Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 5 and 6
Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 5 and 6 Bio 2313
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexa C Escapita on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 2313 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Zaineb A Al-Dahwi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Chapters 5 & 6. Chapter 5 1. Know the function of apocrine sweat glands Secretes milky or yellowish sweat that contains fatty substances and proteins Begins at puberty: function is unknown may be used for sex scent gland. 2. Know what is located in the reticular region of the dermis. Consists of coarse, dense fibrous connective tissue. Many elastic fibers provide stretch-recoil properties Collagen fibers provide strength and resiliency. Bind water which keeps skin hydrated Cutaneous Plexus: Network of blood vessels between reticular layer and hypodermis. Cleavage (Tension) Lines: Caused by many collagen fibers running parallel to skin surface. Externally visible Important for surgeons because incisions parallel to cleavage lines heal more readily. Flexor Lines: Dermal folds at or near joints Dermis is tightly secured to deeper structures Skins inability to slide easily for joint movement causes deep creases Visible on hands, wrists, fingers, soles and toes. 3. Know what protein is found in large amounts in the outermost layer of epidermal cells. Keratin 4. Know the different types of burns. First degree Epidermal damage only Second degree Epidermal and upper dermal damage Third Degree Entire thickness of skin damaged 5. Why is the nail bed pink? Underlying capillaries 6. Why hair growth decreases with age? Because the matrix is inactive and the follicle atrophies 7. Know the different types of skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma Least malignant and most common Cured 99% by surgical removal. Stratum basale proliferate and slowly invade the dermis and the hypodermis. Squamous cell carcinoma Second most common, can metastasize Involves keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum Scaly reddened papule on scalp, ear, lower lips or hands. Good prognosis if treated by radiation therapy or removed surgically. Melanoma Cancer of melanocytes, most dangerous type because it is highly metastatic and is resistant to chemotherapy. Treated by wide surgical excision accompanied by immunotherapy Key to survival is early detection. 8. Know the different layers of skin and their composition. Epidermis Superficial layer consisting of epithelial tissue and is AVASCULAR Cells of the epidermis: Keratinocytes o Produce fibrous keratin Melanocytes o Spider shaped cells located deep in the epidermis o Responsible for producing pigment melanin which is packaged into vesicles (melanosomes) Dendritic (Langerhans) cells o Star shaped macrophages that patrol deep epidermis o Key activators in the immune system Tactile (Merkel) cells o Sensory receptors that sense touch. Layers of the epidermis: Stratum Basale Deepest of all epidermal layers (base layer) Layer that is firmly attached to dermis Single row of stem cells that actively divide (mitotic), producing two daughter cells each time One daughter cell journeys from basal layer to surface, taking 25–45 days to reach surface Cell dies as it moves toward surface Other daughter cell remains in stratum basale as stem cell Layer also known as stratum germinativum because of active mitosis 10–25% of layer also composed of melanocytes Stratum Spinosum o Several cell layers thick o Cells contain weblike system of intermediate prekeratin filaments attached to desmosomes Allows them to resist tension and pulling o Keratinocytes in this layer appear spikey, so they are called prickle cells o Scattered among keratinocytes are abundant melanosomes and dendritic cells Stratum Granulosum o Four to six cells thick, but cells are flattened, so layer is thin o Cell appearance changes Cells flatten, nuclei and organelles disintegrate Keratinization begins Cells accumulate keratohyaline granules that help form keratin fibers in upper layers Cells also accumulate lamellar granules, a water-resistant glycolipid that slows water loss o Cells above this layer die Too far from dermal capillaries to survive Stratum Lucidum (only in thick skin) o Found only in thick skin o Consists of thin, translucent band of two to three rows of clear, flat, dead keratinocytes o Lies superficial to the stratum granulosum Stratum Corneum o 20–30 rows of flat, anucleated, keratinized dead cells o Accounts for three-quarters of epidermal thickness o Though dead, cells still function to: Protect deeper cells from the environment Prevent water loss Protect from abrasion and penetration Act as a barrier against biological, chemical, and physical assaults Dermis Mostly fibrous connective tissues, VASCULAR Contents of the dermis: Blood vessels Nerves Lymphatic vessels Epidermal hair follicles Oil glands Sweat glands Layers of the dermis: Papillary o Loose interlacing collagen o Elastic fibers o Blood vessels o Loose fibers allow phagocytes to patrol for microorganisms Dermal Papillae: o Sends fingerlike projections to the epidermis o Projections contain capillary loops, free nerve endings and touch receptors (tactile corpuscles also known as Meissner’s corpuscles). o Lie on top of dermal ridges which give rise to epidermal ridges o Collectively ridges are called Friction Ridges Reticular o Makes up 80% of dermal thickness o Consists of coarse dense, fibrous connective tissue. o Cutaneous Plexus : These three things were mentioned above. **Extracellular matrix has pockets of adipose cells o Flexure Lines o Cleavage Lines Hypodermis Subcutaneous layer deep skin Not part of the skin but shares function Mostly adipose tissue that absorbs shock and insulates Anchors skin to underlying structures: mostly muscles. 