Greek Civ Vocabulary Study Guide
Greek Civ Vocabulary Study Guide CLCV 207
Popular in Greek Civilization
Popular in Classical Civilizations
PHYS 1442 - 002
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hana Liebman on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLCV 207 at The College of William & Mary taught by Jessica Stephens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Greek Civilization in Classical Civilizations at The College of William & Mary.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Greek Civilization with ProfessorStephens Notes for Midterm Achaeans: people from the northern part of the Greek Peloponnesus. Colonized Italy and Sicily in the 7 century. Name used by Homers to refer to all Greeks of the Mycenaean era. Alice Kober: catalogued every character and word of Linear B. Worked on Linear B unceasingly until her death. Classically trained. Michael Ventris used her discoveries to decipher Linear B. Arthur Evans: English archaeologist who began excavations at Knossos in 1900. Discovered Linear A and B and made modern “restorations” of the buildings according to his own ideas of how they would have looked. Aristeia: comes from the Greek word aristos (“best”). Warrior’s most glorious moments in battle when he seems to feel no fear and be invincible. Achilles’ aristeia occurs when he defeats Hector in his fit of rage over Patroclus’ death. Attica: peninsula of Greece that juts into the Aegean Sea. Home to Athens, Thebes, and Eleusis. Bronze Age: 3000-1200 BCE. Included the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations and ended before the Dark Age. Colonization: Greeks colonized the Mediterranean basin as overpopulation lead them to look for more land, resources, and wealth. They wanted to increase their own city-states and their trade with other peoples. Croesus: wealthy king of the prosperous Lydian empire who misinterpreted a Greek oracle and decided to attack the Persian Empire. His own kingdom was conquered, which instigated the first contact between the Persians and the Greeks through Ionia. Dark Age: c. 1200-750 BCE. Began with the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization. Archaeologically obscure, poorer graves, art of writing forgotten, and trade links broken. Period of decline and depopulation in 11 and 10 centuries. Delphi: home of the oracle of Apollo who answered travelers’ questions about the future in oracles (riddles of prediction) after said travelers sacrificed or gave to the god. Diagoras of Rhodes: famous athlete who won the boxing competition at the 464 BCE Olympic games. His family was one of the most illustrious and successful families in athletics in the ancient world. Pindar was paid to write him an Olympian Ode,which celebrates his physical prowess, his favor with the gods, and the noble lineage of his family. Ethnos: restrictive geographic area that is not as politically unified or powerful as a demos (city-state). Another form of alliance/government that developed at the same time as the city-state, which viewed the ethnos as politically inferior. Heinrich Schliemann: German archaeologist and businessman who followed Homer’s description of Troy to a location on the Anatolian (Turkish) coast. Discovered the remains of a city there and claimed it was Troy. Later discovered Mycenae (along with rich shaft graves) and thought it was the home of Agamemnon. Herodotus: “Father of History” who lived c. 484-425 BCE. Born in Halicarnassus and traveled extensively. His histories were reminiscent of epic poetry in their descriptions of family, battle, and etiology (explanation for phenomena). Referenced mythological events and religion and included ethnography (study of cultures). Credited himself, not the gods, for his initiative and inspiration. Hesiod: Greek poet, c. 750-650BCE, who wrote the Theogony (explained the origins of the world and the gods) and Works and Days (whose message was that life was constant work, but work enabled survival). Historia: Greek word for “history.” Means “learning through research,” “narrating what is learned,” and “written account of past events.” Hoi agathoi: “the best.” Greek aristocracy consisting of powerful noble families that ran the government/politics during the Archaic Age (750-480 BCE). Public discontent with this system of ruling led to social change and challenges of absolute power, which began the Greek trend away from monarchy and toward democracy. Homer: legendary blind man from Khios who created the epics of the Iliad and the Odyssey. Possibly just the man who took these oral epics and wrote them down. Regardless, the 2 epics have given amazing