Midterm Study Guide
Popular in History of Modern China
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 324 at University of Baltimore taught by Dr. Boram Yi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see History of Modern China in History at University of Baltimore.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Ashely Jenkins Midterm Study Guide October 9, 2016 Part I: Map Quiz in class 10/19 Part II: Pair Identification Questions I. Confucianism: A system of philosophical and ethical teachings founded by Confucius and developed by Mencius. Pursuit of the unity of the self and Heaven/God. Developed by Confucius during the warring states period [475-221 BCE]. Basic values: kindness, ritual, filial piety. Hierarchical relationships, inferior should submit too superior, superior should guide inferior through moral situations. It is the duty of human beings to work hard to improve life on earth. II. Daoism: based on the writings of Lao-tzu, advocates humility and religious piety. Dao means the way of the universe. So much beyond human understanding, thus non-action and follow one’s nature and the universe is the best way. Visible in Chinese landscape paintings. III. The Macartney Mission (1793): First British diplomatic mission to China. Named for its leader Lord George Macartney. Goals of opening new ports for trade. Establish a permanent embassy in Beijing. Lift trade restrictions in Canton. A small island along China’s coast for British use. Emperor rejected all of their requests, sent them packing. Not a total failure, had extensive information about cultural, political, and geographical observations. IV. Qing’s bimetallic currency system: used copper and silver coins. You would trade in copper coins for silver coins. Inflation became worse and worse; peasants would have to take wheel barrels to pay their property tax. Only a few years’ prior this same property tax could be paid with a few coins. Caused peasants to lose faith in the dynasty. The currency eventually crashed. V. Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864): Massive civil war in china. Fought between the Manchu-lead Qing Dynasty and the Christian movement of the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace. Their leader, Hong Xiuquan, believed himself to be Jesus’ little brother. Ranked as one of the bloodiest wars in uman history. Death toll estimates ranging from 20-70 million. Millions more displaced. VI. Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908): Concubine to Emperor Cianfeng; mother of Emperor Tong-zhi; known to Westerners as the Empress Dowager. From the time she became regent to the boy-emperor Tongzhi in 1861 until her death forty-seven years later. She held defacto power over the Qing government, naming two successive emperors to the throne. VII. The Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895): fought between the Qing empire of China and the Empire of Japan over the control of Korea. After six months of continuous Japanese victories the Chinese sued for peace in Feb 1895. Failure of the Qing Empires attempt to strengthen and modernize its military. Dominance in the region shifted from China to Japan. Major blow, humiliating loss, sparked unprecedented public outcry. VIII. The Boxer Uprising (1898-1900): anti-christen, antiforeign peasants uprising that originated in northern Shandong and ended with the siege of the foreign legation in Peking. Participants were mostly poor peasants who practiced a type of martial art that gave the name “boxer” the movement. The uprising ended when a combined Western military expedition entered Peking, forcing the empress dowager Cixi and her court to flee to Xi’an. IX. The Boxer Protocol (1901): Demands of foreign powers agreed to by the Qing government after the suppression of the Boxer Uprising, which included the payment of an indemnity that amounted to almost half of the Qing annual budget. Indemnity payments were later used by the United States to establish a fund to allow Chinese students to study in America. X. Sun Yet-sen (Sun Zhongshan): Considered the father of the Chinese republican revolution. Educated in medicine in Hong Kong, he became an anti-Manchu activist and through his, Revolutionary Alliance helped to overthrow the Qing Dynasty. As leader of the Guomindang, Sun struggled against warlord factions to try and unite China throughout the 1910’s and 1920’s. Accepted the help of the Soviet Union and entered into a united-front alliance with the CCP in 1923. Died in 925; leadership of the Guomindang passed to Chiang Kai-shek. XI. Japanese 21 Demands (1915); Issued by Japan in January of 1915, in which Japan demanded economic rights for