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Midterm Study Guide

by: Amykates

Midterm Study Guide CDD 5229

Kean University

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This study guide comes from the slides and the notes I took in class. It is thorough but not overwhelming. I made it interesting by adding some mind maps, and included some charts from my phonetics...
Dis of phonology and artic
Dr. Martin Shulman
Study Guide
phonetics, phonology, articulation
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amykates on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CDD 5229 at Kean University taught by Dr. Martin Shulman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Dis of phonology and artic in Communication Sciences and Disorders at Kean University.

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Date Created: 10/09/16
Topic: 5229 Midterm Study Guide BasicTerms&Concepts: • Phoneme - the smallest unit within a language (it’s a linguistic event - sounds that change meaning) • Phonology - the study of the meaningful units of sound wi thin a language, the description of the system and patterns of phonemes that occur in a language. • Articulation - gradually developing motor skill : peripheral – it’s an oral motor skill, NOT phonatory, respiratory, etc.… (Assume those are working) • 2 kinds of communication disorders : Phonological (language) and articulation (speech). ArticulatoryPhonetics -SpeechSoundForm: • Organization ofSounds o PLACE : where is it produced? o MANNER : how is it produced? o VOICING : VF vibrating or not? • Categories of Speech Sounds: vowels rounded/not rounded; tense/not tense consonants sonorants (nasal, liquid, glide) OR obstruents (stops, fricatives, affricates) dipthongs eɪ, aɪ, aʊ, ɔɪ, oʊ TABLE5.! The Classification of English Consonant Phonemes. Bilabial Labiodental Interdental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal V] V V] V VI V VI V V] V VI V VI Obstruents Stops (Plosives) p b Fricatives Affricates Sonorants Nasals m n Approximants Glides Liquids v1 = voicelv = voiced. 1 • Consonants o Voiced consonants (b, d, g, v, ð, z, dʒ, m, n, ŋ, l, r, w, j,) o Voiceless consonant (p, t, k, f, θ, s, ʃ, tʃ, h) o Place: § Labial- p, b, f, v, m, w § Dental- θ, ð § Alveolar- t, d, s, z, n, l § Post alveolar- ʃ, ʒ tʃ, dʒ § Palatal- j, r § Velar- k, g , ŋ § Glottal- h ʔ o Manner: § Stops- p, b, t, d, k, g § Fricatives- f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, § Affricates- tʃ, dʒ, § Liquids- l, r § Glides- w, j § Nasals- m, n, ŋ • Syllablestructure : every syllable has a vowel: o Peak - gets most energy (vowel) o Onset - consonant in front o Coda - consonant behind o Assessing medial position : GF – assesses sounds in all locations: varied SS to assess medial consonant sound – there was no effort on any standardized assessment for syllable structure – PROBLEM: because it’s a variable that could determine the outcome § [d] in “window”= (CVCCV) § [θ] in “bathtub”= (CVCCVC) § [n] in “banana” = (CVCVCV): trisyllabic word; reduplicated syllables § [l] in “ballons”= (CVCVCC ): bilabial [b] and unrounded [u] • Cognates - pairs of sounds that differ only in a single feature (ex: place, organ, manner, voi--- NOT the same as minimal pairs, which are words not sounds • Minimal Pairs- two words that differ in only one phoneme value (ex: mat and bat) • Obstruents - characterized by a sound’s complete or narrow constriction between articulators hindering the airstream (stops, fricatives & affricates) Diphthongs • - vowels in which there is a change in quality during production o Onglide- the initial segment of a diphthong. Acoustically longer and usually more prominent than the offglide o Offglide- the final segment of a diphthong 2 PhonologicalRules •Pluralizing:underlying representation of /z/: r oot word ending determines the /s/ or /z/ o Maintain same voice as root word ending e.g., [k æts]; voiceless OR e.g., [dɔg] à [dɔgz] ; voiced o If both are in the same place of articulation , add a schwa / əz/ e.g., [glæs]à [glæsəz] o Irregular plurals are the exception • Past Tense: underlying representation of /d/ • Notations for Phonological Rules: o à means becomes or “can be rewritten as” o /“in the environment of” _____ o _____dicates location of changed segment o # indicates the begging in of a word o ___#_indicates the end or final word position o V____V is intervocalic word position o Ø indicates the deletion of a segment o C indicates a consonant segment