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Psychology Midterm Notes

by: Savannah Alberty

Psychology Midterm Notes PSY2012

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Savannah Alberty

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This is an in depth study guide that has chapter outlines, chapter notes, and in class notes from chapters 1 through 8. Though it is long it will be very beneficial. Good luck!!
General Psychology
Professor Kimberly Smith
Study Guide
Psychology, GeneralPsychology, PSYCH2012, psych, midterm
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This 35 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah Alberty on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Professor Kimberly Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
Psychology Midterm (Ch.1-8) Chapters 1 & 2 Naïve Realism- “Seeing is believing”, the belief that we see the world as it is. Ex. The earth is flat simply because we can’t see the roundness of it with our own eyes. Empiricism- a concept created by John Locke regarding the source of knowledge that comes through our senses. (ex. Sight, hearing). Scientific Theory- An explanation that can be applied to a large number of findings within the world; generate testable predictions but cannot be proven (!!! GENERAL explanations !!!) Hypothesis- A specific prediction based on theory, which can be tested. Safeguards against bias  Confirmation Bias- Tendency to seek out evidence that supports our beliefs while rejecting information that counters these beliefs. To protect themselves scientist’s, adopt procedural safeguards against errors, especially errors that could work in their favor. “Seek and ye shall find”.  Belief Perseverance- Accepting initial beliefs despite the presence of contradictory evidence. “Don’t confuse me with the facts”.  Metaphysical Claims- Assertions about the world that can’t be scientifically tested.(ex. Science- testable w/ data = nature, Religion- untestable w/ data = moral values) Popular Psychology- It allows for increased access to psychological knowledge but can lead to misinformation explosion÷ because it is popular topic. Pseudoscience- A set of claims that seem scientific; however, they really are not. (ex. Astrology, Paranormal activity). Lacks the safeguards against confirmation bias and belief perseverance that characterize science. Warning Signs Exaggerated claims (ex. Three simple steps will change your love life forever!) Overreliance on anecdotes (ex. This woman practiced yoga daily for three weeks and hasn’t had a day of depression since.) Absence of connectivity to other research (ex. Amazing new innovations in research have shown that eye massage results in reading speeds 10 times faster than average.) Lack of review by other scholars or replication by independent lab (ex. Fifty studies conducted by the company show all overwhelming success!) Lack of self-correlation when contrary evidence is published (ex. Although some scientists say that we use almost all our brains, we’ve found a way to harness additional brain power previously undiscovered.) Meaningless psychobabble” that uses fancy scientific-sounding terms that don’t make sense (ex. Since-wave filtered auditory stimulation is carefully designed to encourage maximal orbitofrontal dendritic development.) Talk of “proof” instead of “evidence” (ex. Our new program is proven to reduce social anxiety by at least 50%!) Overuse of ad hoc immunizing hypotheses (ex. The psychic who claimed to predict the future failed all controlled tests in the lab, but that’s because the experimenters inhibited his extrasensory powers.) Emotional Fallacy- Error of using out emotions as guides for evaluating the validity of a claim. Bandwagon Fallacy- Error of assuming that a claim is correct just because many people believe it. Not me Fallacy- Error of believing that we are immune to errors in thinking. Dangers of Pseudoscience Opportunity Cost Direct Harm Inability to think scientifically Scientific Thinking- Characterized by critical thinking. Critical Thinking- a set of skills for evaluating all claims in an open-minded and careful manner. Allows us to overcome our own bias. Scientific Skepticism- Approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them. Principles of Scientific Thinking Ruling out rival hypotheses- Have important alternate explanations for the finding been considered? (ex. You’re reading the newspaper and come across the headline “study shows depressed people who receive a new medication improve more than equally depressed people who receive nothing”. The results of the study could be due to the fact that people who received the medication expected to improve.) Correlation vs. Causation- Correlation is NOT causation. (ex. A researcher finds that people eat more ice cream on days when crimes are committed than when they aren’t, and concludes that eating ice cream causes crime. Eating ice cream (A) might not cause crime (B). Both could be due to a third factor (C), such as higher temperatures.) Falsifiability- can the claim be disproven? (ex. a self-help book claims that’s all human beings have an invisible energy field surrounding them that influences their moods and well-being. We can’t design a study to disprove this claim) Replicability- Can the results be duplicated in other studies? (ex. A magazine article highlights a study that shows people who practice mediation score 50 points or higher on an intelligence test than those who don’t. We should be skeptical if no other scientific studies have reported the same findings.) Extraordinary Claims- Is the evidence as convincing as the claims? (ex. you come across a website that claims that a monster, like Bigfoot, has been living in the American Northwest for decades without being discovered by researchers. This claim requires more rigorous evidence than a less remarkable claim, such as the assertion that people remember more words from the beginning than from the end of a list.) Occam’s Razor- Does a simpler explanation fit the data just as well? (ex. Your friend, who has poor vision, claims that he spotted a UFO while attending a Frisbee tournament. It is more likely that your friend’s report is due to a simpler explanation- his mistaking a Frisbee for a UFO- than to alien visitation?) KISS (Keep it simple stupid) Nature vs Nuture- Are our behaviors attributable mostly to our genes (nature) or to our rearing environments (nuture)? Basic Research- Examines how the mind works Applied Research- examines how to use basic research to solve real-world problems Research Design- Good research designs enable us to avoid errors in research associated with intuitive thinking and the uncritical use of heuristics. - Facilitated Communication Prefrontal Lobotomy- Surgical procedure designed for the treatment of schizophrenia and other severe psychological disorders that severed fibers connecting the frontal lobes of the brain from thalamus. Effective based on the subjective claims. Didn’t use systematic research and simply assumed that their clinical observation served as even evidence. Deceived by Naïve realism and confirmation bias. Heuristic- A mental short-cut or rule of thumb. “When I’ve heard of a city, I’ll assume its larger in population than a city I’ve never heard of.” Potential Pitfall- Could lead us to oversimplify complex information. (research designs prevent this from happening) Scientific Method- Multiple methods exist to test a hypotheses derived from broader theories. Confirmed hypotheses DO NOT prove our theories but rather simply provide support to strengthen our confidence in the theory. Different Research Designs  Naturalistic Observation- High in external validity but low internal validity and doesn’t allow us to infer causation.  