, Padua •   •   Padua: famous for large university •   Venetians ruled city •   Donatello, David, 1440-43 •   •   No precedent for portrayal
 o   Not Herculean (muscular, over the top) o   Youthful physique •   
Contrapposto •   Carved into base in order to direct viewer how to read statue (Florentine patriotism) •   
Florentines had obsession with young boys o   Love shown in Chariot of Cupid on helmet o   Feather on helmet comes up David’s leg in suggestive way
 •   Botticelli, Primavera, 1477-78 •   •   Based on poetry/fiction
 •   Collaboration of humanist o   Truth from stories
 •   Defense of poetry because art/truth can be created by imagination •   Botticelli, The Birth of Venus, c. 1485 •   •   Seasons being flown in
 •   Story is being told in a specific way •   Giovanni Bellini, St. Francis in Ecstasy, c. 1480 •   •   Commissioned for government official in Venice •   Atypical depiction of St. Francis •   Light from heavens hitting Francis in chest •   Emphasis on natural landscape •   Venetian emphasis on light vs dark •   Pietro Perugino, The Delivery of the Keys. 1482, Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican. •   •   Christ giving Peter keys to kingdom of heaven
 •   Idealized space Background: •   Filippo Brunelleschi, Foundling Hospital (Ospedale degli Innocenti), Florence, designed 1419, built 1421-44 •   •   Waiting room for people going into hospital •   Adorned Piazza
 •   Classical figures adorn top of arches •   Antonio del Pollaiuolo, Hercules and Antaeus, ca. 1475. •   •   Hercules in battle with Antaeus •   
 ifting to deprive him from power of the ground •   Piero della Francesca, Resurrection, ca. 1463 •   •   Resurrected Christ stepping out of tomb
 •   Resurrection paralleled in trees (dead on left, alive on right) •   Detailed soldiers, Christ’s majestic pose •   Piero della Francesca, Double Portrait of Battista Sforza and Federico da Montefeltro, ca. 1474 •   •   Netherland style o   Diptych
 o   Background •   Filippo Brunelleschi. Nave of church of San Lorenzo, Florence. ca. 1421-69 •   •   Traditional plan •   Nave and side aisles •   Coffered ceiling •   Perspectival space •   Ca’ d’Oro, Venice, 1421-40 •   •   Commissioned by Matteo Raverti •   Delicate and graceful •   Not like fortresses since surrounded by lagoon •   Ground floor open to receive boats •  
 eception and private spaces on upper floors •   Tracery: way stone intercepts window space •   Multi colored stone on right side of facade •   Michelozzo, Palazzo Medici, begun 1444 •   •   Places for personal use and cultural centers (events, feasts) •   Rusticated coursing (worn stones in line on bottom of building) •   Increasingly smooth stone up the building •   
Cornice: where the roof meets building o   Michelozzo, Palazzo Medici, Florence: Courtyard •   Reception space, both private and public
 •   Sgraffiti: scratched dark color off of light background to get dark pattern •   Paolo Uccello, The Battle of San Romano, 1436-38 •   Evoked pageantry of battle, not realism •   
Fallen weapons and soldiers show perspective up until hedges and orange trees in background
 •   Armor on faces gives abstract quality and focuses on subject •   Andrea Mantegna, Camera Picta, 1466-75. Castello San Giorgio, Mantua •   “The Painted Room"
 •   Private space for patron’s family and guests •   Plays on illusion •   Painted curtains that appear to come into space •   Political •   Who Lubewego belongs with in power Chapter 16 IDs: •   Donato Bramante, “Tempietto,” cloister of San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, begun 1502 •   •   First classical building built in the Renaissance •   Bramante was most important architect under Julius the 2nd •   Commissioned by King and Queen of Spain in 1502 •   Sistine Ceiling, general view with vault frescoes by Michelangelo, 1508-1512 •   •   Not focusing on perspective and space, but the figures that occupy it o   Foreshortening •   Most figures/depictions are from book of Genesis •   Naked figures because church changed views on body o   Incarnation means bodies are good o   Michelangelo, Sistine Ceiling, detail: Libyan Sibyl o   o   Super human physical abilities §   Connection between her abilities and