SW 335 study guide
SW 335 study guide SW 335
Popular in Social Work Practice I
Popular in Social Work
verified elite notetaker
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Anderson on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SW 335 at University of Mississippi taught by Buford, Jennifer Lynn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Social Work Practice I in Social Work at University of Mississippi.
Reviews for SW 335 study guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/09/16
Social Work Practice Perspectives/Theories 1. Constructivist Perspective/ constructivism · How individuals describe their experiences in terms of personal constructs · Personal construct: explanation of an event/series of events that becomes the lens through which the individual sees the world · Focuses on how relationships, language, and context influence an individual’s or a group’s interpretation of self, others, and the world o A constructivist perspective helps practitioners remember that their view of the world may be different from their client’s view. ● Ex. practitioner may think a problem is caused by physical illness, stress and demands, oppressive cultural factors, etc., but a client may have a completely different view. o When an individual, family, or group becomes aware of a construct that is unsatisfying or limiting, the individual can develop another meaning for events or experiences and begin to realize change is possible. 2. F amily Systems Perspective · Systems theory takes into account the entire “system” within which an individual interacts. · System: complex entity within which interactions are as important as individuals. · Family systems are organized by a set of rules or patterns that enable each person to learn what is expected or permitted of him or her as well as others in family interactions. · These rules, often unstated, help regulate and stabilize how families function as a unit. · Changing one part of the family system will result in changes to other parts. · A family system may be open or closed in various degrees. o Closed family systems: § The family exists in relative isolation, with communication taking place primarily between members. § Change is avoided. § Members hold on to established traditions and values. o O pen family systems: § Willingness to assimilate new information and to engage in ongoing interactions with their environment. § T he family has no single correct way of doing things. § As the family matures, changes are tolerated, supported, and celebrated. · pplying the Family Systems Perspective: o Practitioners gain an understanding of how interactions within the family system affect clients. o Practitioners assist clients to identify reciprocal relationship between their behavior and influences of the systems within which they interact. o Clients realize both how someone else’s behavior is influencing them and how their behavior is influencing others. 3. E cological Perspective ● Views people and their environment as continuously evolving, adapting and interacting. ● Less concerned with cause and effect ● More concerned with transactions that occur between people and their environments--the reciprocal processes used by people to shape their environment o P erson-environment ● how well a person’s (or group’s) needs, goals, and rights mesh with the traits and functioning of their physical and social environment. o Adaptations: processes people use to sustain or increase the level of fit between themselves and their environment. o L ife stressors: issues perceived as exceeding personal and environmental resources available to manage them. · Applying the Ecological Perspective: o Behaviors are not seen as dysfunctional or maladaptive. ● Instead, behavior is viewed as adaptations to improve the goodness of fit between the individual and environment. o Focus on the strengths people demonstrate in response to difficult situation or environment. o When working with a group, possible barriers to the achievement of group goals are recognized in order to gain a better understanding of how these goals might be achieved. 4. S trengths Perspective · Views all people as having strengths, focusing on assets clients have developed throughout their life. · Strength: any psychological process that enables a person to think and act in order to benefit him/herself and society. · Everyone has the capacity to develop new resources, make positive changes, and use his or her competencies to solve problems. · Applying the Strengths Perspective: o Practitioners work with clients to identify their talents, strengths, interests, dreams, and goals. o Practitioners invite clients to discover, think about, and figure out how to use their strengths. o Working with individuals, families, groups, or organizations, practitioners look for their strengths, identify their resources (money, social support, adequate housing, education, past experiences, etc.), and invite them to focus on possibilities for the future. 