New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BIO 199 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Tiffany Matyja

BIO 199 Exam 2 Study Guide BIO 199

Marketplace > University of Tampa > BIO > BIO 199 > BIO 199 Exam 2 Study Guide
Tiffany Matyja
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is a study guide covering chapters 28-32 for the second exam. Chapter 33 material will be added separately under notes.
General Biology II
Huber, Daniel
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in General Biology II

Popular in BIO

This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tiffany Matyja on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 199 at University of Tampa taught by Huber, Daniel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in BIO at University of Tampa.


Reviews for BIO 199 Exam 2 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/09/16
Sunday, October 9, 2016 Unit 2 Exam BIO 199 - Definitions to Know - chemotaxis: movement with respect to a chemical stimulus - behavior: the ability to respond to the environment - plasmids: circular pieces of DNA containing 1 or more genes - conjugation: the combination of genetic information from multiple sources - horizontal gene transfer: the transfer of plasmids from one cell to another through a sex pilus, after which the transferred DNA is assimilated into the recipient’s genome - osmoregulation: a higher internal salt concentration prevents osmosis - symbiosis: how organisms interact with one another - parasitism: one organism benefits and the other is harmed - mutualism: both organisms receive benefits - commensalism: one organism benefits and the other is unaffected - capsule: formed by bacteria; prohibits white blood cells from immune recognition - biofilm: capsule formation leads to the accumulation of a biofilm - endospore: condensed DNA surrounded by a thick wall and goes into a dormant state; formed during adverse environmental conditions; when favorable conditions arise, the endospore germinates and grows a new bacterial cell - nitrogen fixation: the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas into usable forms - carbon fixation: the conversion of atmospheric CO to f2ed an ecosystem - polyphyletic: “many branches” - eutrophication: the input of inorganic materials, like fertilizer, into aquatic systems, which caused rapid growth of phytoplankton - macronucleus: controls the daily activities of the cell 1 Sunday, October 9, 2016 - micronucleus: involved in the production of offspring via conjugation - meristem: a localized area of rapid cell division - mycorrhizae: fungal filaments that live in symbiotic association with plant root cells, which they help to absorb inorganic nutrients from soil - xylem: transports water and nutrients up from soil; made from cells called tracheids - phloem: transports photosynthetic sugars down from the top of the plant - primary growth: vertical growth - secondary growth: lateral growth - megaspore: grows into the female gametophyte which produces an egg and a food supply for the future embryo - microspores (pollen grains): transferred to the female plant via pollination, after which they germinate to produce the male gametophyte, which produces the pollen tube and sperm - fruit: a ripened ovary that contains seeds - coevolution: when organisms evolve with respect to each others’ traits - nectaries: “true petals” an incentive for birds and insects to pollinate - double fertilization: fertilization of the egg by one sperm cell and fusion of the other sperm cell to the female gametophyte to trigger the formation of the endosperm (the food supply for a developing embryo) - mycelium: the filamentous body of a fungus; made up of hyphae - hyphae: composed of cells with walls made out of chitin; can be septate or coenocytic - plasmogamy: the fusion of cytoplasms - karyogamy: the fusion of nuclei 2 Sunday, October 9, 2016 - Chapter Summaries • Chapter 28: Prokaryotes - prokaryotes thrive everywhere, including places too acidic, salty, cold, or hot for most other organisms to live. They are small in size, but large in number. - flagella are attached to the outside of the membrane and rotate like a boat propeller - prokaryotes have a single circular chromosome and obtain plasmids via horizontal gene transfer - both Archaens and Eukaryotes have cell walls that lack peptidoglycan, the structure of their ribosomes is similar, and both have multiple RNA polymerases - nutritional modes of Archaens: • photo-heterotrophic (halophiles) - carbon source: organic compounds usually consumed from other organisms - ATP synthesis: powered by solar energy • chemo-heterotrophic - carbon source: organic compounds - ATP synthesis: powered by energy released from the breakdown of organic compounds • photo-autotrophic - carbon source: inorganic compounds (CO ) 2 - fuel supply: solar energy is used to power the synthesis of organic compounds from inorganic sources - ATP synthesis: powered by energy released from the breakdown of organic compounds • chemo-autotrophic - carbon source: inorganic compounds (CO ) 2 - fuel supply: chemical energy is used to power the synthesis of organic compounds from inorganic sources - ATP synthesis: powered by energy released from the breakdown of organic compounds 3 Sunday, October 9, 2016 - halophiles use osmoregulation and have proteins that are adapted to exist under high salt concentrations - thermophiles have a monolayer membrane, in which lipids are fused together to restrict the motion associated with high kinetic energy - the small size of bacteria results in symbiosis - Gram postive bacteria: • Streptococcus spp.: always present but kept in check until mutation leads to the formation of a capsule • Clostridium spp.: use endospores and interfere with the signaling in neuromuscular junction in humans (tetanus and botulism) - Gram negative bacteria: • E. coli: found in the digestive tracts of humans; serves as an indicator of fecal matter - can become pathogenic if a mutant strain evolves within a local population • Vibrio spp.: interfere with biochemical pathways; can cause cholera, necrotizing fasciitis, and bioluminescence - bacteria can be beneficial: nitrogen and carbon fixation • Chapter 29: Protists - protists are a polyphyletic clade and do not share a common ancestry - nutritional modes: autoheterotrophic and mixotrophic - sexual life cycles: • haplontic: unicellular haploid organisms that periodically fuse together to form a diploid zygotes, which undergoes meiosis to produce haploid offspring • diplontic: diploid organism undergoes meiosis to produce haploid gametes, which then fuse to gather to form a diploid zygote • haplodiplontic: alternation of generations - primary endosymbiosis: chloroplasts first originated in supergroup Archeplastida via the ingestion of cyanobacteria - secondary endosymbiosis: supergroup Chromalveolata gained photosynthetic ability through the ingestion of red algae 4 Sunday, October 9, 2016 • Chapter 30: Seedless Plants - plants provide ecosystem serves, like providing habitats, nutrition and oxygen, and also act as a carbon dioxide sink - plant characteristics are derived from the primary endosymbiosis of cyanobacteria - derived traits of plants include the alternation of generations, reproductive organs, multicellular, dependent embryos, apical meristems, and mycorrhizae • alternation of generations: necessary so spores can be produced. Spores are more durable and served as “the foot in the door” for the colonization of land • reproductive organs - sporophyte: sporangia, which produce spores - gametophyte: gametongia, which produce gametes - antheridia: male reproductive structures - archegonia: female reproductive structures • apical meristems: all plants possess a shoot and a root meristem for vertical growth - Bryophytes: non-vascular plants with a gametophyte-dominant life cycle; require wet environments and form ground-hugging carpets of vegetation - Tracheophytes: vascular (have xylem and phloem) plants with a sporophyte- dominant life cycle; seedless plants require wet habitats, seed plants have polls, which eliminates water from the reproductive cycle • Chapter 31: Seed Plants - Gymnosperms: have a megaspore and microspores. Fertilization leads to the formation of a seed, which includes the sporophyte embryo, the food supply, and a seed coat from the parent sporophyte - Angiosperms: flowering plants; flowers develop into fruits following fertilization • Structure: • sepals: protect the developing flower bud • petals: attract pollinators • stamen: male reproductive structures 5 Sunday, October 9, 2016 • carpels: female reproductive structures • coevolution is a defining feature of the relationship between angiosperms and animals - flower color->pollinator: white->nocturnal animals; red->birds; blue/purple- >insects - morphology: nectaries and flower shape (coevolution) • angiosperms are capable of double fertilization, which conserves energy - Habitat Fragmentation: • has massive effects on biodiversity • increase in population density in remaining habitat due to the displacement of organisms from their habitats • increased competition and energy expenditure • increased spread of disease • Chapter 32: Fungi - fungi are diverse, widespread, and essential; heterotrophic and nutrient cycling - anatomy: mycelium made of hyphae - only group of organisms to produce spores during both sexual and asexual reproduction - fungi have a dikaryotic stage in between the plasmogamy and karyogamy stages, during which reproductive structures like mushrooms are rapidly produced to facilitate the