Michelangelo’s artistic •   Michelangelo, Pietà, 1498-99. Marble, St. Peter’s, Rome •   •   Commissioned for chapel dedicated to Virgin in St. Peter's o   Possibly intended as a tomb sculpture •   Unreal beauty •   Emphasis of Virgin’s grief o   Her youthful face, corresponded to contemporary ideas of perfection •   Band says “Michelangelo is making this" o   Draws attention to process •   Michelangelo, David, 1501-04. •   •   Emphasis on hero’s muscular body o   Exaggerated muscles and body o   13 feet tall •   David was hero of Florence •   Leonardo da Vinci, Virgin of the Rocks, ca. 1485 •   •   Evocative, mysterious o   Hazy background o   Mysterious figures and setting •   Commissioned for Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception •   Virgin with hand over Christ child, Christ baptizing John the Baptist, John the Baptist praying to Christ, angel pointing to John’s good behavior •   Represents Mary’s eternal purity (immaculate conception) •   More two dimensional (not receding background) o   Focus on nature, figures, and light •   Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, ca. 1495-98. Tempera wall mural. Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan •   •   Traditional subject for refectories o   Refectory: Where monks/nuns ate •   Arrangement of apostles o   Judas seated at table and leaning away o   See emotions •   Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome. 1508-11 •   •   Julius the 2nd hired Raphael to paint his then library o   Organization called Segnatura signed documents there •   Walls show 4 themes of learning o   Philosophy, theology, law, poetry o   Raphael, School of Athens, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome, 1508-11, Fresco. o   o   Philosophy o   Plato (left) vs. Aristotle (right) §   Plato: Interested in pure ideas §   Aristotle: Wrote on natural world, and arguments •   Giorgione, The Tempest, c. 1509 •   •   Giorgione o   Met Da Vinci o   Didn’t take his methods of underdrawing to build shapes o   Painted on surface o   Died young, few paintings •   Mysterious setting and figures o   Storm in background o   Shepherd discovering woman breast feeding •   Possibly philosophical meaning o   Frailty of humans in face in nature o   Explain natural world without divine interpretation (caused by things other than God) Background: •   Leonardo da Vinci, Ginevra de’ Benci, 1478-80 •   •   Portrait evokes three dimensional sculpture •   Chiaroscuro: contrast between light and dark, shadows •   Sfumato: dark, blurred background (hazy) •   Leonardo da Vinci, Vitruvian Man, ca. 1487 •   •   Reading Vitruvius and was interested in perfect proportions of human body o   Demonstrates “perfect” proportions •   Titian, Man with a Blue Sleeve, ca. 1510 •   •   Intense focus on light and shadow, how falls on forms o   Sleeve projects into viewer’s space •   Raphael, La Belle Jardinière, 1507 •   •   Raphael: Active in Rome at the same time as Michelangelo o   Taught by Perugino •   Full figured forms •   Attention to light, chiaroscuro •   Response to Virgin of the Rocks, gentler take •   Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, 1503-05 •   •   Portrait of Lisa Garodini •   Famous because Da Vinci kept it and worked on it, died with it in his possession •   Giorgione or Titian, Fête Champêtre (Pastoral Concert), ca. 1510 •   •   Most people think Titian painted •   Titian: Dominant painter throughout 16th century •   Nude women with clothed men o   Men are situated in contemporary world o   City man and farmer, shepherd in background §   Shepherd: pastoral, escape of countryside §   Women function as muses (love interests) •   Contrast of light and dark, thick atmosphere •   Not obsessed with anatomical representation, more suggestions of shapes •   Titian, Bacchanal, 1518 •   •   Figure dynamism o   Active, colorful •   Foreshortening of bodies •   Titian, Madonna with Members of the Pesaro Family, 1526, Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice •   •   Altar in Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari •   Votive altar piece Chapter 17 IDs: •   Rosso Fiorentino, The Descent from the Cross. 1521 •   •   Mannerism: Exaggerated colors, positions, etc.