Case Studies- Can provide existence proofs which allow us to study rare or unusual phenomena and can offer insights for later systematic testing. A disadvantage is that they are typically anecdotal and don’t allow us to infer causation.  Correlation Design- Can help us to predict behavior but doesn’t allow us to infer causation. (Positive, negative, zero) (+1.0, 0, -1.0) Sometimes during this type of design illusory correlation can take place which states, perceiving an association between two things that does not exist.  Experimental Designs- Allows us to infer causation and is high in internal validity but can sometimes be low in external validity. Internal Validity- Extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences from a study External Validity- External to which we can generalize findings to real- world settings. Existence Proof- demonstration that a given psychological phenomenon can occur. Reliability- Consistency of measurement Validity- Extent to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure. Test-retest reliability- A measurement yielding similar scores within a group of people over time. Inter-rater reliability- The extent to which different individuals agree on the characteristics they are measuring during interview and behavioral observation. !!Self-report and survey measures are a way to gather data from individuals!! Experimental Group- The group of participants that receive the manipulation (there can be more than one experimental group). Control Group- The group of participants that do not receive the manipulation. Components of an Experiment Independent variable- The treatment or intervention that the experimenter manipulates or varies. Dependent variable- Variable that an experimenter measures to see whether the manipulation has occurred. Confounding Variable- Any variable that differs between the experimental and control group OTHER THAN the independent variable. Operational Definition- A working definition of what researcher is measuring. Pitfalls of Experimental Design  Placebo Effect- Improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement.  Nocebo Effect- Harm Resulting from the mere expectation of harm.  Experimenter Expectancy Effect- Phenomena in which researchers’ hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias a study outcome.  Demand Characteristics- Cues that participants pick from a study that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher’s hypotheses. Ethical Issues- Every major American research college/university has at least one institutional review board (IRB) who review all research carefully with the goal of protecting the human rights of the participants. Informed Consent- Informing research participants about what is involved in the study prior to asking them to participate. Debriefing- process whereby researchers inform participants what the study was about. Statistics- Application of mathematics to describing and analyzing data. Descriptive Statistics- Numerical characterizations that describe data. Central Tendency- Measure of the “central” scores in a data set, or where the group tends to cluster. Mean- Average; a measure of central tendency Median- Middle score in a data set; a measure of central tendency Mode- Most frequent score in a data set; a measure of central tendency Range- Difference between the highest and lowest score Standard deviation- A measure of variability that depicts how far each point is from the mean. Inferential Statistics- Mathematical methods that allow us to determine whether we can generalize findings from our sample to the full population. Statistical significance- A finding that would occur by chance alone less then 5% of the time. Practical Significance- A finding that may be significant yet so small that the findings do not translate to meaningful real world consequences. Chapters 3 & 4 Neurons- Nerve cells specialized for communication with each other. They have long extensions to help respond to stimulation and communicate. They are unusual in shape relative to other cells in the body. The adult brain contains approximately 85 billion neurons. Components of a Neuron  The cell body- Also called the soma, is the central region of the neuron, it consists of small and large molecules. Contains the nucleus, where proteins are manufactured, damage to this part of the neuron is fatal. (!!! Materials needed by the neuron are made here !!!).  Dendrites- Branchlike extensions that receive information from other neurons. They spread out to “Listen in” on conversations from neighboring neurons and pass them on to the cell body.  Axons & Axon Terminals- Axons are transmitters and specialized for sending messages to other neurons. Long-tail like extensions are usually very think near the cell body. This narrowness creates an area that’s easily activated incoming signals. (Synaptic vesicles- tiny spheres that travel the length of the axon on their way to a knoblike structure at its far end called the axon terminal. They are spherical sacs containing neurotransmitters). Nerve fibers projecting from the cell body that carries nerve impulses. When the synaptic vesicle reaches the end of its little journey at the axon terminal, its burst, releasing neurotransmitters.  Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers specialized for communication from neuron to neuron. When there are no neurotransmitters acting on a neuron, it is at resting potential. When there is enough of a charge inside the neuron (threshold), an action potential will occur. (ex. quick waves of electric discharge activated by a change in charge inside the axon. a.k.a “the neuron is firing”). Neurons can fire 100-1,000 times per second. However, once a neuron has fired there is a brief period known as the absolute refractory period before it can fire again. Both positive and negative ions are on both sides of the membrane. During action potential, positive ions rush in and then out of the axon. This process recurs along the axon until the axon terminal releases neurotransmitters. (!!! COMMUNICATION INSIDE NEURONS IS ELECTRICAL, BUT BETWEEN NEURONS, IT IS CHEMICAL VIS NEUROTRANSMITTERS !!!)  Synapses- A tiny fluid filled space between neurons through which neurotransmitters travel. Consists of a synaptic cleft, which is a gap into which neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal. Information Travel  Axons carry information Away from the cell body  Dendrites Direct information towards the cell body  Information traveling along the axon is known as the action potential  Myelin Sheath brings More Speed to the action potential Neurotransmission- Receptor sites are located in a unique place that recognizes a neurotransmitter after it is released from a neuron. Different receptor sites recognize different types of neurotransmitters. Reuptake means processes by which the neurotransmitter is taken back into the axon terminal. some excite the nervous system, whereas others inhibit the nervous system. Each neurotransmitter has specific roles and functions in brain and behavior. Glial Cells- “Glial” means glue, also players in the nervous system. Cells in the nervous system that plays a role in the formation of myelin and the blood-brain barrier, responds to injury, removes debris, and enhances learning and memory. A group of glial cells are astrocytes and they interact with neurons. Another type of glial cell, an oligodendrocyte, promotes new connections among nerve cells and releases chemicals to aid in healing. This cell produces an insulating wrapper around axons called Myelin Sheath. Myelin Sheath- Glial cells wrapped around axons that act as insulators of the neuron’s signal. It contains numerous gaps all the wat along the axon called nodes, which help the neuron conduct electricity more efficiently. Neurotransmitters and their major functional roles-  Glutamate- Most common neurotransmitter in the central nervous system that excites neurons. associated with learning and memory. (ex. alcohol and memory enhancers interact with NMDA receptors, a specific type of glutamate receptor.)  