9. Know that the patients skin color can help in making diagnosis. Cyanosis Blue skin color: low oxygenation of hemoglobin Erythema (redness) Fever, hypertension, inflammation, allergy Pallor (blanching or pale color) Anemia, low blood pressure, fear, anger Jaundice (yellow cast) Liver disorders Bronzing Inadequate steroid hormones (example: Addison’s disease) Bruises (black-and-blue marks) Clotted blood beneath skin 10.Know what happens to dermal blood vessels when an individual is exposed to extremely cold air. Dermal blood vessels constrict 11. Do all human beings have about the same number of melanocytes? NO, but they all have about the same number of KERATINOCYTES. 12. Know the function of the arrector pili muscle: Goosebumps 13. Know the major regions of a hair shaft and the function of the root hair. Hair Shaft Area that extends above scalp Keratinization is complete o Medulla: Central core of large cells and air spaces. o Cortex: Several layers flattened cells surrounding medulla. o Cuticle: Outer layer consisting of overlapping layers of single cells. Root Hair Area that is within the scalp Keratinization is still going on o Hair bulb: is expanded area at the end of the hair follicle o Hair follicle receptor (root hair plexus): is the sensory nerve endings that wrap around the bulb. o Hair matrix: is the actively dividing area of bulb that produces hair cells, as it makes new hair cells it pushes older ones upward. o Hair Papilla: Dermal tissue that contains a knot of capillaries that supplies nutrients to growing hair. 14. Know which glans produce ear wax. Ceruminous glands (Modified Apocrine Glands) 15. Know the reason why the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber. Contains adipose tissue 16. Know the functions of the following cells: Keratinocytes, melanocytes, dendritic cells, tactile cells. Keratinocytes: Produce fibrous keratin (protein that gives skin its protective properties) Major cells of epidermis Tightly connected by desmosomes Millions lost every day Melanocytes: Spider-shaped cells located in deepest epidermis Produce pigment melanin, which is packaged into melanosomes (Melanosomes are transferred to keratinocytes, where they protect nucleus from UV damage) Dendritic Cells: Star-shaped macrophages that patrol deep epidermis Are key activators of immune system Tactile Cells: Sensory receptors that sense touch 17.What are friction ridges? Friction Ridges: Enhance gripping, contribute to touch, sweat pores leave unique fingerprint pattern. 18. What is Addison’s disease? Adrenal glands produce too little cortisol and often insufficient amounts of aldosterone. 19.**Nutrition and hormones influence hair growth 20. Know the different between eccrine, sebaceous and apocrine glands (location, secretion, etc..) Eccrine glands o Most numerous o Function in thermoregulation, regulated by the sympathetic nervous system o Secretes sweat, 99% water, salts, Vitamin C, antibodies, dermcidin (microbe-killing peptide) and metabolic wastes. Apocrine Glands o Secretes milky or yellowish sweat that contains fatty substances and proteins o Begins at puberty: function is unknown may be used for sex scent gland. o Larger than eccrine sweat glands with ducts emptying into hair follicles o Confined to axillary and anogenital areas o Modified apocrine glands: Ceruminous glands: lining of external ear canal; secrete cerumen (earwax) Mammary glands: secrete milk Sebaceous Glands o Widely Distributed (except for thick skin in palms and soles) o Secrete into hair follicles o Relatively inactive until puberty (Stimulated by hormones, especially androgens) o Secrete sebum o Oily holocrine secretion o Bactericidal (bacteria-killing) properties o Softens hair and skin Sebaceous Gland Chapter 6 1. On a diagram be able to identify: Compact bone, the epiphyseal line, where yellow marrow is found and the epiphysis of the bone. Proximal Epiphyseal Line Compact Diaphysis (where bone marrow is found) Distal Epiphysis 2. Know the definition of Lamellae, Osteoblasts, Endosteum, Canaliculi and Osteoclasts. Lamellae (collagen fibers): Several rings of bone matrix that wrap around the osteon cylinder. Osteoblasts: Bone forming cells that secrete unmineralized matrix called osteoid. They are also actively mitotic. Endosteum: Delicate connective tissue membrane covering internal bone structures such as the trabeculae of the spongy bone, canals that line the compact bone and like periosteum that has cells that can differentiate into other bone cells. Canaliculi: Hair-like canals that connect lacunae (contains osteocytes) to each other and the central canal. Osteoclasts: Derived from same hematopoietic stem cells that become macrophages. They have giant, multinucleate cells that function in bone resorption (breakdown of bone). When active, cells are located in depressions called resorption bays. Cells have ruffled borders that serve to