 •   Flagellating committee commissioned 
 •   Jacopo da Pontormo, Pietà, ca. 1526-28, Santa Felicità, Florence •   •   Commissioned for Caponi Chapel, dedicated to the Pieta 
 •   Removed perception of where they are 
 •   Recognize the characters but not the location, space less 
 •   Pontormo’s self portrait in middle far right 
 •   Michelangelo, New Sacristy (also known as the Medici Chapel), 1519-34. San Lorenzo, Florence •   •   •   Michelangelo worked on it for 15 years for the Medici 
 •   Used “serene stone,” used more marble than Old Sacristy •   More visually dynamic 
 .   Taller structure 
 .   Fake doorways, blind niches 
 o   Michelangelo, tomb of Giuliano de’ Medici, 1519 -34. •   •   Fathers and sons entombed
 •   Statues of Giuliano and Lorenzo sitting over tomb •   Idealized images •   Vestibule of the Laurentian Library, initially designed by Michelangelo, 1524-34, completed by Bartolomeo Ammanati, 1559. San Lorenzo, Florence •   New take on classical forms •   Scrolls used as banister 
 •   Pediments taper 
 •   Pediment over doorway is split 
 •   Columns set inside wall 
 •   Michelangelo, The Last Judgment, 1534-41. Fresco, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City •   •   Reanimated bodies rising from the ground
 •   Christ as the center o   Ambiguous pose (can see stigmata and wounds in side) •   Left side: damned •   Legend that flayed skin of St. Bartholomew on cloud is Michelangelo’s self portrait •   Giulio Romano, Palazzo del Tè, Mantua, 1527-34 •   •   Combination of columns and architraves
 •   Coffer tunnel vault (classical) •   Correggio, Jupiter and Io, c. 1530 •   •   Jupiter is cloud, woman is Io 
 •   Seductive, suggestive 
 •   Palladio, Villa Rotonda, Vicenza, ca. 1567-70 •   •   Idealized vision
 •   Completely symmetrical on all four ides
 •   Not designed for practicality, but for perfection of form •   Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538 •   • Venus looks at beholder •   Play on modesty and whether it is modest 
 •   Covers herself like Venus statues •   Contemporary setting •   Same model is in another painting owned by family •   Would have been in bedchamber 
 Background: •   Palladio, San Giorgio Maggiore, begun 1566 •   •   Son of miller, trained as stone mason 
 •   Wrote book inspired for Vitruvius for the client and the architect
 •   How to make classical Roman temple that has uneven heights inside 
 .   Superimposed composite order (columns) over second pediment with Corinthian order 
 .   Combined two shapes into unified facade 
 •   Giorgio Vasari, courtyard of the Uffizi, Florence, begun 1559 •   •   Designed to be offices
 •   Left some older building standing
 •   Not ornamental, sober and severe composition •   Bartolomeo Ammanati, Courtyard of the Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 1558-70 •   •   Doric, Ionic and Corinthian capitals trapped inside intense rustication o   Creates fortress like feeling •   Agnolo Bronzino, Allegory, c. 1545 •   Cupid grabbing breast of mother Venus 
 •   Anguish of love figure in middle left (syphilis) 
 •   Father Time holding up scene in top right 
 •   Bronzino’s own invention/idea 
 •   Michelangelo, Pietà, c. 1547-55 •   •   4 figures from 1 block of marble
 •   Meditation on the meaning of Christ’s death o   Why we are saved
 o   Virgin is hidden behind Christ’s body (unlike first Pietà) •   Correggio, Assumption of the Virgin, 1522-28. Fresco, Parma Cathedral •   Ecstatic scene, but religious ecstasy 
 •   Traditional and conservative 
 •   Represents the marriage of Virgin and Christ (Virgin is married 
to the church) 
 •   Parmigianino, Madonna with the Long Neck, ca. 1535 •   Extreme elongated forms •   Francesco Primaticcio, Stucco Figures, Gallery of Francis I, designed for the Room of the Duchesse d'Étampes, Château of Fontainebleau, France •   •   Idea of Primaticcio posing himself painting the scene •   Jacopo Sansovino: Venice, Library of St Mark’s, begun 1537, façade o   Sansovino 