Gamma-Aminobutyric (GABA)- Most common neurotransmitter in the central nervous system that inhibits neurons. It plays a role in learning, memory, & sleep. (ex. Alcohol and antianxiety drugs increase GABA activity.)  Acetylcholine (ACh)- Influences arousal, selective attention, sleep, and memory. Muscle contractions (PNS). (ex. Nicotine stimulates these receptors, memory enhancers increase, insecticides block the breakdown, Botox causes paralysis by blocking this.)  Norepinephrine (NE)- Monoamine that influences arousal and other functions like mood, hunger, and sleep.  Serration- Influence mood and temperature regulation, aggression and sleep cycles.  Dopamine- Plays a role in our response to rewarding experiences and motor function. (ex. L-dapa, which increases dopamine, is used to treat Parkinson’s diseases. Antipsychotic drugs, which block dopamine action, are used to treat schizophrenia.)  Serotonin- Mood and temperature regulation, aggression, and sleep cycles. (ex Serotonin- selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are used to treat depression.  Anandamide- Pain reduction, increase in appetite. (ex. tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) found in marijuana which produces euphoria.)  Endorphins- Pain reduction (ex. narcotic drugs, codeine, morphine, and heroin which reduces pain and produces euphoria. Psychoactive Drugs- Impact mood, arousal, or behavior by acting as agonists and antagonists for neurotransmitters. (Agonists- increase neurotransmitter activity) (Antagonists- decrease neurotransmitter activity). Neural Plasticity- describes the nervous system’s ability to change. The nervous system is continually changing. The network of neurons in the brain changes over the course of development in four primary ways:  Growth of dendrites and axons  Synaptogenesis (which is the formation of new synapses)  Pruning (which is consisting of the death of certain neurons and the retraction of axons to remove connections that aren’t useful)  Myelination (which is the insulation of axons with a myelin sheath. Neurons possess limited ability to recover following brain injury or serious illness.) Stem Cell- Therapies may someday encourage plasticity after injury or degeneration. Neurogenesis- Creation of new neurons that occur during adulthood. Tested on monkeys to determine the cells we have. Nervous System- Central Nervous System (composed of the brain and spinal cord) & Peripheral Nervous System (all the nerves that extend outside of the CNS) PNS- further divided into the somatic nervous system, which controls voluntary behavior, and the autonomic nervous system, which control nonvoluntary functions of the body. Autonomic- sympathetic & parasympathetic Central Nervous System- 6 distinct sections or systems (the brain and spinal cord are protected by meninges, three thin layers of membranes. Further protection is afforded by the cerebral ventricles, fluid filled pockets that extend throughout the entire brain and spinal cord)  Cortex- Frontal lobe (performs executive functions that coordinate other brain areas, motor planning, language, and memory. Contains the Motor Cortex- responsible for body movement. In front of the motor cortex lies a vast expanse of the frontal lobe called the Prefrontal Lobe- which is directly responsible for thinking, planning, and language. The prefrontal lobe also contains the Broca’s area- named after French surgeon Paul Broca, it is the language area that helps to control speech production), Parietal lobe (processes touch information, integrates vision and touch), Temporal lobe (processes auditory information, language, and autobiographical memory & contains the Wernicke’s area- involved in understanding speech), Occipital lobe (processes visual information & Primary sensory cortex- regions of the cerebral cortex that initially process information from the senses.) Association cortex (Spread throughout all 4 lobes of the brain, it synthesizes information to perform more complex functions, ex. pulling together shape, size, color, and location of information to identify an object)  Basal Ganglia- Controls movement and motor planning.  Limbic system- Thalamus (conveys sensory information to cortex), Hypothalamus (oversees endocrine and autonomic nervous system), Amygdala (regulates arousal and fear), Hippocampus (processes memory for spatial locations).  Cerebellum- Controls balance and coordinated movement.  Brain Stem- Midbrain (tracks visual stimuli and reflexes triggered by sound), Pons (conveys information between the cortex and cerebellum), Medulla (regulates breathing and heartbeats). Reticular Activating system- The brain area that plays a key role in arousal and connects with the forebrain and cerebral cortex.  Spinal Cord- Conveys information between the brain and the rest of the body. Contains Sensory nerves (sensory info carried from the brain to the body) and Motor nerves (motor commands carried from the brain to the body). Interneurons- Interneurons that send info to other neurons nearby (ex. reflexes). Cerebral Cortex- Analyzes sensory information, helping us to perform complex brain functions, including reasoning and language. It is the largest component of the cerebrum/ forebrain. It is the outermost part of the cerebrum. Forebrain (cerebrum)- The most highly developed area of the human brain. Forward part of the brain that allows advanced intellectual abilities. It consists of two cerebral hemispheres (two halves of the cerebral cortex, each of which serve distinct yet highly integrated functions.) Corpus Callosum- A huge band of fibers, meaning “colossal body” in Latin, connects the two hemispheres and permits them to communicate. Peripheral Nervous System  Somatic Nervous System- carries messages from the CNS to muscles throughout the body, controlling movement. Regulates our posture and bodily movement. The brain and spinal cord interact with this system to bring about sensation and behavior.  Autonomic Nervous System- Especially the limbic system interacts, to control emotions and internal physical states. It controls the involuntary actions of out organs and glands; along with the limbic system, it regulates our emotions. Breakdowns into two divisions that work in opposing directions (Sympathetic Nervous System-Its neurons tend to fire together “in sympathy” and is active during emotional arousal. It is engaged during a crisis or after actions requiring fight or flight.) (Parasympathetic Nervous System- It is active during rest and digestion. This system kicks into gear when there’s no threat on our mental radar screens.) Endocrine System- A network of glands that release hormones (chemical released into the bloodstream that influences particular organs and glands) into the bloodstream. Also influences emotions and stress.  Pituitary Gland- Master gland that, under the control of the hypothalamus, directs the other glands of the body. This gland releases a variety of hormones that serve numerous functions.  Adrenal Gland- Tissue located on top of the kidneys that releases adrenaline and cortisol during states of emotional arousal. It is also called the emergency centers of the body.  