increase surface area for enzyme degradation of bone. They also help seal off area from surrounding matrix Image of the difference between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteobla Osteocl 3. Know the definition of Intramembranous ossification, Appositional growth, Epiphyseal line, Chondrocytes and Epiphyseal plate. Intramembranous ossification: Bone develops from fibrous membrane. The bone is now called membrane bone. Connective tissue membranes are formed from mesenchymal cells. o Forms frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, and clavicle bones. There are four steps in intramembranous ossification. o Mesenchymal cells cluster and become osteoblasts which forms ossification centers. o Osteoid is secreted and then calcified. o Woven bone is formed when osteoid is laid down around blood vessels, resulting in trabeculae. Outer layer of woven bone forms periosteum. o Lamellar bone replaces woven bone, and red marrow appears. Appositional growth: o Cartilage-forming cells in perichondrium secrete a matrix o Matrix grows against the external face of existing cartilage o New matrix is laid down on surface of cartilage Epiphyseal line: Between diaphysis and epiphysis Chondrocytes: A cell that has secreted the matrix of cartilage and become embedded in it. Epiphyseal plate: Remnant of childhood where bones grow. 4. Know the definition of bone marking: Spine, Trochanter, Facet, Foramen, Ramus, meatus and fossa. Spine: Sharp, slender and often pointed projection. (hip) Trochanter: Very large, blunt and irregular shaped process (femur) Facet: Smooth, nearly flat articular surface (ribs) Foramen: Round or oval openings through a bone (Foramen magnum: hole at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes) Ramus: Arm like bar of the bone. (Jaw) Meatus: Canal-like passageway. Fossa: Shallow basin-like depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface. 5. What is Hematopoiesis? Process of creating new blood cells. 6. **Compact bone is NOT replaced more often that spongy bone.** 7. What is periosteum? Covers outside of compact bone White, double-layered membrane that covers external surfaces except joints Contains many nerve fibers and blood vessels going though nutrient foramen openings Contains Sharpey’s fibers (dense irregular connective tissue) secure to bone matrix contains primitive osteogenic stem cells that gives rise to most bone cells Anchoring points for tendons and ligaments 8. **Short, irregular, and flat bones DO NOT have medullary cavities** 9. Know the types (yellow or red?) of bone marrow found in bones of newborn infants. Red bone marrow 10. What is the structural unit of compact bone? The osteon (know how it looks like and its composition). Composed of an elongated cylinder that runs parallel to long axis of bone Contains lamellae that surrounds the osteon. Structures in the central canal such as arteries, veins and nerve fibers. 11. What is osteoid? The matrix of compact bones 12. What is hydroxyapatite? Mineral Salts Makeup 65% of bone by mass Tiny calcium phosphate crystals (in and around collagen fibers) For hardness and resistance to compression (Like Steel) Last long after death because of mineral composition. 13. Do ALL bones stop growing by the end of adolescence? Not all bones the facial bones still continue to grow slowly throughout life. 14. What hormone is primarily involved in the control of bone remodeling? Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) 15.**Compact bone is adapted to support weight and withstand torsion stresses** 16. Know the function of the following cells: Osteocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast and chondrocyte. Osteocyte: Mature bone cells in lacunae that no longer divide Maintain bone matrix and act as stress or strain sensors Respond to mechanical stimuli such as increased force on bone or weightlessness Communicate information to osteoblasts and osteoclasts (cells that destroy bone) so bone remodeling can occur Osteoblast: Bone-forming cells that secrete unmineralized bone matrix called osteoid Osteoid is made up of collagen and calcium-binding proteins Collagen makes up 90% of bone protein Osteoblasts are actively mitotic Osteoclast: Derived from same hematopoietic stem cells that become macrophages Giant, multinucleate cells function in bone resorption (breakdown of bone) When active, cells are located in depressions called resorption bays Cells have ruffled borders that serve to increase surface area for enzyme degradation of bone Also helps seal off area from surrounding matrix Chondrocyte: A cell that has secreted the matrix of cartilage and become embedded in it. 17.