 o   Becomes primary architect of Venice
 •   Former site of executions, redesigned as positive space for the state •   Aloga: Open walkway space on ground floor 
 Chapter 18 IDs: •   Gilles le Breton. Cour du Cheval Blanc (Court of the Whi te Horse), Fontainebleu, 1528-4 •   •   Uniformity and horizontality o   Interrupted by vertical pieces, gives more of palace quality •   Evocative of French architecture •   Pierre Lescot, Square Court, the Louvre, Paris, Begun 1546 •   •   Was originally the Paris palace for the King
 •   Italian style (windows, columns, etc.) •   Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera. Escorial. Begun 1563. Near Madrid •   •   Italian palace style
 •   Symmetry •   Stripped down horizontal planes •   No pediments •   El Greco, The Burial of Count Orgaz, Santo Tomé, Toledo, Spain, 1586 •   • Inquisition: Rooting out heretics o   Jesuits and Carmelites 
 o   Emphasized meditations in order to communicate with God •   El Greco 
 o   Greek painter, went to Venice and then Spain until death o   Painting deals with faith and works
 o   Abstract forms in heaven represent divine ecstasy 
 •   Albrecht Dürer, Adam and Eve. 1504 •   Attention to shadow and modeling even in a woodcut 
 •   Comes from study of idealized form (Vetruvius) 
 •   Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait, 1500 •   Display of luxury and status 
 •   Northern style 
 •   Christ like 
 •   Severity, sober attitude towards his role as painter 
 •   Hans Baldung Grien, The Bewitched Groom. ca. 1544 •   Intense foreshortening •   Witch or horse has done something to the man causing him to become unconscious
 •   Fear of witches was common •   Hans Holbein the Younger, Jean de Dinteville and Georges de Selve (“The Ambassadors”). 1533 •   •   Jean on left, Bishop on right
 •   Depiction of textures and their interests •   Anamorphic skull: Distorted skull depicted at bottom •   Jan Gossaert, Neptune and Amphitrite. 1516 •   Intentionally models Dürer’s Adam and Eve •   Influenced by both Dutch and Italian styles/texture •   Pieter Aertsen, The Meat Stall. 1551 •   •   Still life in foreground, religious event (flight from Egypt) in background •   Rich church goers ignoring poor o   Contrast of excess and poverty (charity vs. selfishness) •   Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Return of the Hunters. 1565 •   •   Part of meditations of the year o   Medieval tradition Background: •   Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Peasant Wedding. ca. 1568 •   •   Boisterous celebration
 •   Social class that’s not his own, outsider looking in •   Idealized o   Slightly offensive, depicting people as stereotypes •   Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Blind Leading the Blind. ca. 1568 •   •   Proverb from gospel of Matthew o   Blind are leading each other into a ditch 
 o   Maybe offensive (blind peasants) •   Allows speculation 
 •   Cornelis Floris and Willem van den Broek. Town Hall, Antwerp. 1561-66 •   •   Influenced by Italian architecture o   Rusticated o   Doric and Corinthian columns
 •   Mix and of Italian and Dutch (Dutch style roof) •   Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Judgment of Paris, ca. 1528 •   Paris has to choose who is most beautiful woman 
 •   Erotic 
 •   Contemporary clothing makes it more profane 
 •   Albrecht Altdorfer, The Battle of Issos, 1529 •   •   Landscape has potential to become subject of scene
 •   Depicts battle of Alexander the Great and Darius of Persia 
 o   Ancient scene represented in contemporary dress and modern city 
 •   Matthias Grünewald, St. Sebastian; The Crucifixion; St. Anthony Abbot; predella: Lamentation. Isenheim Altarpiece (closed), ca. 1509-10-15. •   • Reformation ◦ Martin Luther was a Catholic
 º   Complaints about selling of indulgences ◦ Taking time off of purgatory time, certain people were selling them • Crucifixion exterior view •   Eerie light and background 
 •   John the Baptist is lamb and Christ’s sacrifice 
