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Pt2 study guide 24,25, and lecture review

by: Tristen Griffith

Pt2 study guide 24,25, and lecture review 70054

Marketplace > Alabama A&M University > History > 70054 > Pt2 study guide 24 25 and lecture review
Tristen Griffith
Alabama A&M University

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History 102
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tristen Griffith on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 70054 at Alabama A&M University taught by Dr.Halverson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see History 102 in History at Alabama A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/09/16
Chapter 24 Islamic Empires Thursday, October 6, 2016 9:02 PM Formation of Islamic Empires *Turkish nomads brought gunpowder's and technologies to the Middle East and established Islamic empires * The Ottoman Empire  Osman o The ottoman empire was unusually unsuccessful o Osam was the founder but was no the ruler during the empires peak o They sought above all to be the ghazi  Ghazi- Muslim Religious warriors who fought on the behalf of their faith  Ottoman Expansion o The ottoman location on the Byzantine Border gave them ample opportunity to wage holy wars o First success was the capture of Bursa it became the capital o They were able to expand all the way into the Balkans of Eastern Europe o As the warriors settled in conquered lands they took spoils and revenues o Ottoman expansion was based on a military machine  As the empire expanded Ottomans started a slave military force  They forced Christian population to give up their boys to Sultan slavery  The boys received special training Turkish education and converted to Islam  They entered either civil administration or military o Christians who became Sultan soldiers were known as Janissaries  Mehmed the Conqueror o Mehmed II captured Constantinople in 1453 o Constantinople became the new capital of the Ottoman Empire' o Laid the foundation for a tightly centralized absolute monarchy and his army faced no rival o Led military conquest well into the popular European lands  Suleyman the Magnificent o Ottomans continued to expand into Syria and Egypt o Showed the shift from conquering non-Muslim areas to Muslim dominated areas o Ottomans started this shift in order to better protect Muslim holy sits  Also looked to control lucrative trade routes o Imperialism climaxed with the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent  Conquered Baghdad added the Tigris and the Euphrates to the Ottoman domain  Challenged the Hapsburg rulers o Under Suleyman the Ottoman empire also became a naval power The Safavid Empire  The Safavid o Shah Ismail was the founder o They adopted Shiism beliefs  Twelver Shiism o A form of Shiism that says there were 12 original religious leaders after Muhammad starting with Ali o They believed that the 12th prophet was still alive and would come back o Shahs practice of Shiism and Turkish militancy gained him many enemies  The worst enemy was the Ottoman Empire  They were always at bat with each other  Shah Abbas the Great o Later Safavid rulers abandoned the extreme ideology the related emperor to Allah o In the late 16th century Shah Abbas revitalized the Safavid empire  Reformed administrative and military institutions  Moved the capital to Isfasn  Encouraged trade with other land  Brought Northwestern Iran, Caucus, and Mesopotamia under the Safavid empire The Mughal Empire  Babur o More concerned with being a soldier of Fortune o His main goal was to transform his inheritance into a central Asian empire o Babur couldn’t conquer Central Asia so he settled for India o He cared little for the land conquered  He just wanted the riches  Akbar o He was a brilliant and charismatic ruler  Created a centralized empire  Expanded into southern India o He was deeply interested in religion and philosophy  Pursued religious tolerance  Tried to diffuse tensions between Hindu and Muslims  Encouraged syncretic faiths  Aurangzeb o Mughal reached peak under Aurangzeb  Had a relentless campaign of expansion  He presided over a troubled empire o He got rid of religious tolerance o Demolished famous Hindu temples o Created a rift between Hindu and Muslim Chapter 25 Revolutions and National States in the Atlantic Road Friday, October 7, 2016 8:54 PM Popular Sovereignty and Political Upheaval * Influenced by the Enlightenment pushed revolutions based on equitable societies and holding governments responsible to the people they governed* The Enlightenment and Revolutionary Ideas  Voltaire o Championed individual freedoms and attacked oppressive institutions  Targets included Roman Catholic Church and French Monarchy  Theory of Progress o Most philosophes were Optimistic o Thought that this new era of rational thinking would bring about progress o Enlightenment weaken the influence of religion  Popular Sovereignty o Enlightenment questioned the divined right of kings o They argued that kings should be responsible for the people they governed o John