Sexual Reproductive Glands & Sex Hormones- Testes in males with the hormone testosterone and ovaries in females with the hormone estrogen. Electrical Stimulation & Recording of Nervous System Activity  Electroencephalograph (EEG)- Recording of brain’s electrical activity at the surface of the skull. Determines whether someone is awake or asleep, dreaming or not, and to tell which regions of the brain are active during specific tasks. Brain Scans and Other Imaging Techniques- Neuroimaging techniques allow us to gain a better understanding of the appearance of the brain as well as its functions.  Computed Tomography (CT)- A scanning technique using multiple X- rays to construct three-dimensional images. (Allows us to visualize the brain’s structure)  Magnetic Resonance Imagine (MRI)- Technique that uses magnetic fields to indirectly visualize brain structure. (Allows us to visualize the brain’s structure)  Positron Emission Tomography (PET)- Imaging technique that measures consumption of glucose-like molecules, yielding a picture of neural activity in different regions of the brain. (Allow us to visualize brain activity)  Functional MRI (fMRI)- Technique that uses magnetic fields to visualize brain activity using changes in blood oxygen level. (Allow us to visualize brain activity) Magnetic Stimulation and Recording  Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)- Technique that applies strong and quickly changing magnetic fields to the surface or the skull that can either enhance or interrupt brain function.  Magnetoencephalography (MEG)- Technique that measures brain activity by detecting tiny magnetic fields generated by the brain. It reveals which brain areas are becoming activated in response to stimuli. Lateralization- Cognitive function that relies more ono one side of the brain than the other. Many of these functions concern specific language and verbal skills. Split Brain Surgery- Procedure that involves severing the corpus callosum to reduce the spread if the epileptic seizures. Examined by Roger Sperry who showed that the two hemispheres serve different functions, such as different levels of language ability. Left Hemisphere  Fine Tuned Language Skills- speech comprehension, speech production, phonology, syntax, reading, writing.  Actions- Making facial expressions and motion detection. Right Hemisphere  Course Language Skills- simple speech, simple writing, and tone of voice.  Visuospatial Skills- Perceptual grouping and face perception. Nature vs. Nurture  Chromosomes- Slender thread inside a cell’s nucleus that carries genes.  Gene- Genetic material, composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)  Genotype- Our genetic makeup  Phenotype- Our observable traits  Dominant Gene- Gene that masks other genes’ effects  Recessive Gene- Gene that is expressed only in absence of a dominant gene  Fitness- organisms’ capacity to pass on their genes.  Heritability- Percentage of the variability in a trait across individuals that is due t0 genes. (Misconceptions- 1). It applies to a single individual rather than to differences among individuals. 2). Tells us whether a trait can be changed. 3). It is a fixed number.  Family Studies- Analysis of how characteristics run in intact families.  Twin Study- Analysis of how traits differ in identical vs. fraternal twins  Adoption Study- Analysis of how traits vary in individuals raised apart from their biological relatives. Sensation & Perception  Illusion- Perception in which the way we perceive a stimulus doesn’t match its physical reality.  Sensation- The detection of physical energy by our sense organs, which then relays information to the brain. (Sense organs include- eyes, ears, skin, nose, and tongue)  Perception- How our brain makes sense of raw sensory data.  Transduction- Process occurring when sensory receptors convert external energy or substance into neural activity. (ex. going from outside world within)  Sense Receptor- Specialized cell that transduces a specific stimulus.  Sensory Adaption- Activation of senses is greatest when a stimulus is first detected. (Response weakens over time, ex. sitting in a chair and then eventually not noticing the small specifics we recognized when we first sat down) Psychophysics- The study of how we perceive sensory stimuli based on their physical characteristics.  Absolute Threshold- It is lowest level of a stimulus we can detect 50% of the time when no other stimulants of that type are present. (ex. We can detect a single candle up to 30 miles away on a clear night)  Just Noticeable Difference (JND)- The smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect. Our ability to distinguish a strong stimuli and weak stimuli from one another.  Weber’s Law- States that the stronger the stimulus the greater the change necessary for the detection of a difference. There is a constant proportional relationship between the JND and original stimulus intensity. (ex. the difference between having the tv volume on 28 and 29)  Signal Detection Theory- It describes how we detect stimuli under certain conditions. (ex. trying to talk to a friend on the phone and there is static making it difficult to hear the conversation so you have to shout or speak louder in order to ensure your friend can hear you.) (Stimulus Present- True positive if the response is yes; False negative if the response is no.) (Stimulus Absent- False positive if the response is yes; True negative if the response is no.)  Synesthesia- A condition in which people experience cross-modal sensations, Sir Francis Galton. (ex. hearing sounds when they see colors- sometimes called “color hearing”  Sensory system has Cross Modal Processing (the mixing of the senses across brain areas). Role of Attention  Selective Attention- Process of selecting one sensory channel and ignoring or minimizing others (cocktail party effect- our ability to pick out an important message, like our name, in a conversation that doesn’t involve us). Allows us to select one channel and turn off the others, or at least turn down their volume.  Inattentional Blindness- Failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere.  Change Blindness- A failure to detect obvious changes in one’s environment.  Binding Problem- Our brains managing to combine or “bind” these diverse pieces of information into a unified whole. Visual System- Humans respond to a narrow range of wavelengths of light and we perceive brightness (intensity) and hue (color). We are attuned to 3 primary colors of light, the mixing of these three colors (additive color mixing) produces an array of colors.  Subtractive Color Mixing- Mixing colored pigments in paint or ink produces a dark color.  Additive Color Mixing- Mixing of varying amounts of three colors that can produce any color. The Eye- Different parts of our eyes allow varying amounts of light to enter our eye. Structures on the front of the eye focus the incoming light rays to form an image in the back of our eye. (Sclera, Iris, & Pupil)  Pupil- A circular hole through which light enters the eye. It is the opening in the center of the iris that lets in light.  Cornea- Contains transparent cells that focus light on the back of the eye. It is the part if the eye containing transparent cells that focus light on the retina. It is a curved, transparent layer that covers the iris and pupil.  