 o   Matthias Grünewald, The Annunciation; Madonna and Child with Angels; The Resurrection. Second view of the Isenheim Altarpiece. ca. 1509/10-15 •   •   On Sundays and feast days, opened up to reveal “happy” moments •   Redemption of Christ’s sacrifice •   Golden orb moves across panels •   The Unicorn in Captivity, from the Unicorn Tapestries. South Netherlandish or French. ca. 1500 •   Story of resurrection 
 •   Interest in medieval patterns 
 o   Symbolizes Christ’s resurrection along with marriage and love
 •   Francesco Primaticcio and Germain Pilon, Tomb of Henry II and Catherine de’ Medici. 1563-70. Abbey Church of Saint- Denis, Paris o   Gisants of the king and queen, detail of the Tomb of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici, Abbey Church of St. - Denis, Paris •   •   Idealized
 •   Decrepit, decaying style •   Albrecht Dürer, The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, 1498 •   Concern for the apocalypse 
 •   Taking advantage of people’s fear of the end of the world 
 •   Albrecht Dürer, Melancholia I. 1514. Engraving •   Angel’s pose associated with melancholy o   Enigmatic, tortured artist •   Lucas Cranach the Elder, An Allegory of Law and Grace. ca. 1530. Woodcut •   •   Shading suggested but not three dimensional 
 •   Allegory of law and grace

 •   Joachim Patinir, The Penitence of St. Jerome. ca. 1518 •   •   Saints depicted in separate panels and across consistent landscape o   Landscape takes up more space and effort than central figures •   Gerard David, Virgin among Virgins, 1509 •   •   Virgin child surrounded by Virgin saints
 •   Painter and wife represented in corners, not donors Chapter 19 IDs: •   Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew, 1599 •   •   Eerie, direct light source coming from outside painting o   Light shines on St. Matthew 
 o   On right is Christ calling saint Matthew 
 §   Christ’s hand position 
 •   Contemporary clothes, Christ and Matthew are barefoot 
 •   Tenebrism: dramatic, accentuated light source coming from outside of picture 
 •   Caravaggio, The Conversion of St. Paul, 1601 •   •   Dramatic light and scene •   Paul is shown in dramatic foreshortening •   Mysterious, creates wonder •   Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, ca. 1625 •   •   One of first woman painters •   Story of virtuous overcoming powerful •   Drama surrounds part of story we don’t know, heightens drama •   Artemisia Gentileschi, Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting, 1638-39 •   •   Self portrait where she represented herself as the allegory of painting o   Used specific references to text (hair, jewelry, position) •   Carlo Maderno, Façade of St. Peter’s, Rome. 1607-12 •   •   Inside and outside space o   Similar to Palazzo dei Conservatori •   Unites church and area as a whole •   Increased visual gains •   Francesco Borromini, Façade and Plan of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome. plan: 1638-41, Façade, ca. 1665-7 •   •   Other architect of St. Peter’s •   San Carlino (little church) •   Scultpural façade
 o   Concavities/convexities: façade curves in and out o   Also found in the entablatures
 o   Extended to plan of church, oval shape •   Dome of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, 1638-41 •   •   Dome also looks pinched, oval shape •   Coffers decrease in size, perspective makes it look higher •   Guarino Guarini. Dome of the Chapel of the Holy Shroud, Turin Cathedral. 1668-94 •   •   Temple of Shroud o   Relic of Shroud that was on Christ when he was placed in the tomb, his likeness imprinted on •   Indented with coffers and windows
 •   Web of ribs in dome, exaggerated depth •   Stefano Maderno, Santa Cecilia. 1600. Marble, life-size. Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome •   •   5th century martyr, decapitated
 •   Sculpture depicts her dead body o   Dramatic, visceral •   Gianlorenzo Berlini, The Ecstasy of St. Teresa (full chapel view). 1645-52. Marble, life-size. Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome •   •   Pierced by arrow of angel