Locke proposed the idea of invisible contract  The invisible contract stated that individuals gave up their right to their rulers in exchange for protection and the rulers needed to Grant every man their natural rights  When the contract was broken the people had the right to expel the government o Locke's idea moved power from the rulers to the people  Individual Freedoms o Enlightenment also addressed ideas and question of freedoms o They called for religious toleration and freedom to express their views  Political and Legal Equity o Many enlightenment thinkers called for equality o Argued that privileged aristocrats made no larger or smaller contribution to society than peasants o They recommended the creation of a government in which all individuals are equal before law  Global influence of Enlightenment Ideas o Most enlightenment thinkers were common from birth but lived comfortably o They did not envision a society where they would share rights with women, children, peasants, slaves or laborers o They argued for freedoms for privileged men o Despite all this enlightenment became the justification for many Revolutions The American Revolution *during the mid 18th century there was no sign of the American colonies splitting from the imperial rule of England but that all changed after the 7 years war"  Tightened British Control over the Colonies o The 7 years war caused British imperial rule sever financial struggle  They decided that the 13 colonies would have to contribute a fair share of the cost o New taxes were imposed on the colonies and they did not react well  These taxes included:  The Sugar act  The Stamp Act  The Townshed act  The tea act  The Quartering act  Colonist took the most offense to the quartering act that required them to house british soldiers o Colonist argued the famous" No taxation with our Representation" o Colonist reacted violently, they boycotted british goods and brutally attacked british officials  The Declaration of Independence o The Declaration of Independence drew a lot from the Enlightenments political thought  Especially where they said that all men were created equal and should be treated as such under the law  The declaration touched on mans unalienable rights  Life, Liberty and Pursuit of Happiness  It echoed John Lockes idea of an invisible contract o The declaration also presented a list of colonial grievances toward parliament o The colonies gained the support of many countries because they wanted to see Britain lose its colonies  Building an Independent state o Leaders of the new found United states of America Created a government that reflected the enlightenment ideals o In 1787 the constitutional convention released the constitution which protected individual citizens rights o They based their government on Popular sovereignty and the protection of individual liberties o The constitution however did not cover all peoples living in the newly found country  Women Slaves and children and indigenous peoples were not included  These groups over the next couple centuries would fight strongly to be protected under the constitution The French Revolution *French revolution still drew from the enlightenment but was a more radical push for societal reform than the American Revolution*  The Estates General o Serious financial and political problems pushed France to revolution o The war had bankrupted France so Louis the XVI called the estates general  The estates general was supposed to represent the French population  They had 3 parts; nobility , common people and clergy  These 3 groups were known as the Ancien Regime o The estates general had not met in centuries o When the assembly voted on issues each group only got one vote so majority didn’t matter o Members of the 3rd estate(commoners) showed up to the assembly calling from social reform  The National Assembly o The 3rd estate receded from the Estates General and formed the National Assembly o Members of the National Assembly swore not to disband until they had brought social reform to France o They stormed the artillery of Bastille and started the fighting of the revolution  It was an extremely bloody ordeal o With broad support the National assembly drafted their version of the Declaration of Independence known as the "Declaration of the rights of man and Citizen  Proclaimed equality for all men, declared popular sovereignty and protected the individual rights of citizens  Liberty, Equality and Fraternity o The National assembly configured French society  They abolished the old order  Seized church lands and required the clergy to be loyal to the state  France became a constitutional monarchy were men of property held all the power of legislation  The Convention o The revolution soon took a radical turn o French nobility tried to re-establish Acien Regime  They went to war with national assembly o Fearing military defeat the convention was created o The convention was a new legislative body that abolished the monarchy o They rallied the French population by instituting the "mass levy" and drafted