Japanese in Manchuria, the right to station police and economic advisers in Manchuria, and major economic concessions in China proper. Demands accepted by the government of Yuan Shikai in spite of popular Chinese protest. XII. Li Dazhao: (1889-1927) Important figure in the Mary Forth movement, early Chinese Marxist, and one of the founders of the CPC. Studied in Japan, returned to China in 1918 as director f the Peking University library and co-editor of New Youth magazine. Went on to become and influential communist party leader during its first united front alliance with the Guomindang. Captured and executed in Peking by the warlord Zhang Zuolin. XIII. Northern Expedition (1926-1928): Military campaign, undertaken by allies Guomingdang- Communist forces (The National Revolutionary Army) under the leadership of Chiang Kai- shek, to free China from fragmented warlord rule and unify under one government. Two years after the launching of the campaign from his base in Canton, China as far north as Mukden was under the nominal control of Chaing, who then established the capital for his Nationalist government in Nanjing. XIV. Long March; Journey of 6,000 miles made by Communist forces escaping the suppression campaign of Chaing Kai-shek. Only 8,000 to 9,000 of the original 80,000 who began the year- long trek out of the Jiangxi Soviet area in 1934 lived to establish a new Communist base at Yan’an in the northwestern providence of Shaanxi. XV. Manchukuo: Name given by the Japanese to the puppet regime they established in Manchuria in 1932. The Japanese placed the deposed Qing emperor Puyi as ‘chief executive’ of the government and retained control of the area until the end of WWII. XVI. The Second United Front (1937-1941): Brief alliance between Chinese Nationalists and CPC to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937-1946. XVII. Rape of Nanjing (1937): Period of seven weeks in December 1937 -January 1938 during which Japanese troops plundered Chaing Kai-shek’s capital city, killing an estimated 50,000 and raping tens of thousands of women. XVIII. Dixie Mission (1944): United States Army Observation Group, first US effort to establish official relations with the Communist Party. Reported on the activity and training of CPC in the Mountains of Yan’an. Goal to determine if the US should establish relations. Reported that they were lest corrupt then the Nationalists. Thought they would be a useful post war ally. Hosted George Marshall diplomatic mission to negotiate the unification of the Chinese Communists and the Nationalists. Failed. XIX. Marshall Mission (1947): General George Marshall, sent by President Truman, head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Got both parties (CPC AND GMD) to agree to a cease-fire beginning in January 1946 and persuaded Chiang Kai-shek to work toward convening the assembly he had discussed with Mao Zedong in the fall. XX. Battle of Xuzhou (1948): fought between Japanese and Chinese forces during May 1938. Second Sino-Japanese War. Part III: Essay Incorporate and cite at least 3 primary sources. 3-5 paragraphs Conclusion should attempt to make some overview of the changes and continuities in the Chinese history from 1860-1949. Describe the life in China in the 1920’s. be sure to explain political, economic, social and cultural aspects of the life and discuss the significance of the May Fourth Movement. Include examples from the writings of Chen Duxiu and Lu Xun. I. Readings to utilize: a. “Call to Youth” Chen Duxiu, Week 3 b. “My Views on Chasity” Lu Xun, Week 3 c. Liang Qichao on His Trip to America, Week 2 d. Hu Shi appeals for Legal Rights, Week 4 II. Introduction: The May Fourth Movement was a political movement started by students protesting in Bijing against the Chinese Governments weak response to the Treaty of Versailles. This comradery and national sentiment lead to an upsurge in Chinese Nationalism and a call for a unified China. The resulting period was that of political insecurity and unparalleled intellectual self-scrutiny and exploration. III. Body: a. Political & Economic b. Social & Cultural c. Significant of May Fourth Movement IV. Conclusion: Life was changing rapidly in 1920’s China. They were trying to modernize just about every aspect of Chinese life. The Chinese citizens had slowly lost faith in their lack of government after the Qing Dynasty digitigraded. All of these issues came to a head after the Treaty of Versailles, primarily the loss of the Shandong Territories. This was a major turning point for the Chinese, they had had enough and would fight for a unified China free from foreign intervention.
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