o CC(C) indicates 2 or 3 consonants t/s tàs o or o d/zor dà z in distinctive feature talk would say § d z +cons -con +cor à -cor +ant -ant +strid -strid ( • Diacritic- are used to be specific and describe how the sound is produced PhonologicalProcesses : SODA Mental operation applied to a class of sounds (gets simplified); rule-governedaccommodations; NOT an error pattern – only errors when age of user comes into play • S:Substitution: w instead of r: r®w • O:Omission: most impact on intelligibility: Æ • D:Distortion: produced the phoneme, but not precise, but doesn’t change the phoneme: describe it (with or without diacritical markings): NOT PHONOLOGICAL – more of an artic disorder: therapy targeted toward distortion: Terms:dentalization, nasalization, , labialization, verlarized, lateralized unreleased (only stops), aspiration (too much air), unaspirated, syllabic consonant DistinctiveFeatures : helps find the COMMON DENOMIATOR: IMPORTANT and it works o Chomsky& Halle’s Distinctive Features : describing how language gets learned: kids learn language so well and so fast it’s got to be easy and have clear rules (have a notion of the rules but not have to explain them– EXTREMELY difficult to NOT get language: “child is learning ingredients of phonemes, not learning the phonemes” 1. Cornoral (tip) /noncoronal (apical) 2. Continuant (all vowels, fricatives, glides, liquids, nasals) 3 3. Non-continuant (stops and affricates) 4. Strident/non-strident: “to make a loud or harsh sound” • A :Addition: RARE: normally dialectic (idears) • Innate and universal • Easy to produce • Not sure its motor problem s, could be conceptual problems • Used to constantly revise – rule-governed but should be changing • They go through steps: it’s a disorder when they get stuck and can’t go through the steps • Mechanisms: as children work towards adult norms 1. Limitation - e.g., first stops for all fricatives then stops for all sibilants 2. Ordering - random substitutions become orderly 3. *Suppression - process is no longer used • 3 CATEGORIES: o Syllable Structure Processes o Substitution Processes o Assimilatory Processes • Syllable Structure Processes : phonological processes that affect the syllable structure 4 1. Reduplication: a. Partial: repetition of just a consonant or vowel of a syllable (ex: bottle à [bɑdɑ] or [bɑbi]) b. Total: repetition of an entire syllable i. (ex: bottleà [bɑbɑ] or [bibi]) 2. FinalConsonantDeletion :boat®boa 3. WeakSyllableDeletion :telephone ®tephone 4. ClusterReduction:CCVCV®CVCV (snoopy ®soupy) 5. Epenthesis (RARE): addition of a vowel, usually a schwa (ex: pleaseà[pəliz]): product of overlearning • Substitution Processes : 1. Stopping : ONLY thing that is changed is the manner (normally fricative) (s ®t) 2. Fronting - move the sound anteriorly (k ®t) 3. Gliding - replacing a liquid for a glide (r, l à w, l) 4. Deaffrication - substitution of an affricate for a fricative 5. Voicing/Devoicing : very difficult for ESL learners 6. Consonant cluster substitution - keep the syllable structu re but substitute consonant sounds: snoopy (CCVCV)®swoopy (CCVCV) 7. Labialization / Alveolarization 8. Affrication : (t® tʃand d® dʒ) 9. Denasalization : (if you have a cold): m ®b; n®d; ®gŋ 10. Vowelization : takes off consonant: paper ®papo 11. Derohoticization : the r-coloring is gone • Assimilation Processes :[MAGNET]: “in the presence of a , non- become . can produce the sound, but other sounds are just so strong 1. Labial assimilation: butter®buber 2. Alveolar assimilation: dog®dod (most common) 3. Nasal assimilation: banana®manana 4. Liquid assimilation: water®wawer 5. Velar assimilation: dog®gog o Coarticulation: Assimilation/Harmo ny Processes: one sound influences another by either articulation placement or acoustic feature: other influences in the word are STRONG; subcategories: contact, remote, progressive, regressive, total, and partial • When an SLP will work on Phonological Process: o Persisting normal processes : sometimes they just persist o Chronological mismatch : not all problems have been suppressed o Systematic sound preferences : just love some sounds o Unusual or idiosyncratic processes : weird kids - unexplained I. BASICprinciplesofmovementdevelopment • Continuous▯QSPDFTT▯r▯XJMM▯DPOUJOVF▯UP▯HFU▯CFUUFS▯▯BMXBZT▯TPNF▯JNQSPWFNFOU▯DIBOHFT ▯ • 4FRVFODF▯PG▯EFWFMPQNFOU▯JT▯UIF▯same▯▯UJNF▯NBZ▯WBSZ▯ • .PWFNFOU▯▯HSPTT▯CFGPSF▯GJOF▯▯IFBE▯CFGPSF▯UBJM▯▯PSBM▯DBWJUZ▯HFUT▯CJHHFS ▯NBLJOH▯NPSF▯SPPN▯GPS▯UIF▯UPOHVF ▯ 5 • 