Lens- Changes curvature through the process of accommodation to retract light onto back of eye. It bends light and changes its curvature allowing for us to fine-tune the visual image. (Accommodation- It can make the lens “flat” enabling us to see distant objects or “fat” enabling us to focus on nearby objects. Glasses change the way light enters our eyes.) (Nearsightedness, or myopia, results when images are focused in front of the rear of the eye due to our cornea being too steep or our eyes too long) (Farsightedness, or hyperopia, results when our cornea is too flat or our eyes too short.)  Retina- A thin membrane at the back of the eye plays a key role in changing light into neural activity.  Fovea- It is located in the center of the retina is responsible for acuity (sharpness of vision). Two sensory receptors in our eyes  Rods- (long and narrow), enable us to see basic shapes and forms, allow us to see in low levels of light (dark adaptation)  Cones- (small cones), color vision and are sensitive to detail; require more light than rods do. Optic Nerve- Exits the back of the eye and is composed of the axons of the ganglion cells. Blind Spot- It occurs when the retina and the optic nerve meet. Most of the axons go to the thalamus and then the visual cortex, but some go to the midbrain. It is part of the visual field we can’t see because of an absence of rods and cones. Feature Detection- The ability to use certain minimal patterns to identify objects. They detect lines and edges. Trichromatic Theory- Idea that color vision is based on our sensitivity to three primary colors (blue, green, & red) and having our three kinds of cones, each maximally sensitive to different wavelengths of light. Color Blindness- Inability to see some or all colors. Opponent Process Theory- Theory that we perceive colors in terms of three pairs of opponent colors: either red or green, blue or yellow, or black or white. After image, which is what happens when you stare at one color too long and look away, appear in complimentary colors, illustrate opponent processing. Hearing: The Auditory System  Audition- Our sense of hearing.  Pitch- Which corresponds to the frequency of the wave. Higher Frequency= Higher Pitch (shorter wavelength) and vice versa.  Loudness- The amplitude or height of the sound wave corresponds to the loudness measured in decibels (dB).  Timbre- Complexity or quality of sound that makes musical instruments, human voices, or other sources sound unique. Differences in sound are due to timbre.  Hertz (Hz)- Measurement of sound. Ear- Three main parts: outer (consists of the pinna, which is the part of the ear we see, and ear canal, which funnels sound waves onto the eardrum), middle (contains ossicles, which are the three tiniest bones in the body, vibrate at the frequency of the sound wave), & inner (cochlea, which converts vibrations into neural activity and is a bony spiral-shaped organ used for hearing, Organ of Corti, which is tissue containing the hair cells necessary for hearing, Basilar membrane, which is the membrane supporting the organ of Corti and hair cells in the cochlea).  Ear Canal- Conducts sound waves to the eardrum.  Eardrum- Membrane that vibrate in response to sound waves.  Semicircular Canal- One of the three fluid-filled structures that play a role in balance. Place Theory- Specific place along the basilar membrane matches tones with a specific pitch. Accounts only for our perception of high-pitches tones, namely those from5,000 to 20,000 Hz. (Explains perception of high-pitched tones). The perception of low-pitched tones occurs via 2 routes. Theories explaining these routes include:  Frequency Theory- Rate at which neurons fire the action potential reproduces to the pitch.  Volley Theory- Sets of neurons fire at higher rates, slightly out of sync with each other to reproduce pitches of up to 5,00 Hz. Smell and Taste: Senses (Work hand in hand to enhance our liking and disliking of food)  Olfaction- Our sense of smell  Gustation- Our sense of taste  Taste Buds- Tongue plays a major role in our ability to taste. Sense receptor in the tongue that responds to sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami, and perhaps fat. Bumps on the tongue called papilla contain numerous taste buds. Taste perception is biased strongly by our sense of smell, which explains why we find food much less tasty when our noses are stuffed from a cold.  Pheromone- Odorless chemical that serves as a social signal to members of one’s species that alter our sexual behavior.  Odors are airborne chemicals that interact with the lining of our nasal passages.  Olfactory neurons contain a single type of receptor which recognizes odorants based on their shape. Body Senses The Somatosensory System: Touch & Pain  Somatosensory- Our sense of touch, temperature, and pain. It responds to stimuli applied to the skin, such as light touch or deep pressure, hot or cold temperature, or chemical or mechanical injury produces pain. Due to specialized nerve endings and free nerve endings.  Gate Control Model- Idea that pain is blocked or gated from consciousness by neural mechanisms in spinal cord, this idea was created by Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall. The pain is blocked because neural mechanisms in the spinal cord function as a “gate”, controlling the flow of sensory input to the central nervous system. Phantom Limb Illusion- A person with an amputated limb often experiences the eerie phenomenon of this, which is a pain or discomfort felt in an amputated limb. The missing limb often feels as if it’s in an uncomfortably distorted position.  Somatic Nerves carry info to spinal cord – Spinal reflexes may be activated – Connects in brain stem, thalamus – Touch: somatosensory, association occurs – Pain: somatosensory cortex, limbic area Proprioception and Vestibular Sense: Body Position and Balance  Proprioception- Our sense of body position, it is our kinesthetic sense that helps us keep track of where we are and move efficiently. (Muscle stretch receptors vs. tendon force detectors)  Vestibular Sense- Also called our sense of equilibrium, enables us to sense and maintain our balance as we move about.  Semicircular Canals- Located in the inner ear, these canals are filled with fluid, sense equilibrium and help us maintain our balance. When Our Senses Meet Our Brain  Parallel Processing- The ability to attend to many sense modalities simultaneously. Two important concepts go along with it; Bottom-up processing (Processing in which a whole is constructed from parts) & Top-down processing (Conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and expectancies.) Perceptual Hypotheses: Guessing What’s Out There  Perceptual Set- Set formed when expectations influence perceptions. (this is an example of top-down processing).  Perceptual Constancy- The process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions. (shape, size, and color constancy) Gestalt Principles- Are rules governing how we perceive objects as wholes within their overall context. They help to explain why we see much of our world as consisting of unified figures or forms rather than confusing jumbles of lines and curves.  Proximity- Objects physically close to each other tend to be perceived as unified wholes.  Similarity- All things being equal, we see similar objects as comprising a whole, much more so than dissimilar objects.  Continuity- We still perceive objects as wholes, even if other objects block part of them.  Closure- When partial visual information is present, our brains fill in what’s missing.  Symmetry- We perceive objects that are symmetrically arranged as wholes more often than those that aren’t.  