ANTR350 TEST 2 STUDY GUIDE
ANTR350 TEST 2 STUDY GUIDE ANTR 350
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sabrina Notetaker on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTR 350 at Michigan State University taught by Lindsey Jenny in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Gross Anatomy in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
ANTR 350 Unit 2 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 Independent Reading: Chapter 14 Nervous Tissue □ Define the following terms: o Afferent o Efferent o Somatic o Visceral o Synapse o Nerve o Ganglion o Blood-brain barrier □ List the structures that compose the central nervous system (CNS) □ List the structures that compose the peripheral nervous system (PNS) □ List the 3 general functions performed by the CNS and PNS □ Describe the functions of the sensory nervous system and explain how visceral sensory is different from somatic sensory □ Describe the functions of the motor nervous system and explain how somatic motor and visceral motor differ from each other □ Identify the following on Figure 14.3 Structures in a Typical Neuron: o Cell body o Dendrites o Axons □ Describe the role the cell body, dendrites, and axon plays in receiving, integrating, and sending nerve impulses □ Describe the 3 functional classifications of neurons □ Describe the function and location of the following glial (aka neuroglia) cells: astrocytes, ependymal cells, microglial cells, oligodendrocytes, and neurolemmocytes (aka Schwann cells) The Brain □ Define the following terms: o Gyrus o Sulcus □ Specify the body cavities that contain the organs of the central nervous system □ List the layers of meninges from superficial to deep □ Describe the flow of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) through the central nervous system □ Identify the following on Figure 15.6 Ventricles of the Brain: o Lateral ventricles o Third ventricle o Fourth ventricle o Cerebral aqueduct o Central canal of the spinal cord □ Identify the following on Figure 15.1 The Human Brain: o Cerebrum o Frontal lobe o Temporal lobe 1 ANTR 350 Unit 2 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 o Parietal lobe o Occipital lobe o Corpus callosum o Cerebellum o Brainstem o Thalamus o Hypothalamus □ Describe the function of the following structures: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, corpus callosum, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata, basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala □ Clinical Correlate: Describe the location of blood pooling in an epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, and a subarachnoid hematoma- (See Clinical View Epidural and Subdural Hematomas in Chapter 15 and in-class lectures) Peripheral Nervous System □ Specify the locations where the spinal cord begins and ends □ Identify the following on Figure 16.1 Gross Anatomy of the Spinal Cord: o Cervical part (region) o Thoracic part (region) o Lumbar part (region) o Sacral part (region) o Conus medullaris o Cauda equina □ List the number of spinal nerves that connect to the spinal cord in each region of the spine □ Describe how the cervical spinal nerves exit the vertebral canal and explain how they differ from all the rest of the spinal nerves (thoracic, lumbar, etc.) □ Identify the following on Figure 16.2 Spinal Meninges and Structure of the Spinal Cord: o Epidural space o Dura mater o Subarachnoid space o Arachnoid mater o Pia mater o Spinal cord o Spinal nerve o Intervertebral foramen o Anterior/Ventral root o Posterior/Dorsal root o Posterior/Dorsal root ganglion o White matter o Grey matter □ □ Identify all of the items on Figure 16.4 Neuron Pathways and Nuclei Locations □ Identify the following on Figure 16.5 Spinal Nerve Branches: 2 ANTR 350 Unit 2 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 o Spinal cord o Spinal nerve o Anterior/Ventral root o Posterior/Dorsal root o Posterior/Dorsal root ganglion o Rami communicantes o Anterior ramus o Posterior ramus □ Match the following structures to the type(s) of neurons they contain (somatic motor, visceral motor, somatic sensory, visceral sensory): o Anterior root o Anterior horn o Lateral horn o Posterior horn o Posterior root o Posterior root ganglion o Spinal nerve o Anterior primary rami o Posterior primary rami □ List the structures innervated by posterior primary rami versus anterior primary rami □ Define the following terms: o Dermatome Specify the locations of the T4, 10, and L1 dermatomes o Myotome o Nerve plexus o Reflex arc o Innervation □ Specify the location of a somatic motor (efferent) neuron’s cell body, the type of tissue it innervates, and explain the direction of its impulses in relation to the central nervous system □ Specify the location of a somatic sensory (afferent) neuron’s cell body, the type(s) of tissue it innervates, and explain the direction of its impulses in relation to the central nervous system □ Clinical correlate: Describe what layers would be pierced by an epidural block compared to a lumbar puncture what spaces the needle would stop in for each of these procedures Cranial Nerves □ List the names of the 12 cranial nerves and be able to match their name to the Roman numeral associated with each nerve. □ Describe the basic function of each of the 12 cranial nerves. □ Match the cranial nerve to the opening of the skull it travels through □ List the nerves that carry special senses (smell, taste, vision, hearing/balance) □ List the 3 divisions of the Trigeminal nerve (CNV) and describe the function of each division. 