 •   Experiences intense pain and pleasure •   Shown in her expression 
 •   Echoed with intense drapery and floating position 
 •   Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas, 1656 •   Velázquez shown painting portrait •   Canvas of painting taking up part of actual painting 
 o   We can’t see what he’s painting, viewer is subject o   Mirror shows King and Queen as potential subjects
 o   Testament of importance of his artwork 
 Background: •   Annibale and Agostino Carracci, vault frescoes in the Farnese Gallery, 1597-1602. Palazzo Farnese, Rome •   •   References to Sistine Chapel •   Mythological scenes o   Love of the gods o   Able to because it’s private space, not religious o   Satire of gods behaving badly •   Bernini, Baldacchino, 1624-33. At crossing. St. Peter’s, Rome •   •   Became head architect after Maderno’s death •   Took bronze from interior of Pantheon to create Baldacchino •   Baldassare Longhena, Santa Maria della Salute. Venice. 1631- 87 •   •   Church that welcomes people into the Grand Canal
 •   Octagonal centrally planned
 •   High pediments, break up surface of facade •   Dedicated to the Virgin for delivering the city from plague •   Juan Sánchez Cotán, Quince, Cabbage, Melon, and Cucumber. ca. 1602 •   •   Staged scene intentionally 
 o   Intense light and dark 
 o   Shows strings used to assemble scene 
 •   Diego Velázquez, Surrender at Breda. 1634-35 •   •   1620’s: became court painter o   Painted many portraits for the crown
 •   Embraced interest in light, shadow, and now color o   Exposure to works of Titian
 •   Scene of battle between Spain and the Netherlands o   Dutch general is handing keys to condescending Spanish general, shows defeated Dutch soldiers •   Borromini, Sant’Agnese, 1653-63 •   Where Romans had chariot races •   Created competition between Borromini and Bernini •   Guarino Guarini, Façade of Palazzo Carignano. Turin. Begun 1679 •   Turin, North Italy o   Site of a lot of Baroque architecture •   Brick building with concavities and convexities •   Stories broken up into units •   Diego Velázquez, Juan de Pareja. 1650 •   •   Sent to Rome to work for Pope, while waiting for Pop he painted his assistant
 •   Similar to Leonardo’s portraits o   Pose o   Shadows
 •   However, Velázquez focuses on light on face and texture that begins to change texture of paint •   Gianlorenzo Bernini, David. 1623. Marble, life-size. Galleria Borghese, Rome •   •   Extreme, intense facial expression
 •   Classical action shot •   Francesco Borromini, Exterior of Sant’Ivo, Rome. Begun 1642 •   •   Cutaway plan of Francesco Borromini’s Sant’Ivo o   Added church to end of cloistered space o   Hexagonal star shape, Varvorini V o   Coherence between different stories •   Annibale Carracci, Landscape with the Flight into Egypt, ca. 1603 •   •   •   Mary and Holy family depicted small in comparison to landscape •   Mysterious, picturesque landscape •   Pietro da Cortona, Allegory of Divine Providence. 1633-39 •   Varborini family commissioned, represented with “V” •   Illusionistic, fake architecture •   Taking of individual scenes and sticking them on stealing •   Taking into account viewer’s perspective looking up •   Subject: Divine Providence, Varborini shown as divinely chosen •   Giovanni Battista Gaulli, Triumph of the name of Jesus. 1672- 79. Ceiling Fresco, Il Gesù, Rome •   •   Stucco sculptures are real sculptures, rest is painted o   Spilling out of frame •   Metaphor for divine light of Christ •   Jusepe de Ribera, The Club-Footed Boy. 1642 •   •   Disability depicted in painting 
 o   Shown begging for alms 
 •   Diego Velázquez, The Water Carrier of Seville. ca. 1619 •   •   Depicting class not his own, but showing dignity
 •   Focus on texture
 •   Theme of good works 
