History After 1945 Midterm Study Guide
History After 1945 Midterm Study Guide HST 296
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by meghan Hamilton on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HST 296 at Miami University taught by ErikJensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 286 views. For similar materials see History after 1945 in History at Miami University.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Two Europes ● Themes: ○ Political power struggle ○ Takeover of communism and socialism ● Key Players: ○ Eastern Europe ○ Western Europe ● Major event: Nikita Khruschev winning political power Stagflation: mix of stagnant growth and soaring inflation that afflicted most developed economies Color, Creed and Coups ● South Africa was center of race relations ● Race policies had been justified on the basis of science(versions of Darwinism) ● Post War brought many changes in U.S. race relations ○ Separate but equal ruling ○ Revolts against the government arguing for equal rights for all ■ Martin Luther King Jr. ■ Freedom Riders Postwar ● Period in which societies focus almost exclusively on repairing or reckoning with the devastation of the war itself ○ Ww2 deaths: Soviets and Chinese suffered the most devastating losses ○ WW2 weakened Europe across the board Postwar: an ideal state of human existence sought by individuals and organizations hoping to avoid such devastating conflict in the future ● “Postwar” meaning having left the restoring to warfare in the past United Nations founded in 1945 ● 2 models were suggested ○ National Selfdetermination: world organization comprised of self governing independent nation states(United States favored this model and this is what the UN is like today) ○ Imperial Internationalism: believed nation states encourage conflict. This model suggested by Britain was more so to help build up Britain’s empire again Chapter 12 ● Theme: ○ industrialization in Asia and Southeast Asia ○ Inflation ● United or Divided? ○ United because they are modeling themselves around China, some more successful than others ● How it relates to the cold war: ○ Everyone is attempting to industrialize at the same time, race to be the most successful Chap 13 ● Theme: political intervention through military action in South America ● Key players: U.S. and Russia ● Latin America was the next battleground after southeast Asia ○ Fight for capitalism vs. communism ○ U.S. didn’t was the public to know about this conflict due to our heavy involvement in Vietnam Why didn’t India develop economic success? ● Didn’t have good education ● Bad healthcare system How did the U.S. economy change under Reagan? ● Reaganomics: don’t tax big corporations because then they will continue to pump money into the economy(trickle down economics) Why was Latin America’s economy unstable? ● Too much leading from world’s superpowers, were never able to repay their debt How were countries in Africa affected by economic downturn in the 80’s? ● Goods were being extracted from the African countries by the imperial powers. Experienced post colonialism and a vacuum of power. This lead to war and turmoil How was life different in the Soviet Union and US? ● Communism vs. capitalism ● SO MUCH MORE consumerism in the United States ● Soviet Union banned rock n’ roll How did a new sense of power affect U.S. foreign policy? ● U.S. seen as the world police ● U.S. wanted to stop communism around the world Why did Stalin want Germany week? ● Didn’t want Germany to invade the Soviet Union again Why was Russia concerned with having buffer states? ● To protect against invasion How did WW2 affect Britain? ● WW2 made Britain very weak, they had to pay to help rebuild Germany ● Also Britain had to get rid of their colonies How was the Marshall plan going to help Europe? ● Help rebuild Germany, into a stable nation ● Soviets wouldn’t take U.S. help in fear that they would then have to obey the U.S. How did Japan change after WW2? ● U.S. installed a puppet government to prevent communism in the country Mao and Stalin ● Not friends, more of military allies Why is it important that Korea didn’t turn communist? ● The Domino Effect. If one nation turned communist, it was more likely for another nation to do so as well Decline of Detente ● Chile 1973 ○ First Marxist government to come to power through free election ○ Allende made 2 critical mistakes ■ Not reaching a consensus with Christian Democratic ■ Pushing through a program of nationalism and redistribution that disrupted the economy and alienated the middle class ● Angola 1975 ○ Agreement that the Angolan people would take power after the Portuguese government left ○ Fighting broke out between factions, make peace unrealistic ● Horn of Africa ○ Ethiopian emperor was overthrown ○ Soviets seized the chance to gain influence in this region ■ Didn't happen because they underestimated the ethnic rivalries in the region Africa Postwar Decolonization ● Rapid colonization and decolonization ● Political ideologies: ○ French and British recruited Africans to help defend their own democracies ○ U.S. and USSR opposed British and French empires ○ Nazism discredited pseudoscientific notions of social hierarchy ○ Wave of independence in South and Southeast Asia ● What caused African decolonization? ○ African independence movements ○ Europe’s imperial overstretch China, U.S. and Russia ● China and Soviet Union had security issues with one another ○ China feared they may intervene during the cultural revolution ○ SOviets concerned with the Chinese testing bombs ● Superpowers arms race ○ Soviets didn’t want to be humiliated like in Cuba ○ U.S. had 3 times the amount of nuclear launchers ■ This was taken down to half in a few short years ○ New technological advancements secured the superiority of these 3 super powers
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