3 ANTR 350 Unit 2 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 □ Describe what Bell’s Palsy is and identify the nerve involved (See Clinical View Idiopathic Facial Nerve Paralysis (Bell Palsy) in Chapter 11.1a Muscles of Facial Expression) Autonomic Nervous System □ Describe the functions of the autonomic nervous system and identify what types of tissue it innervates □ Define the following terms: o Preganglionic o Postganglionic o Ganglion o Autonomic plexus o Autonomic reflex □ Describe the functions of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system □ Specify the locations of preganglionic parasympathetic visceral motor neuron cell bodies □ Specify the location of postganglionic parasympathetic visceral motor neuron cell bodies □ List the 4 cranial nerves that carry parasympathetic visceral motor fibers and match it to the structure(s) it provides parasympathetic innervation to □ Describe the function of pelvic splanchnic nerves and list what structures they carry parasympathetic innervation to □ Identify the following on Figure 18.5 Overview of Parasympathetic Pathways: o CN III o CNVII o CNIX o CNX o S2-S4 o Pelvic splanchnic nerves o Note the locations of preganglionic fibers versus postganglionic fibers □ Describe the functions of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system □ Identify the following on Figure 18.6 Overview of Sympathetic Pathways: o Spinal cord levels T1-L2 o Sympathetic trunk ganglia o Cardiac/pulmonary plexus o Celiac ganglion o Superior mesenteric ganglion o Inferior mesenteric ganglion o Hypogastric plexus o Note the locations of preganglionic versus postganglionic axons 4 ANTR 350 Unit 2 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 □ Specify the location of preganglionic sympathetic visceral motor cell bodies □ Specify whether the fibers composing the white rami communicantes and grey rami communicantes are preganglionic or postganglionic □ Specify whether the fibers composing sympathetic splanchnic nerves are preganglionic or postganglionic □ Specify the locations of postganglionic sympathetic visceral motor cell bodies □ Describe the 4 main sympathetic pathways (spinal nerve, postganglionic sympathetic nerve, splanchnic nerve, and adrenal medulla pathways) and match each pathway to the structure(s) they innervate (See Figure 18.8 Types of Sympathetic Pathways) □ Describe the effects of dual innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) on the following structures: heart, gastrointestinal tract, pupil diameter of eye □ List the neurotransmitters used in the autonomic nervous system and explain how beta blockers would affect these neurotransmitters Visceral Sensory Neurons and Pain □ Identify the location of the cell bodies of visceral sensory neurons □ Describe how visceral sensory neurons convey information back to the central nervous system □ Describe the difference between somatic pain, visceral pain, and referred pain □ Identify the areas of referred pain from the following on Figure 19.4 Common Sites of Referred Pain: o Heart o Appendix o Liver and gallbladder Independent Reading: Chapter 19.5 Vision □ Identify the 3 tunics of the eye and describe the general function of each of these layers □ Identify the following on Figure 19.11 Anatomy of the Internal Eye: o Cornea o Sclera o Choroid o Retina o Pupil o Iris o Lens o Optic disc o Fovea centralis o Anterior chamber o Posterior chamber o Posterior cavity 5 ANTR 350 Unit 2 Learning Objectives Fall 2016 □ Describe how the lens changes shape in order to see close objects □ Describe how aqueous humor normally circulates through the eye (See Figure 19.16 Aqueous Humor: Secretion and Reabsorption) □ Clinical view: Glaucoma in Chapter 19- Identify which space in the eye is affected by an increase in pressure and how this affects the optic nerve Independent Reading: Chapter 11.1b Extrinsic Eye Muscles □ Identify the following on Figure 11.4 Extrinsic Muscles of the Eye: o Superior oblique o Superior rectus o Medial rectus o Inferior rectus o Lateral rectus o Inferior oblique □ Match the cranial nerves (CNIII, CNIV, and CNVI) to the muscle(s) they innervate □ Match the muscle(s) to the following actions of the eye (See Table 11.2 Extrinsic Eye Muscles): o Adduction o Abduction o Depression o Elevation Independent Reading: Chapter 20 Endocrine System □ Define the following terms: endocrine gland, hormones □ Compare the endocrine system to the nervous system in terms of the following: communication method, target stimulated, response time, range of effect, and duration of effect □ Identify the following on Figure 20.2 Endocrine System: o Pituitary gland o Pineal gland o Thyroid gland o Adrenal glands o Thymus o Pancreas o Testes □ List the major endocrine glands and give the basic function of each □ List the organs that contain endocrine cells and give their basic function in relation to the endocrine system 6
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