Figure Ground- Perceptually, we make an instantaneous decision to focus attention on what we believe to be the central figure, and largely ignore what we believe to be the background. Depth Perception- The ability to see spatial relations in three dimensions; it enables us to reach for a glass and grasp it rather than knock it over and spill its contents. It is not pictorial in motion parallax- the ability to judge the distance of moving objects from their speed. Monocular Depth Cues- Stimuli that enables us to judge depth using only one eyes.  Relative Size  Texture gradient  Interposition  Linear Perspective  Height in plane  Light and Shadow Binocular Depth Cues- Stimuli that enables us to judge depth using both eyes. Motion Blindness- inability to perceive seamless motion. Chapter 5 Consciousness Sleep Paralysis- State of being unable to move just after falling asleep or right before waking up. It is often associated with feeling anxiety or terror; feeling vibrations; hearing humming; or sensing a menacing presence in the room. Consciousness- Our subjective experience of the world and ourselves. (ex. Sleep Paralysis is one example of an alteration of normal consciousness.) It encompasses our ever-changing awareness of thought, emotions, bodily sensations, events, and actions. -Alien abductions, Research shows most “abductees” report a history of sleep paralysis. Biology of Sleep -We spend as much as 1/3 of our lives sleeping. Circadian Rhythms- “circadian” is Latin for “about a day”. Are cyclical changes that occur on a roughly 24-hour basis. Biological processes like hormone release, body temperature occur during circadian rhythm. It is regulated by neurons in the hypothalamus and triggers our sense of fatigue via increasing melatonin. Also known as the brain’s biological clock (term for the area of the hypothalamus that’s responsible for controlling our levels of alertness. -Disruptions of circadian rhythms (jet lag, late shifts) can cause numerous health problems. (Newborns- 16 hours, College students- 9 hours, Most people- 7-10 hours, People with DEC2 genetic mutation- 6 hours or less.) -Building up on sleep debt can have numerous negative consequences (ex. weight gain, depression, increased risk for cardiovascular problems, decreased immune system) Stages of Sleep- We cycle through five stages of sleep in 90 a minute cycle; Stage 1-4 (Non REM)- no rapid eye movements, fewer dreams. Stage 5 (REM) Sleep- vivid dreams  Stage 1 (5-10 minutes): Characterized as light sleep. Theta waves- occur when the brain powers down to about 50%. Hypnagogic imagery (scrambled, bizarre, and dream like images that flit in and out of consciousness) & Myoclonic jerks (sudden jerks of our limbs as if being startled or falling).  Stage 2 (10-30 minutes): our brain waves slow down even more. Brain begins to enter into a deep stage of sleep. Sudden intense bursts of electrical activity called Sleep spindles (sudden bursts of electrical energy & K-complexes. As much as 65% of total sleep.) of about 12-14 cycles a second, and occasional sharply rising and falling waves known as K-complexes.  Stages 3 and 4 (15-30 minutes): Deep sleep. Delta waves, crucial to feel rested; suppressed by alcohol, about 40% of sleep in children; 25% in adults. To feel fully rested in the morning, we need to experience these deeper stages of sleep throughout the night.  Stage 5 (REM Sleep; 10-20 minutes): Brain activity increase and goes into higher gear, with high frequency, low-amplitude waves resembling those of wakefulness. This stage is known as REM sleep (stage of sleep during which the brain is most active and during which vivid dreaming most often occurs. Increased heart rate and blood pressure, as well as rapid and irregular breathing, a state that occupies about 20 to 25 percent of our night’s sleep. Each night we circle back to REM sleep five or six times. NREM Dreams- Shorter, more thought-like, repetitive, concerned with daily tasks. Also called Paradoxical sleep as bodies are paralyzed but brains are active. REM Rebound- occurs when we don’t get rest well for several nights. REM Dreams- More dreams occurs and they involve emotional, illogical, and shifts in plot. Lucid Dreaming- sleep and wake may not be as distinct as once thought. It occurs when you know that a dream is a dream. Some report being able to control dreams, may help with nightmares, no other problems. Many lucid dreamers become aware they’re dreaming when they see something so bizarre or improbable that they conclude that they are dreaming Sleep disorders- widespread and costly problem, $35 billion/year cost. 30- 50% of population experiences sleep disorders at some point.  Insomnia- most common sleep disorder (10-15% of people). Difficulty going to, staying asleep, or early waking. High rates in conjunction with depression, pain, and medical conditions. Beating insomnia (Do: Hide clocks, sleep in cool room, regular schedule & Don’t: Drink caffeine, take naps, read in bed, watch TV/use computer before bed)  Narcolepsy- Is the rapid and unexpected onset of sleep. Some can experience cataplexy (quick onset of sleep and a complete loss of muscle tone) as well and due to lack of orexin (neuropeptide) production. These sudden bouts of sleep last anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes and, less frequently, as long as an hour. Those who experience this enter into REM sleep immediately.  Sleep Apnea- It is caused by the blockage of the airway during sleep. May wake briefly hundreds of times per night, causing fatigue and other health problems. It afflicts between 2 and 20 percent of the general population, depending on how broadly our narrowly its defined. It causes people to snore loudly, gasp, and sometimes stop breathing for more than 20 seconds. This disorder is associated with being overweight, so the first suggestion given by most doctors is weight loss as a first treatment.  Night Terrors- Sudden waking episodes characterized by screaming, perspiring, and confusion followed by a return to a deep sleep. They are exclusively associated in non-REM sleep. They are most common in children; harmless.  Sleepwalking and Sexsomnia- Sleepwalking is an act like any fully awake person, although a sleepwalker may be somewhat clumsier. It almost always occurs during non-REM sleep. Whereas sexsomnia is when people engage in sexual acts while asleep and don’t remember what occurred after they wake up. Occurs in 15-30% of children and 3- 5% of adults. Dreams- Unsure exactly why we dream but involved in: (Processing emotional memories, integrating new experiences with established memories, learning new strategies and ways of doing things). Stimulating threatening events so we can better cope with the in everyday life and reorganizing and consolidating memories. It is a virtually universal experience and virtually all of us experience dreams that contain more aggression than friendliness, more negative than positive emotions, and more misfortune than good fortune. The function of dreams remains a puzzle because research evidence concerning the role of learning and memory in dreams is mixed.  