insight into Greek culture and beliefs and have had extensive influence on the literature and thinking of the Western world. Hoplite: classic Greek soldier of the Archaic Age who were named for their large bronze shields (hoplons) and long spears. Conducted gruesome, brutal, close warfare in formations, where success depended on cooperation. Indo-European: the people who we think of as “Greeks” who arrived during the Bronze Age and whose language completely replaced other tongues. Introduced horses and chariots. Mingled with and were influenced by the Minoans. Kleos: “fate.” For a warrior, kleosis often achieved through a glorious and honorable death, which makes him renowned for eternity. It is fate, yet Kouros: freestanding stone statuary in ancient Greece of a naked male youth. Originally conformed to the rigid Egyptian style but over time became more natural and realistic. Commonly set up by wealthy families as grave monuments or sanctuary offerings. Knossos: city that was the center of the powerful Minoan naval state. Site of a huge redistribution center, which was the political and administrative center of the state as well as the focal point of economic activity. Lefkandi: settlement in the Dark Age of Greece (1200-750 BCE) that provides immense archaeological evidence. While many other settlements at the time were destroyed or depopulated, Lefkandi continued to be prosperous and have contact with the outside world. Ruled by chieftains (basileus), rich shaft graves, large buildings. Linear A: pictographic language of the ancient Minoans that hasn’t been deciphered. Found on the famous Phaistos Disc. Developed for management and economic purposes and evolved into a more advanced linear script. This script was adapted by the Mycenaeans to be used for their own Greek language. Marathon: site of a battle between the Persians, under Darius, and the Greeks, led by Miltiades, during the Persian Wars. Despite the Persians’ numerical superiority, the Greeks were victorious in part because of their longer spears and better armor, discipline, and position. Mardonius: Greek son-in-law of Darius who served him and his son Xerxes as general for many years. Successfully conquered Thrace, Thasos, and Macedonia, though was defeated at Thermopylae, Salamis, and Plataea, where he died. Milman Parry: hypothesized that the Iliad and the Odyssey were oral epics passed down from generation to generation after studying Yugoslavian bards. Remembering the epics was possible due to their meter and formulaic structure. His hypothesis has become the accepted theory for modern scholars. Minoans: first Aegean civilization, named after Minos, the mythical king of Knossos. Occupied Crete and other islands in the Aegean Sea. Civilization consisted of small city- states ruled by basileus (chieftains) and centered around redistributive centers, which were the area’s political and economic centers. Mycenae: city in southern Greece that is the legendary home of King Agamemnon, leader of the Greeks during the Trojan War. Home of the Mycenaean people, whose civilization took over the Minoans c. 15 century BCE. Culture was hugely influenced by Minoan culture (art, architecture, governance). Peak years c. 1400-1200 BCE, during which the Mycenaeans traded all across the Mediterranean. Nomos: “return” or “homecoming.” Major theme in the Odyssey (Odysseus longed for home yet was delayed by the gods’ wrath and his own curiosity). Oikos: refers to the family and the home (the women’s domain). Mini economy where they managed production and manufacture, housekeeping, and religious roles. Olympia: site for the Panhellenic religious games for Zeus (Olympics). Limited to men and to mainly wealthy men who could afford the time to train and come to the games a month early to prepare. Victors brought honor to themselves and their city-states and were believed to be favored by the gods. Papyri: most common medium for writing in the ancient Mediterranean. Made from the papyrus reed and formed into a scroll. Most ancient Greek written artifacts that have been found are on papyri, including the Iliad and the Odyssey and the works of Sappho. Major source for retrieving the past. Panhellenic: refers to the unified culture of the Greek world. Oracles and festivals, musical and athletic competitions, attracted Greeks from all over in peace and fellowship. Result of the Greeks’ shared heritage, language, customs, and religion despite political differences and conflicts. Contributed to a sense of a Greek identity that helped cooperation during the Persian Wars. Penelope: wife of Odysseus who loyally awaits his return from the Trojan