people and resources o They made frequent use of the guillotine o Chaos reached its peak when Maximilian Robespierre and Jacobian party ruled the convention o Robespierre  Known as the incorruptible  In charge of public safety committee o The Jacobians believed that France needed complete re structuring  They kicked of the reign of terror  They sought to eliminate all traces of Christianity  They re organized the calendar  The Directory o Eventually thy began to undermine Themselves o Convention arrested the Jacobians and Killed them o New group of Conservatives established the Directory  They were unable to solve the problems in France The reign of Napoleon * Napoleon Boneparte was an experienced military general and supporter of the revolution however he overthrew the Directory and named him self emperor*  Napoleonic France o Napoleon brought stability to a chaotic France o He made peace with the Roman Catholic Church o He created the Civil code  Affirmed political strength and legal equality of all men under the law  Established a merit based society  Created a strict patriarchal society o He limited free speech and imposed censorship  Napoleons Empire o While working to stabilize France napoleon also looked to expand his empire o His Armies expanded east and into the Mediterranean o his empire began to unravel when he decided to attempt to invade Russia  Fall of Napoleon o After his defeat in Russia European countries not occupied by French decided to fight back o They forced Napoleon to abdicate the throne and exiled him to St.Helena where he died The Haitian Revolution  The only successful Slave Revolt took place on the French colony of St.Domonigue this led to the creation of Haiti*  Toussaint L'ouverture o Eventually slaves overcame white settlers o Success largely due to Toussaint L'ouverture o He was a skilled organizer and built a strong disciplined army o Is issued a constitution that gave rights to every citizen f Saint Domingue o He never declared independence from France to stop Napoleon from coming to invade  Republic of Haiti o Never the less Napoleon dispatched troops into Saint Domonigue o They tried to negotiate peace but failed o Eventually the French were defeated and Saint Domingue became the Republic of Haiti Conservatism vs Liberalism  Conservatism o Arose as a political and social response to the American Revolution o Belief that societal change must be gradual with respect to tradition  Liberalism o Liberals viewed change as an agent of Progress o They did not want to stifle change just manage it in the best interest of society o They usually favored republican forms of government  Nationalism o The establishment of a nation state and national identity o Would lead to many revolutions  Zionism o The belief in the creation of a Jewish state o Isreal was the only successful form of Zionism History 102 : Dr Halverson  Midterm notes  Highlight = Important Principle            Highlight = Important Concept           Highlight = Key Term Chapter 22 Africa and the Atlantic world Where was Timbuktu located and what was its Significance? ● Timbuktu was the main cultural and commercial hub of the Songhay empire in Africa  Who was Alfonso I and what made him unique? ● Alfonso the Great was the First African King to convert wholly to Catholicism he did this  to maintain trade relations with the portuguese  Why was made the Kongo different? ● The Kongo was a Christian Kingdom in a predominantly Islamic dominated continent  also they openly traded with the Portuguese What was the first European Colony in Africa? ● Angola was the first European colony established in Africa it was established by the  portuguese  Who was Queen Nzinga and what is she known for? ● Queen Nzinga was the last African ruler of Ndongo she wanted to get rid of the  Portuguese, to do this she Made alliances with the Dutch Cape Town was the commercial center for which African region? ● South Africa Who is Dona Beatriz and what is she known for? ● Dona Beatriz was the figurehead for the Antonian Syncretic Movement  ● She claimed that she was the messenger for St.Anthony and that Heaven was only for  Africans and that Jesus was a Black African Man  How did the introduction of Manioc and Maize change African Demographics? ● The introduction of Manioc and Maize helped to raise the population of people in Africa  by providing a nutritious staple  Describe the triangular trade? ● The triangular trade referred to the trade of Manufactured good from Europe to Africa­ Slaves from africa to the Americas­ then the trade of natural resources back to Europe.  