Freud’s Dream Protection Theory- He sided with the Native Americans. In his landmark book, Interpretation of Dreams (1900) he describes dreams as the guardians of sleep. During sleep, the ego, which acts as sort of mental censor, is less able than when awake to keep sexual and aggressive instincts at bay by repressing them. Dreams transform our sexual and aggressive instincts into symbols that represent wish fulfillment. These require interpretation to reveal their true meaning, latent vs. manifest. Latent Content- The dreams hidden meaning. Manifest Content- He distinguished between the details of the dream itself. It has been rejected by most scientists due to a lack of evidence: (most dreams are negative in content, very few people have sexual dreams, straightforward dream content, post- trauma nightmares)  Activation Synthesis Theory- Alan Hobson and Robert McCarley developed activation synthesis theory, which purposes that dreams reflect brain activation in sleep, rather than repressed unconscious wishes, as Freud claimed. They claim that dreams reflect the activated brain’s attempt to make sense of random and internally generated neural signals during REM sleep. It reflects inputs from brain activation originating in the pons, which the forebrain then attempts to weave into a story. The net result of these complex brain changes is what we experience as a dream, which may bear slim to no relation to our everyday. Emphasizes role of forebrain in dreaming, damage to forebrain can eliminate dreams completely, even if the pons in intact, dreams are consistent over time, not random as AST would expect.)  Neurocognitive Theory- Theory that dreams are a meaningful product of our cognitive capacities, which shape what we dream about. Dreams are meaningful product of our cognitive capacities, which shape what we dream about. This is why dreams of adults are more complex than those of children. According to the neurocognitive perspective, complex dreams are cognitive achievements that parallel the gradual development of visual imagination and other advanced cognitive abilities. Alterations in Consciousness  Hallucinations are realistic perceptual experiences in the absence of external stimuli. Brain activities in the same way of hallucinations as for “real” sensory experiences. Quite normal: 10-35% of people report having had at least one. Visual hallucinations can be brought on by oxygen and sensory deprivation.  Out of Body- Experience is the sense that our consciousness has left our body. More commonly reported by those who have other unusual experiences. A scrambling of sensory information, not actually leaving the body, may be the reason.  Near Death Experiences- Are OBEs reported by people who’ve nearly died or thought they were going to die. Differ cross culturally, in response to expectations about the afterlife. Can be experimentally triggered via stimulation of temporal lobes and other means.  Déjà vu- Is the feeling of reliving an experience that is actually new. Very common; up to 2/3 of people experience at least one episode. May be due to seizures; events resembling past events; or unconscious processing.  Mystical Experiences- Involve a sense of unity or oneness with the world. Often religions in nature, and can be induced via fasting, seizures, prayer, or hallucinogenic drugs. These experiences are often difficult to put into words.  Hypnosis- A set of techniques that provides people with suggestions for alterations in perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Typically, an induction method is use which includes suggestions for relaxation, calmness, and well-being, along with instructions to imagine or think about pleasant experiences. Widely used to help treat pain, obesity, anxiety, ad habit disorders. 15-20% if people are in high suggestibility; another 15-20% are low suggestibility. Myths:  (1) Produces a trance state in which “amazing” things happen. (Doesn’t have great impact on suggestibility. Doesn’t turn people into mindless robots)  (2) Hypnotic phenomena are unique. No biological difference between hypnosis and wakefulness  (3) It is like a sleeplike state (not biologically similar to sleep)  (4) People are fully aware of their surroundings and what happened during hypnosis  (5) People forget what happened during hypnosis (rare and mostly limited to people who expect to be amnesic following hypnosis)  (6) Hypnosis enhances memories (increase amount we recall, but much of it is inaccurate) (does increase confidence by eyewitness). Each of these theories has contributed valuable insights into hypnotic phenomena. Sociocognitive Theory- Hypnosis is the same way they explain everyday social behaviors. According to this theory, people’s attitudes, beliefs, motivations, and expectations about hypnosis, as well as their ability to respond to waking imaginative suggestions, shape their responses to hypnosis. People’s expectations of whether they’ll respond to hypnotic suggestions are correlated with how they respond. Past life regression therapy- Therapeutic approach that hypnotizes and supposedly age-regresses patients to a previous life to identify the source of a present day problem. Dissociation Theory- It is an influential alternative to sociocognitive theories of hypnosis. Approach to explaining hypnosis based on a separation between personality functions that are normally well integrated. It is defined as a dissociation as a division of consciousness, in which attention, effort, and planning are carried out without awareness. Drugs & Consciousness Psychoactive drugs- Substance that contains chemicals similar to those found naturally in our brains that alter consciousness by changing chemical processes in neurons.  Depressants- Alcohol, barbiturates, Quaaludes, Valium. Decreased activity of the central nervous system (initial high followed by sleepiness, slower thinking, and impaired concentration). These depress the function of the central nervous system by the way of sedative means “calming” and hypnotic means “sleep-inducing”. Alcohol depresses area dos the brain that inhibit emotion and behavior. The setting or social context in which people consume alcohol also influences its effects. Misconceptions of Alcohol - Every time we drink, we destroy about 10,000 brain cells (Scientists haven’t exactly determined the effect if a single drink on brain cell loss. Heavy drinking over time is associated with brain damage and memory problems.) - It’s okay to drive a few hours after drinking (Coordination can be affected as much as 10-12 hours after drinking, so it is not safe to drink and drive.) - To avoid a hangover, take two or three acetaminophen tablets, a common alternative to aspirin, or an energy drink with caffeine (Taking acetaminophen tablets can increase the toxicity of alcohol to the liver. Energy drinks do not affect blood alcohol levels and increase the likelihood of binge drinking three fold) - Our judgement isn’t impaired until we’re extremely drunk (Impaired judgement can occur well before obvious signs of intoxication appear) - A “blackout” is passing out from drinking (A “blackout” is a loss of memory for a period of time while drunk, and has nothing to do with passing out.) - Mixing diet drinks with alcohol reduces the risk of intoxications (Mixing diet soda with alcohol increases breath alcohol concentrations by 18%, increasing the risk of intoxication)  Stimulants- Tobacco, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamines. Increased activity of the central nervous system (sense of alertness, well-being, energy)  Opiates- Heroin, Morphine, Codeine. Sense of euphoria, decreased pain)  Psychedelics- Marijuana, LSD, ecstasy (Dramatically altered perception, mood, and thoughts) Tolerance- A key feature of substance use disorders, occurs when people need to consume an increased amount of a drug to achieve intoxication. Reduction in the effect of a drug as a result of repeated use, requiring users to consume greater quantities to achieve the same effect as normal. Withdrawal- Unpleasant effects of reducing or stopping consumption of a drug that users had consumed habitually. (ex. alcohol withdrawal symptoms can range from insomnia and mild anxiety to more severe symptoms such as seizures, confusion, and bizarre visual hallucinations) Physical Dependence- Dependence on a drug that occurs when people continue to take it to avoid withdrawal symptoms. Psychological Dependence- Dependence on a drug that occurs when continued use of a drug is motivated by intense cravings. Sociocultural Influences- Attribute these differences to cultural difference in attitudes toward alcohol and its abuse. Nevertheless, these differences could also be due in part to genetic influences, and the cultural attitudes themselves may reflect these differences. The idea of an addictive personality comes into play when questioning whether people do so more many reasons. Genetic Influences- Researchers have uncovered a genetic link between people’s response to alcohol and their risk of developing alcoholism. Stimulants- A drug that increases activity in the central nervous system, including heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure.  