5. R esilience Perspective ● Resilience: the ability to survive and thrive in the face of overwhelming life challenges. Developed from the dynamic interaction of risk and protective processes involving individual, family, community and societal factors · Risk factors: influencing factors that can bring or predict negative outcomes on the functioning and overall development of the individual. · Protective factors: (strengths, capabilities, talents, coping skills, resources and assets) that can exert either direct or indirect influences to buffer, mediate, lessen or alter the negative effects of risk factor(s). · Applying the Resilience Perspective: o Start with an assessment of the relevant factors and then focus on helping clients build on the resilience they have developed. o Practitioners focus on helping clients: § Develop a positive outlook on life and self-confidence by increasing their awareness of their strengths and competencies. § Learn to maintain, promote, and enhance protective factors. § Recall successful events in their lives and identify what they learned from these events. § Identify resources within themselves and their families, friends, neighborhoods, schools, and workplaces. Applying the Empowerment Perspective: o Allows clients to develop a sense of power and competency as they experience using their skills and knowledge in new and challenging ways and realize that they are able to accomplish difficult tasks. Practitioners can help people discover their strengths, identify their goals, and develop a plan to reach their goals, allowing clients to accept responsibility for change and experience a greater sense of empowerment 6. Dual Perspective · Views an individual as interacting and adapting to the nurturing environment and the sustaining environment. o Nurturing environment: family, friends, and close associates at school or work. o Sustaining environment: people encountered in the wider community and broader society. · While most Euro-Americans experience these two environments as fitting together, other ethnic and racial groups experience a poor fit between them. · Individuals in the non-dominant group constantly evaluate disappointments in life, such as not being selected for a job, to determine whether they are based on their qualifications or on racism from the dominant culture. · hey must constantly shift between the h ome culture and the dominant culture to choose acceptable behavior in each situation. · Applying the Dual Perspective: o Attempt to understand the structural barriers that those in other groups experience. Values/Ethics 1. Personal Values · Values: preferred conceptions of people, outcomes for people, and ways of dealing with people. · Personal values influence worldview, personal and professional philosophies and choices, and view of how people change. 2. Professional Values · Guide and direct the work of a professional and inform their professional code of practice. These values often include principles of respect, self-determination, social justice, and professional integrity. · Areas where personal values may conflict with professional values: religion, health, marriage and family, education, role of government, birth and death, and honesty. 3. Ethical Standards · Become familiar with the code of ethics for your chosen profession. · Ethical codes provide a brief explanation of what can be expected in the interactions between professionals and clients as well as between professionals and other professionals. Most importantly, these ethical codes contain statements about what the professionals must and must not do. 4. Professional Competency and Integrity · Professional competence: practicing within the scope of competence based on education, training, professional credentials, and professional experience. · Cultural competence: application of cultural knowledge about individuals and groups of people to the standards, policies, attitudes, and practices of the helping process to result in better outcomes. 5. Confidentiality · Information shared by the client with the therapist in the course of treatment is not to be shared with others. · Why maintain confidentiality? o T he potential for clients to experience stigma. o M oral obligation for helping professionals. o Modeling of acting with discretion and keeping one’s word. o L egal requirements. · Technology has an impact on maintaining confidentiality. 6. Boundary Violations · Cautions about boundary violations in the helping professions are outlined in most codes of ethics. · Boundaries: borders that separate some types of entities (for example, parents, children, systems, client, service providers, and health care workers). · Relationship boundaries: limits set in relationships. · Maintaining appropriate boundaries is an essential part of developing a trusting relationship with a client. · Relationships that predate the professional relationship, occur during the professional relationship, and occur after the professional relationship has ended are all considered multiple relationships and are seen as boundary violations. 7. Informed Consent · Full disclosure of the purposes, goals, techniques, and procedure rules for assessment and counseling approaches used, in language that is understandable to the client. 8. Legal Obligations · Legal violations are distinct from ethical violations, although a breach of professional ethics increases the likelihood of losing a malpractice challenge. · Professionals must practice in accordance with the code of ethics for their specific profession. · Ethical challenges are generally brought before a state licensing board, but can originate from a professional organization. · Legal obligations to clients include: ○ Duty to respect privacy (respecting social and physical boundaries) ○ Duty to maintain confidentiality (don’t share a client’s information without informed consent) ○ Duty to care (obligated to meet reasonable standard of care) ○ Duty to inform (inform clients of treatment issues, costs, worker expertise, etc.) ○ Duty to report (report suspected child abuse, and in some states, the abuse of the elderly or disabled) ○ Duty to warn and protect (if a client poses harm to someone, warn that person, notify law enforcement) o Confidentiality is not absolute. o Laws vary by state. 