 Chapter 20 IDs: •   Peter Paul Rubens, Marie de’ Medici, Queen of France, Landing in Marseilles (November 3, 1600). 1622-25 •   Cycle of 21 paintings •   Scene is from earlier event of Marie's arrival in France after marriage to Henry the 4th o   Accompanied by court o   Man in blue cape with flour de lis represents France welcoming her o   Fame is allegorical character above her announcing her arrival wit trumpet o   Neptune in water with other humans/creature accompanying her •   “Ruben’s bodies" •   Anthony van Dyck, Portrait of Charles I Hunting, 1635 •   Interest in picturesque landscape •   Not very regal for a royal portrait o   Doesn’t take away from status, shows other side than official •   Jacob Jordaens, The King Drinks, 1638 •   Takes place on Epiphany o   Family celebration, they would call someone “the King" •   Similar to Ruben’s style o   Depiction of figures •   Frans Hals, Married Couple in a Garden: Portrait of Isaac Massa and Beatrix van der Laen. ca. 1622 •   •   Couple with setting of country villa o   Relaxed environment •   Frans Hals, The Jolly Toper, ca. 1628-30 •   •   Casual take on the once formal style of portraits •   Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait, ca. 1633 •   •   Casual take on the once formal style of portraits •   Judith Leyster, The Proposition, 1631 •   •   Subject is stitching •   Common for scenes of “the approach" o   Normally painted by men, but painted by woman shows different reaction o   Men showed acceptance of advances, Judith showed rebuffing •   Rembrandt van Rijn, The Blinding of Samson. 1636 •   •   Baroque light •   Interest of drama in scene o   Visceral reaction to gore •   Rembrandt van Rijn, Bathsheba with King David’s Letter. 1654 •   •   Sorrow and anxiety because she is pregnant with David’s child •   Rembrandt van Rijn, Self-Portrait. 1658 •   •   Self advertising his skills in how self portrait •   Technique of imposto: thick layering of paint o   Naturalistic, but playing with light and paint •   Jacob van Ruisdael, The Jewish Cemetery. 1655-70 •   •   More mysterious than realistic scene •   Tombs, tree, ruins of church all point to decay of civilization Background: •   Jacob van Ruisdel, View of Haarlem with Bleaching Grounds. ca. 1670 •   •   Recognized because of the skyline •   Jan Brueghel the Elder and Peter Paul Rubens, Allegory of Sight. 1617 •   “The Wonder Room" o   Opportunity for painters to depict vast collections of patrons •   Showed variety of objects owned by patrons o   Roman portrait busts o   History paintings o   Allegorical scenes o   Religious o   Portraits/Landscapes •   Allegory of Sight personified and sitting to take in the visual arts •   Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross. 1610-11 •   One of most important painters in Europe •   Painted for high altar •   Figures have massive, steroidal quality o   Even though immense mass, very expressive (women in distress) •   Pairing of devotional grief with soldiers on each side •   Hendrick Goltzius, Farnese Hercules, ca. 1597, Engraving •   Dutchmen on journey to Italy looking in awe at Hercules •   Frans Hals, Banquet of the Officers of the St. George Civic Guard, 1616 •   Commission for common space •   Ritualistic and ceremonial quality, flaunts status •   Anthony van Dyck, Rinaldo and Armida. 1629 •   Ruben’s assistant •   Fantastical recreation of the First Crusade o   Sorceress falls in love with Crusader she was supposed to kill •   Peter Paul Rubens, The Garden of Love. ca. 1638 •   •   Style similar to what will come in the Rococo movement •   Celebration of love o   Wife depicted in center but also in faces of other women o   Statue of Venus in right corner o   Bright blue sky o   Ancient Roman building garden setting •   Textures shown in fabric o   Moving away from higher naturalism, more towards playing with light •   Jan Davidsz. de Heem, Still Life with Exotic Birds. Late 1640s •   •   Prince still life: ostentatious •   Colonial theme represented with exotic animals/objects •   Pieter Saenredam, Interior of the Choir of St. Bavo’s Church at Haarlem. 