dispersal of offspring - fungi have a powerful impact on ecosystems and human welfare; they are decomposers, have symbiotic relationships, can be pathogenic, and can be used to produce antibiotics 6 Sunday, October 9, 2016 - Organisms to Know • Supergroup Excavata - have an excavated groove on one side of the cells that serves as a “mouth” - Diplomonads • have 2 nuclei and multiple flagella have modified mitochondria that are incapable of aerobic respiration • • found in anoxic environments, such as stagnant ponds • examples include giardia, an intestinal parasite - Euglenozoans • have a crystalline rod inside their flagella • Euglenids - convergently evolved photosynthesis via secondary endosymbiosis of green algae - mixotrophic: usually when photosynthesis is evolved, heterotrophy is abandoned. Euglenids are unique in that they use both mechanisms • Kinetoplastids - have a kinetoplast, which is a really big, singular mitochondria - kinetoplastids are usually disease-causing blood parasites, causing leishmaniasis, Chages disease, and African sleeping sickness • they thrive by evading the immune system really well. The immune system recognizes “non-self” based upon surface proteins of cells. The parasites can “swap out” their surface proteins so that the immune system can never fully recognize them • Supergroup Chromalveolata - convergently evolved photosynthesis via secondary endosymbiosis of red algae - Alveolates 7 Sunday, October 9, 2016 • have alveoli (sacs) under their plasma membrane • Dinoflagellates - photosynthetic and an important part of phytoplankton • use pigments chlorophyll a and c - cell wall is composed of cellulose plates • cellulose was obtained via endosymbiosis of red algae - dinoflagellates and supergroup Archaeplastida obtained cellulose from cyanobacteria - cause harmful algal blooms, caused by eutrophication • effects: - blocks sunlight, therefore preventing other organisms from doing photosynthesis - can produce various toxins - bacterial decomposition of phytoplankton leads to anoxia (no oxygen), which leads to “fish kills” • Apicomplexans - intracellular parasites that have an apical complex - ex: plasmodium, the malaria-causing organism - have a haplontic live cycle that requires both and insect host (sexual reproduction) and a mammalian host (asexual reproduction) Ciliates • - covered in numerous cilia; have a macronucleus and a micronucleus - Stramenopiles • have “straw hair” extensions on flagella • photosynthetic pigments used are chlorophyll a and c, and fucoxanthin, which together create a brown color • Diatoms - the most significant source of phytoplankton 8 Sunday, October 9, 2016 - have a silica cell wall - where most fossil fuels come from • Brown Algae - large, multicellular forms including “seaweeds” - have a haplodiplontic life cycle • Supergroup Archaeplastida - primary endosymbiosis of cyanobacteria - Red Algae • photosynthetic pigments used are chlorophyll a and b, and phycoerythrin (absorbs blue light, which penetrates deepest into the water, allowing red algae to live deeper than other algae) • commercial applications: - agar and carrageenan • binding agents that extend the shelf life of consumable products - Green Algae the transition group between protists and plants • • pigments used are chlorophyll a and b • have great morphological diversity: - there are unicellular varieties, colonial varieties, and multicellular varieties • Supergroup Amoebozoa - have lobe-shaped pseudopodia • Supergroup Rhizaria - have thread-like pseudopodia - radiolarians have a silica shell - foraminiferans have a calcium carbonate shell • Supergroup Opisthokonta 9 Sunday, October 9, 2016 - have a single posterior flagella - ancestral condition: unicellular with a single, posteriorly located flagellum • Choanoflagellates - form colonies that are the evolutionary precursor of animals such as sponges - have collars around flagella, which are used to trap food particles • Fungi - Chytridiomycota • represents ancestral condition for Supergroup Opisthokonta • causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, a fungal infection responsible for the extinction of numerous amphibian species - Zygomycota • sexual reproduction: produce a zygosporangia • asexual reproduction: molds - Glomeromycota form arbuscular mycorrhizae to aid plant cells with nutrient acquisition • - Basidiomycota • rely almost completely on sexual reproduction - produce a basidiocarp (mushroom), lined with club-shaped cells called basidia, which produce basidiospores - Ascomycota • unicellular yeast, multicellular “cup” fungi - sexual reproduction: produce an ascocarp (cup), lined with column-shaped cells called asci, which produce ascospores - asexual reproduction: produce conidia • Animals 10


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.