War for 20 years. Virtuous, dignified, and intelligent, she tests Odysseus to make sure it’s really him in order to protect her position and safety. One of few Greek women complimented for intelligence, for she was Odysseus’ match in wit. Persian Empire: empire founded by Cyrus the Great (ruled from 559-530 BCE), who unified it through a system of royal roads and postal services. Stretched from Turkey to India and from Northern Greece to Egypt. Persian Wars: series of battles between the Persian Empire and the Greek city-states over Greek land. Instigated by the contact caused by the Persian conquest of Lydia and Ionian Greeks. Persia continued to play a role in Greek politics. Plataea: site of the battle between the Greeks and the Persians after the battles of Thermopylae and Salamis where general Mardonius was killed. The Greeks were led by Pausanias, nephew of the Spartan king Leonidas (who died at Thermopylae). Polis: city-state. Primary political and social structure of Greece during the Archaic Age (750-480 BCE). Consisted of a demos (land and people), which shared a common language, religion, and identity. Salamis: site of the sea battle between the Greeks, led by the Athenian general Themistocles, and the Persians, led by Mardonius. Persians were hemmed in by the coast and soundly defeated by the Greeks. This battle cost Xerxes his Phoenician naval support for the future. Sappho: celebrated woman poet of antiquity whose personal details are largely unknown. Most of her poetry is lost, but what does remain dwells on love and public rituals. Sometimes homoerotic, thus the debate whether Sappho was gay (she was from Lesbos; thus, “lesbian”). Sea Peoples: credited with the responsibility of destroying the Mycenaean culture and devastating parts of Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt around 1200 BCE. Unknown identity. Instigated the Dark Age of Greece. Solon: wise man of ancient Athens who made many law reforms in the 590s BCE. Abolished debt slavery, made agricultural and trade reforms, and ordered that all men be taught a trade. According to Herodotus, Solon said that the happiest men were those who lived nobly and peacefully and died gloriously and honorably. Sparta: highly militaristic Greek city-state where life was harsh and geared toward preparation for warfare. Men had military and civic duties, and women had more freedom than many other Greek women because they were free from household duties, which fell to the helots. Government was a mixture of monarchial, oligarchical, and democratic. Had gerousia (council of elders) and ephors (senior magistrates). Synoecism: process of unifying a capital city and its surrounding area into one cohesive political unit. Achieved peacefully through alliances among chieftains (basileus) or violently through conquest. Occurred during 750-480BCE. Timê: “honor,” “respect.” Goal of every warrior. Earned through courage and prowess as a soldier and as an athlete, the most honorable and glorious pursuits of a Greek man. Tiryns: city that was depopulated and whose citadel and palace were forever abandoned at the end of the Mycenaean civilization. During this time, many once-great cities were becoming small villages. This was the beginning of the Dark Age (1200-750 BCE). Thermopylae: narrow pass in the mountains and site of the battle between the Persians, who have numbers on their side, and the Spartan king Leonidas and his 300 men and some allies. Leonidas died in battle but he and his men managed to hold the Persians until they were betrayed and routed by another Greek. The Spartans still won eternal glory and honor. Troy: mythological home of King Priam, Prince Hector, and Prince Paris, who begins the Trojan War by winning from Aphrodite the most beautiful woman in the world—who happens to be Helen, wife of Menelaus and sister-in-law to Agamemnon, the leader of the Greeks. Famous for its wealth, power, prime location for trade, and horses. Xerxes: son Darius I of Persia who assumes the throne in 486 BCE and, following his father’s example, leads his troops to battle against the Greeks at Thermopylae, Salamis, and Plataea. Under him, the Persians destroy Athens but are defeated by the Greeks and driven out of Greece. Xenia: guest-friendship seen in the Iliad and the Odyssey (Odysseus uses the suitors’ disregard for xenia as part of his reasoning that they are savages and deserve death). Host would give a stranger food, drink, entertainment, and shelter and only then ask his name. Of sacred importance in Greek culture because of the belief that the gods walked among men.
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