4UBCJMJUZ▯–▯QPTUVSF▯JNQSPWFT▯▯BEESFTT▯JG▯JU’T▯B▯QSPCMFN▯ • -PDBUJPO▯PG▯4PVOET▯▯CBDL▯CFGPSF▯GSPOU▯▯QSPYJNBM▯CFGPSF▯EJTUBM▯▯MBUFSBM▯BSF▯UIF▯IBSEF TU▯ • 5BLFT▯BXIJMF▯UP▯BEKVTU▯UP▯BCOPSNBM▯TUSVDUVSFT ▯BOE▯BCOPSNBM▯UPOF ▯ • ▯$PNQMFY▯NPUPS▯▯CRUCIAL▯▯NPOJUPSJOH▯UISPVHI▯B▯DPOUJOVPVT▯GFFECBDL▯MPPQ▯–▯DBO’U▯HFU▯CFUUFS▯XJUIPVU▯UIJT▯ GFFECBDL▯MPPQ▯ • RAPID ▯▯UFBDI▯QSFDJTF▯NPWFNFOUT▯BOE▯IPQF▯XF▯DBO▯LFFQ▯JU▯XIFO▯XF▯HP▯SBQJEMZ▯▯DBO ’U▯ED▯LJET▯VOUJM▯UIFZ▯BSF▯ EPJOH▯JU▯'"45▯ • KISS▯▯LFFQ▯JU▯TJNQMF▯TUVQJE▯▯FYBHHFSBUF▯NPWFNFOUT▯JTO ’U▯HPJOH▯UP▯XPSL▯▯UPP▯IBSE▯XPO’U▯NBLF▯JU▯OBUVSBM▯ ▯ • Pre-linguistic Stages: o Birth- 2 months- reflexive/vegetative (quasi-resonant nuclei) o 2-4 months – cooing and laughter o 4-6 months-vocal play o 6 months- canonical babbling o 10 months- jargon/variegated babbling Predictive Value of : eh…: not going to send a 3 y/o home to babble … • Babbling • Vocables/Phonetically Consistent Forms /Protowords/Quasi -words = invented words phonetically consistent forms – consistent sounds that stand for something: functions like a word II. Etiology: • Causation is tough to assign • What causes speech sound production problems? We don ’t know, sometimes is just idiosyncratic. • Potential Etiological Factors of Articulatory/Phonological Disorders: o Structural/Physiological/Neuromuscular § Dental Malocclussions - not a real predictor (overbite, openbite) § Lingual frenum - tip anchored, anatomy doesn’t always predict the physiology § Insufficient velopharngeal closure- if you can’t build pressure you can’t produce a stop-- related to artic and resonance § Orofacial myofunctional disorder : Tongue thrust- low muscle tone, tongue rests forward, mouth breathing, reverse swallow 6 § General motor coordinatio- nothing; speech is fine motor o Sensory/Perceptual § Hearing Loss- hx of otitis media – HIGHLY correlative § Inadequate Oral Sensation– oral astereogenesis = no feedback from oral muscles; agnosia – inability to recognize sensory stimuli o Psychosocial:personality traits are important for you as clinician, but not as a cause o Intellectual function- Possibly related – down syndrome – but more to do with low muscle tone; younger children have more problems, boys have more problems tha n girls (until 4-5y/o) o Siblin- only when there is LOADS of kids – not as many adult models. o Personal § Age –younger age has more correlation with speech sound production problems § Gender – chances are that it is a boy. Boys have a slower age of acquisition of speech sounds § Birth order • Finings point to the fact that the more years (7 years) between children, the more likely they are like “only children”, the better the speech production. o Socio-economic level: not related to speech sound production errors • Linguistic & Academic o Phonological disorders are correlated • Other o Voice is not really related o Stuttering- if the stuttering is there, there is a higher chance of articulation errors – but not correlated the other way around III. Assessment: case history, parent interview, oral -peripheral exam – your evaluation IV. CaseHistory : always tailor to nature of disorder; view needed information about the here and now § *Reccommends: sending home with parent – give them time to digest § comes from medical model (SLP is not medical – no cure) to unearth the cause (most are inaccessible to us) and come up with cure § good time to setup good dialogue with family § anything about early history and birth that I may need to know? – parents are going to share • ask general and follow up with specific questions you may have • don’t dwell on first year § Point is to get: • A view of the problem • The severity of the problem • The attitude of the child and of the family • Has it been worked on or not • What’s been done about it • Seen other professionals about it? What were their results? • FUNCTIONAL INFORMATION § TIPS/ RECCOMENDATIONS: 7 • Never ask a question you don’t understand the rationale (better to miss an important fact than ask something you can’t justify asking) • Don’t accept answers that are a conclusion – you want information/descriptions (ex: Johnny started talking late – no, when, what age?) • Don’t ask y/n questions – get descriptions instead • Ask general questions and fill in with specific follow up questions afterwards V. ParentInterview: : can get a lot of info from them § Great time to start a dialogue with them §tremendous amount of information §when tangent: giv e them credit, and take control: “something you said makes me