1660 •   •   White washed walls •   Stripped of liturgical furnishings •   Willem Claesz, Heda. Still Life with Oysters, a Roemer, a Lemon, and a Silver Bowl. 1634. •   •   Everyday use combined with luxury •   Frozen in time o   Staged but interrupted (overturned) •   Hendrick Terbrugghen, Singing Lute Player. 1624 •   Used style of Carravggio o   Including colors and outfit •   Ideas of antiquity combined with dramatic teneberism being brought to Dutch painting •   Clara Peeters, Still Life with Fruit and Flowers, 1612 •   Represents early still life •   Fruit, wine, coins, knife, grasshopper, flowers, o   Variety and artist’s eye o   She is reflected in pewter vase o   Hypothesized that knife has her name inscribed to commemorate her wedding •   Rembrandt van Rijn, Portrait of Saskia van Uylenburgh. 1633 •   •   Silver point drawing of his wife •   Reminiscent of countryside life and being in love •   Frans Snyders, Still Life with Dead Game, Fruits, and Vegetables in a Market. 1614 •   Became more elaborate •   Focus on variety •   Rembrandt, The Night Watch (The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq). 1642 •   •   Dramatic scene and lighting •   Jan van Goyen, Pelkus Gate Near Utrecht. 1646 Chapter 21 IDs: •   Georges de La Tour, Joseph the Carpenter. ca. 1642 •   France: Classicism returned under Louis the 14th •   Georges de La Tour never went to Italy, inspired by people who studied Caravaggio •   Quiet, introspective scenes with religious subjects o   Joseph (Christ’s father) with child Christ o   Christ’s hand around candle similar to blessing gesture •   Nicolas Poussin, The Death of Germanicus, 1627-28 •   Structured, strict emphasis on history painting o   Mythological, biblical, historical scenes •   Heroic death scene o   Perspective o   Not as idealized/colorful as baroque •   Nicolas Poussin, The Abduction of the Sabine Women. ca. 1633-34 •   •   Theft of women from another town •   Meant to be heroic narrative •   Display of Roman architecture •   Claude Lorrain, A Pastoral Landscape. ca. 1648 •   One of the first to paint oil paintings outside •   Because of forgers, he kept records of his paintings and who he sold them to •   Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart. Garden front of the center block of the Palace of Versailles. 1669-85 •   Increasingly horizontal •   Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Louis Le Vau, and Charles Le Brun. Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors), Palace of Versailles. Begun 1678 •   •   240 feet long •   Rooms of War and Peace and either side •   Mirrors used to make room feel larger o   Mirrors were very expensive, showed wealth Background: •   Jules Hardouin-Mansart. Church of the Invalides, Paris. 1677 - 91 •   •   One of architects from Versailles •   Corner chapels •   Chapel where wounded soldiers were taken •   Nicolas Poussin, Landscape with St. John on Patmos. 1640 •   •   Landscape shows ruins of city (ruins of past) o   Melancholic, contemplative atmosphere o   By putting St. John with classical elements, makes landscape more than just a landscape o   Elevates subject matter •   Simon Vouet, The Toilet of Venus. ca. 1640 •   •   Richly colored fresco •   Venus shown in “primping" scene o   Even though mid undressed, not overly erotic but subtly suggestive •   Similar to Venetian style •   Color and light •   Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Charles Le Brun (the room and decoration), and Antoine Coysevox (for the relief, The Triumph of Louis XIV). Salon de la Guerre (Salon of War), Palace of Versailles. Begun 1678 •   •   Combination of sculptures create theatrical ensemble •   Different Textures and colors to create an effect o   A little Baroque •   Hyacinthe Rigaud, Portrait of Louis XIV. 1701 •   Way to succeed in academy was to paint history painting (high status) •   Return to formal environment and setting


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