Describe African Diaspora? ● African Diaspora is the spread of African people and traditions it helped to create the  African American Culture Who was Olaudah Equiano? ● Olaudah Equiano was a former slave who wrote about his experiences he toured the  whole world and gained sympathy for the abolitionist movement  Describe the Middle passage? ● The middle passage refers to the part of the slaves voyage in which they were packed up  as cargo and shipped across the atlantic Chapter 23  Tradition and Change in East Asia Who is Matteo Ricci and why was he successful? ● Matteo Ricci was an Italian jesuit looking to bring Christianity to China ● He became fluent in Chinese language and Culture and allowed China to conduct the  mass in Chinese Which Chinese Dynasty was founded by non­Chinese? Who were they? ● Qing Dynasty, they were founded by the Muchus Who is Kangxi? ● Qing Dynasty ruler who expanded Chinese influence into all of Asia, he was na emperor  of emperor  Describe the son of heaven idea ● The Son of Heaven ideology stated that there was a God however he did not appoint a  designated line for rule instead the Emperors were chosen by God to maintain order on  earth  How did one become a scholar bureaucrats? ● To Become a Scholar Bureaucrat one has to from an early age study Confucianism by  attending Confucian schools then passing the 3 stages of the civil service exam  Describe Filial Piety? ● Chinese people saw themselves as one big family government policies aligned with  familial values  Why was footbinding popular? ● Footbinding was a designation of status, it would deform women's feet and keep them  from being able to stand and support themselves  Who unified Japan?How did they do it? ● The Tokugawa Iyesa leader of the Tokugawa shoguns unified Japan ● They killed off every other Shogun line in Japan  What was the main goal of the Tokugawa Shoguns? ● The main goal of the Tokugawa Shoguns was to avoid Civil war  What is the difference between Shogun and Daimyo? ● Shoguns were military governors and Daimyos were territorial lords Describe the Floating Worlds? ● The floating worlds were entertainment centers that included theaters and public bath  houses How did the Shogun control the Daimyo? ● The forced them to live in Edo and Attend Shogun Court Chapter 24 The Islamic Empires What were the 3 islamic empires? ● The Ottoman empire ● The Safavid Empire ● The Mughal Empire What did all three empires have in common? ● All three empires were founded by turkish nomads relied heavily on military expansion  and all had bloody successions of power Who founded the Ottoman empire? ● Osam, but he was not the ruler at the peak of his empire The ottomans practiced what form of Islam? ● Sunni islam Who founded the Safavid Empire? ● Shah Ismal, however his successor Shah Abbas the great brought the empire to its peak  What form of islam did they Safavids practice? ● Shiite Islam  Which empire was mostly Hindu? ● Mughal Empire  What were the only two European crops adopted by the Islamic world? ● Tobacco and Coffee were the only European imports allowed into the Muslim world Who were the Janissaries? ● Janissaries were elite status Christians living in the Muslim empires What was the name of the tax that was impressed upon Non­muslims? ● Jiyza  Chapter 25 Revolutions and National States in The Atlantic World Describe the Enlightenment? ● A movement toward rational thinking that caused many great thinkers to re­evaluate the  structure of government and balance of powers Who was John Locke and what is he known for? ● John Locke was a famous enlightenment thinker known for the idea of the invisible  contract ● Invisable contract stated that the people have the responsibility to obey their govt but  the the govt also has the responsibility to protect every individuals natural rights  How did the 7 years war relate to the American revolution ● The 7 years war allowed England to absorb most of  North America which inturned  caused them to increase parlimentary presence in the original 13 colonies  What was the purpose of the Declaration of independence ● The Declaration of Independence states the colonies political grievences and officially  separates them from England  Who was incorporated in the Ancien Regime? ● The Royal court and elites, they advocated that France stick to the old ways What was the Estates General  ● The Estates general was the “peoples government” ○ There were 3 estates  ■ 1 nobility  ■ 2 clergy ■ 3commoners Who were the Jacobins ● The Jacobins were a radical reformist group that started the year of terror Who was Napoleon Bonaparte why is he important? ● Napoleon Bonaparte was the last form of absolute monarchy in France he was a military  general and soon became a hegemon  What was the only slave revolt to succeed? ● The the revolt of Saint Domonique or theHaitian Revolt  Who is Toussaint L'ouverture? ● Toussaint L’oveture was the leader of the Haitian slave revolt  Define Nationalism… ● Nationalism is the creation of a nation state as well as a sense of National Identity  Define Conservatism… ● No desire for innovation focussed on maintaining order  Define Liberalism… ● Open Government usually more open to social innovation Describe a republic… ● Separation of powers  What was the seneca falls convention  ● European convention called after the exile of Napoleon to re­establish the balance of  powers and redraw country lines  What is Zionism  ● The belief in the creation of an all jewish nation 


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