**Hyaline cartilage is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo** 18. What is a diploe in flat bones? Where red marrow is found. (Sternum) 19. Know the bones Ossification and Bone growth processes Ossification Process Endochondral ossification o Bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage o Bones are called cartilage (endochondral) bones 5 Main steps in Endochondral Ossification 1). Bone collar forms around diaphysis of cartilage 2). Central cartilage in diaphysis calcifies and cavities develops 3). Periosteal bud invades cavities, leading to formation of spongy bone Bud is made up of blood vessels, nerves, red marrow, osteogenic cells, and osteoclasts 4). Diaphysis elongates, and medullary cavity forms Secondary ossification centers appear in epiphyses 5). Epiphyses ossify Hyaline cartilage remains only in epiphyseal plates and articular cartilages Intramembranous ossification o Bone develops from fibrous membrane o Bones are called membrane bones 4 Main Steps in Intramembranous ossification 1. Mesenchymal cells cluster and become osteoblasts o this forms ossification centers 2. Osteoid is secreted, then calcified 3. Woven bone is formed when osteoid is laid down around blood vessels, resulting in trabeculae. Outer layer of woven bone forms periosteum 4. Lamellar bone replaces woven bone, and red marrow appears. Bone Growth Process Prenatal Process: Long bones grow lengthwise by interstitial (longitudinal) growth of epiphyseal plate Bones increase thickness through appositional growth Bones stop growing during adolescence Some facial bones continue to grow slowly through life Interstitial Growth: requires presence of epiphyseal cartilage in the epiphyseal plate Epiphyseal plate maintains constant thickness o Rate of cartilage growth on one side o is balanced by bone replacement on the other side Epiphyseal plate consists of five zones: o Resting (quiescent) zone o Proliferation (growth) zone o Hypertrophic zone o Calcification zone o Ossification (osteogenic) zone Resting (quiescent) zone o Area of cartilage on epiphyseal side of epiphyseal plate that is relatively inactive Proliferation (growth) zone o Area of cartilage on diaphysis side of epiphyseal plate that is rapidly dividing o New cells formed move upward, pushing epiphysis away from diaphysis, causing lengthening Hypertrophic zone o Area with older chondrocytes closer to diaphysis o Cartilage lacunae enlarge and erode, forming interconnecting spaces Calcification zone o Surrounding cartilage matrix calcifies; chondrocytes die and deteriorate Ossification zone o Chondrocyte deterioration leaves long spicules of calcified cartilage at epiphysis-diaphysis junction o Spicules are then eroded by osteoclasts and are covered with new bone by osteoblasts o Ultimately replaced with spongy bone o Medullary cavity enlarges as spicules are eroded Growth in Length of Long Bones: Near end of adolescence, chondroblasts divide less often Epiphyseal plate thins, then is replaced by bone Epiphyseal plate closure occurs when epiphysis and diaphysis fuse Bone lengthening ceases Females: occurs around 18 years of age Males: occurs around 21 years of age Growth in Width (Thickness): Growing bones widen as they lengthen through appositional growth Can occur throughout life Bones thicken in response to increased stress from muscle activity or added weight Osteoblasts beneath periosteum secrete bone matrix on external bone Osteoclasts remove bone on endosteal surface. Usually more building up than breaking down, which leads to thicker, stronger bone not too heavy. 20. What are Volkmann’s canals, central (haversian) canal, canaliculi and perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers? What are their functions? Perforating Volkmann’s canals: Canals lined with endosteum that occur at right angles to central canal Connect blood vessels and nerves of periosteum, medullary cavity, and central canal Central (Haversian) canal: Central (Haversian) canal runs through core of osteon Contains blood vessels and nerve fibers Canaliculi: Hair-like canals that connect lacunae (contains osteocytes) to each other and the central canal. Sharpeys’ Fibers: (dense irregular connective tissue) secure to bone matrix 21. Know the function of the following cells: Osteoclast, Osteocyte, Osteoblast and Stem cell. Osteoclast: (mentioned above) Osteocyte: (mentioned above) Osteoblast: (mentioned above) Stem Cell: primitive osteogenic stem cells that gives rise to most bone cells 22. Know the role of the following hormones: Calcitonin, thyroxine, parathyroid hormone and estrogen. Calcitonin: Produced by parafollicular cells of thyroid gland in response to high levels of blood calcium levels Thyroxine: a hormone the thyroid gland secretes into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, thyroxine travels to the organs, like the liver and kidneys, where it is converted to its active form of triiodothyronine Parathyroid Hormone (PTH): produced by parathyroid glands in response to low blood calcium levels Stimulates osteoclasts to resorb bone Calcium is released into blood, raising levels PTH secretion stops when homeostatic calcium levels are reached Estrogen: In females this promotes adolescent growth spurts, end growth by inducing epiphyseal plate closure. 23. What are trabeculae? Honeycomb of small, needle-like or flat pieces of bone. Part of the Spongy Bone. Open spaces between trabeculae are filled with red or yellow bone marrow 24.**In some cases, elevated levels of sex hormones might cause the early closure of the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children. 25.**When an osteoblast becomes completely surrounded by its own matrix secretion it is referred to as an osteocyte. 26.**Hip bone is the best location for obtaining a red bone marrow sample from a patient. 27.**Osteoporosis is a bone disorder in which bone resorption outpaces bone deposit, leaving the person with thin and often very fragile bones. Highlighted questions are the things that are stated on the study guide that start with “Know that..”
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