really want to ask this next question” VI. oral-peripheralexam §Keep it simple, logical, and real §DDK: rapid alternating movements §If child is verbal and fluent – speech mechanism is probably ok VII. yourevaluation §get them talking: see their fluency, checks their speech mechanism §check out language and artic (standardized testing for artic) • Advantages of Articulation tests: 1. easy to give & score 2. quantifiable results 3. standardized scores 4. can be used as a measuring stick to track progress • Disadvantages of Articulation Tests: 1. isolated words ONLY- not natural connected speech 2. tests do not test all sounds in all contexts of the language 3. conditions of the data collection 4. everything is based on how easily it is pictured 5. word stress isn’t considered 6. word familiarity is everything 7. most only give one shot at getting the sound right 8. assimilation isn’t considered ARTICULATIONTESTS: 1. Fischer-Logman Test of Articulation o Target consonant could not be in blend o Scoresheet is the most valuable part of test: can use for other tests – nice organization for data: write every response o no standardized score 2. Goldman-Fristoe Test Articulation 3 8 o Most popular test in the U.S. o 3 sections: sounds-in-words, sounds-in-sentences, stimulability o transcribe whole word o intelligibility rating – good attempt at give you an objective measure of intelligibility 3. Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scal3: Fudula o Has the largest normative sample o Widely used in research – more objectively scored than other test o Gives a numerical value to phonemes based on frequency of occurrence in language/age o Didn’t test the medial position o Used 90% criteria for her norms o Has the largest normative data sample (5,000 kids) – first one that separated males and females 4. McDonaldDeepTestofArticulation o Tests each sound 60 times: put the 2 pictures together to form a new word: only testing sounds in medial position (speech is always connected) o Will find some combination of movements that enhances productions of the targeted sound—shows where to start therapy o Time consuming o Use to help with therapy – see if you notice a neighborhood where the result is an improved production – that’s where you will start therapy McDonald ’s Thoughts:*** 1. Words on tests are limited and arbitrary 2. Arbitrary: targets are based on picture-ability - ridiculous 3. Didn’t believe in intial/final position 4. All consonants and vowels can occur with every consonant and every vowel and consonant before or after it – vowels are rarely a source of problems: connected speech: always moving, even from rest, and to rest 5. Contextual Test of Articulation o Varies the vowel – same as McDonald but changes vowels 6. Photo-Articulation Test o Responded to Templin being “too long” o Designed for public schools o First one to give a score (Templin just gives a profile 7. Templin-Darely Test ofArticulation(141 items): 20 min o Tests r-colored vowels (no other tests does this) o Even tests blends, stimulability, intelligibility o Has overlay stencils so you can focus on 1 aspect of artic at a time o Artic test by which studies were normed o Also comes with sentences – but have to be a good reader o If all this gets filled out – it gives you a really good idea of their speech production PHONOLOGYTESTS : all of these are based on the results of an articulation test (some include them, some are of other artic tests) **Just because it’s consistent or a pattern doesn ’t make it a phonological process** Resist labeling a child with a phonological process** 9 1. Kahn-Lewis Phonological Analysis 2 • Used with GFA-2 results (transcriptions), don’t need child § Times is did occur/ times it could have occurred = occurrence %: important part § 80% - it’s a process/rule (20% is the rule by the test – that doesn’t make it a rule!) Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology : BBTP: 2. Likes o Only tests initial and final positions o Tests both articulation & phonological errors o Unique – there’s a box to check off if it was modeled o Results in a score 3. Clinical Assessment of Articulation & Phonology (CAAP) o Comes with characters o Too cute, too skimpy… only looks at 10 phonological process ; only 7 for substitution errors 4. Diagnostic Evaluation ofArticulation & Phonology (DEAP) o Looks at 12 processes o Laid out for you some possible productions 10 Summary: 11


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