Nicotine- It is a potent and addictive drug and reaches the brain after 10 seconds of inhalation. It activates receptors sensitive to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and smokers often report feelings of stimulation as well as relaxation and alertness. It can enhance positive emotional reactions and minimize negative emotional reactions, including the distress experienced when the nicotine level drops.  Cocaine- Most powerful natural stimulant. Users commonly report euphoria, enhanced mental and physical capacity, stimulation, a decrease in hunger, indifference to pain, and a sense of well-being accompanied by diminished fatigue. It is a powerful enforcer that increases the activity of the neurotransmitters dopamine and perhaps serotonin, which contribute to its reinforcing effects.  Amphetamines- Most commonly abused of all drugs, with 37% of Americans trying them at least once by age 50. - In pattern one involves occasional use of small doses of oral to postpone fatigue, elevate mood while performing an unpleasant task, cram for a test, or experience well-being. - In pattern two users obtain from a doctor, but ingest them on a regular basis for euphoria producing effects rather than for their prescribed purpose. - In pattern three is associated with speed users who are addicted to it and inject large doses to achieve a rush effect. In recent years’ methamphetamine, a drug closely related chemically to amphetamines, has emerged as a widely abused drug. It is known as crystal meth and is extremely addictive. Narcotics- Drug that relieves pain and induces sleep. (Heroin, morphine, and codeine) Psychedelics- “Hallucinogenic” because they can produce dramatic alterations in perception, mood, and thought.  Marijuana- Most frequently used illegal drug in the US. People experience a “high” feeling within a few minutes, which peaks within a half hour. Sense of time slowing down, enhanced sensations of touch, increased appreciation for sounds, hunger, feelings of well-being, and a tendency to giggle. But symptoms vary upon about.  LSD & Other hallucinogens- Its affects stem from its interference with the action of the neurotransmitter serotonin at the synapse. The affects are also associated with areas of the brain rich in receptors for the neurotransmitter dopamine. It can produce dramatic shifts in our perception and consciousness. But on the negative side they can also produce panic, paranoid delusions, confusion, depression, and bodily discomfort Chapter 6 Ivan Pavlov- The discoverer of classical conditioning. Learning- Change in an organism’s behavior or thought as a result of experience. Habituation- Process of responding less strongly over time to repeated stimuli. It is the simplest and earliest form of learning for humans. Classical Conditioning “Conditioning” by forming an association among stimuli. Pavlov tested his method of classical conditioning on dogs. Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning- Form of learning in which animals come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response. Classical Conditioning Systematically 1. He started initially with a neutral stimulus, one that didn’t elicit any particular response. 2. He then paired the neutral stimulus again and again with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), a stimulus that elicits an automatic, that is, a reflexive response. The unconditioned stimulus reflexive response it elicits is the unconditioned response (UCR), automatic response to a no neutral stimulus that does not need to be learned. 3. Repeatedly paired the neutral stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus, he observed something remarkable. I he now presented the metronome alone, it elicited a response. This new response is the conditioned response (CR): a response to previously associated with a non-natural stimulus that comes to be elicited by a neutral stimulus. The metronome had become a conditioned response (CS)- a previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response as a result of its association with an unconditioned stimulus. Principles of Classical Conditioning  Acquisition- Learning phase during which a conditioned response is established. It is the repeated pairing of a UCS and CS, increasing the CR’s strength.  Extinction- Gradual reduction and eventual elimination of the conditioned response after the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus. The CS is presented again and again without the UCS resulting in the gradual disappearance of the CR.  Spontaneous Recovery- Sudden reemergence of an extinct conditioned response after a delay in exposure to the conditioned stimulus. A related phenomenon is the renewal effect, which occurs when we extinguish a response in a setting different from the one in which the animal acquired it. This effect helps to explain why people with phobias who’ve overcome their phobias often experience a reappearance of their symptoms when they return to the environment in which they acquired their fears.  Stimulus Generalization- Process by which conditioned stimuli similar; but not identical, to the original conditioned stimulus elicit to a conditioned response.  Stimulus Discrimination- Process by which organisms display a less pronounced conditioned response to conditioned stimuli that differ from the original conditioned stimulus. Helps us understand why we enjoy scary movies. Higher Order Conditioning- Developing a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus by virtue of its association with another conditioned stimulus. With thus each progressive level results in weaker conditioning, just as a verbal message becomes less accurate as it’s passed from one person to another. It allows us to extend classical conditioning to a host of new stimuli. Helps explain the power of suggestion. (ex. Advertisers use higher- order classical conditioning to get customers to associate their products with an inherently enjoyable stimulus.) Latent Inhibition- Difficulty in establishing classical conditioning to a conditioned stimulus we’ve repeatedly experienced alone, that is, without the unconditioned stimulus. Because some investigators who failed to obtain classical conditioning effects for products relied on brands with which participants were already familiar, their negative findings may be attributable to latent inhibition. Little Albert- An experiment with a 9-month old infant in which they tested an association was made between a loud sound and the little boy playing with his toys. Which then created a conditioned response and a stimulus generation (in which anything slightly related to the object frightened the boy). Fetishism- Sexual attraction to nonliving things m


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