9. Civil Legal Challenges or Malpractice · Malpractice: negligence in which a professional fails to follow generally accepted standards of their profession resulting in injury to a client. · Brought before a civil court. 10. Minimizing the Risk of Ethical or Legal Challenges · dherence to up-to-date practice methods. · Good documentation practices. · Maintenance of appropriate boundaries with your clients (no multiple relationships). 11. Ethical Decision Making · Ethical dilemmas: making a choice between two or more relevant but contradictory ethical directives where every alternative results in some type of undesirable outcome for one or more persons. 1. Acting in a professional manner · A professional is a person who has specialized training for a particular career and who acts in conscientious, appropriate ways in the workplace. · Acting professionally involves: o Dressing appropriately. o Being organized. o Timely and accurately recording meetings with colleagues and clients. o Being prepared for meetings. o Acting responsibly at all times. o Behaving as a mature adult. o Using language that is culturally appropriate, age appropriate, understandable, and not offensive. o Speaking honestly and with integrity. 2. Professional roles · Each setting has different expectations. · oles vary based on: o D ifferent ages and backgrounds of clients. o System size - individuals, groups, families, and organizations. o Level of training or education. 3. Advocating for change · Being professional goes beyond what you do in your interactions with colleagues and clients. · Being aware of the social, political, economic, and cultural factors that impact individuals, families, groups, and institutions, and advocating for their betterment. · Advocate for adequate services for all. · Advocacy may involve working for change at many levels: national, state, local, institutional. 4. Developing a professional identity o Knowing what it means to be a practitioner of your particular discipline. o Knowing activities, knowledge, and skills identified by licensing boards and professional organizations related to your discipline. 5. Maintaining respectful, productive relationships with colleagues · Working cooperatively in interdisciplinary teams. · Understanding different approaches. 6. Using supervision and consultation · Your supervisor will help evaluate your level of competency by: o P roviding feedback about your use of skills. o I nviting you to engage in self-reflection. · Consultation: meeting with an expert who can help you solve a particular dilemma or problem. 7. Engaging in career-long learning § Sympathy involves feeling affected by whatever affected the other person. o Develop your ability to be empathic by: § Reading novels and professional literature about people from different backgrounds. § Joining in activities, talking to, and getting to know others who have different experiences. 1. Core Interpersonal Skills for Helping · Master a number of interpersonal skills that help a client feel comfortable. · Good professional relationships depend on accurately observing, attending and listening. 2. Being a good observer · Noticing all the behaviors that accompany communications. · Non-verbal communication (facial expressions, breathing patterns, gestures, movement, posture) · Observing increases understanding of what is being communicated. · Inconsistencies in verbal and nonverbal messages need to be noted. · Non-verbal messages may be closer to the actual meaning of the words. · Facial expressions, flat affect, slumped posture, skin tone, etc., provide further understanding to what has been said. · onverbal communication is unique to each culture. · When working with a group or family all members need to be observed. · Scanning is a helpful way to do this. 3. Attending to clients · Being completely focused on the client. · Communicated through body language such as leaning forward, sitting in an open posture, and making eye contact. · Cultural factors will determine appropriateness of different ways of attending. · Gender also influences type of attending such as length of eye contact or posture. · Distracting behaviors (fiddling with objects, drinking, or other nervous habits) can distract clients and might indicate you are not listening. · Minimal encouragement such as “Uh-huh,” or repeating the last word the client said can indicate attending. · These same behaviors can be used with groups and families. 4. Listening · Fully focusing on what the other person is attempting to communicate. · Hearing and making an effort to understand the meaning of what the person is saying. · eeling genuinely listened to increases a sense of safety and trust. · otice the client’s communication style, tone, volume and speed of delivery · Understand the meaning of what the client is saying. · ilence or slowing responses can allow clients time to feel that you are listening to them. · Different families and cultures express feelings in various ways. · Those who are physically challenged in some way may need special attention in regard to how the room is arranged, a translator, or checking to be sure that they heard what you said. · Good listening is essential for understanding group dynamics. It also models listening for members of the group or family. 5. Expressing warmth · emeanor, expressions of concern, and acceptance · Tone of voice, posture, and listening carefully are also important. · Touch can be a way of expressing warmth when used appropriately for gender, age and cultural differences. · Expressions of warmth must be genuine or they will be damaging to the relationship.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'