AGRI 116 Exam 2 Study Guide
AGRI 116 Exam 2 Study Guide AGRI 116 001
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AGRI 116 001
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Wade on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AGRI 116 001 at Colorado State University taught by Andrew P. Norton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Plants and Civilizations in Agricultural and Environmental Plant Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
AGRI 116 Exam 2 Study Guide Potatoes Economics of Potatoes: - Leading Potato Producing Countries (million metric tons) ● China 86 ● India 45 ● Russia 30 ● Ukraine 23 ● United States 19 ● Germany 11 ● Poland 9 ● Bangladesh 8 ● Belarus 7 ● Netherlands 7 - Places that have the most varieties of potatoes (peru/bolivia) are not the same places that are producing the most potatoes - Places that produce the most potatoes are not the places that consume the most potatoes (US and Europe/potato belt - vodka) Botanics of Potatoes: - Solanum tuberosum - member of the nightshade family (Solanaceae) - Other nightshade family vegetables ● Tomato - people used to be afraid to eat them because they thought tomatoes were werewolf fruits ● Chilies ● Eggplant ● Tomatillos - Solanine - secondary plant compound in the leaves and stems of potatoes and tomatoes ● Glycoalkaloid poison ● Toxic in small quantities ● Works as a plant’s natural defense against pests - Potato is a modified stem called a tuber ● Tuber function ○ Nutrient storage ○ Aesexual reproduction - you can cut up a potato and replant each piece as long as they have eyes on them (eyes are modified leaves - growth point for new plant) - Potatoes that are grown to produce other potatoes are called seed potatoes - Potatoes can also be grown from seeds extracted from the potato plant fruit ● Potato plant flowers and fruit have high solanine content (poisonous) The Center of Origin for the Potato - Mountains of Peru/Bolivia - Clues that show us that these are the origin places: ● Axo-Mama - the Peruvian “divine mother” or “goddess” of the potato found depicted on pottery and such ● Tradition of burning a sacrifice to Pacama (Pachamama) a Bolivian Earth goddess ● DNA markers that match common strains to local strains in different places Potato Culture in Bolivia/Peru - Increase variety in center of origin potato production ● Pros: ○ Disease resistance ○ Increase land utilization ○ Higher yield within and across field plots ○ Higher chance of stumbling across new varieties ● Cons: ○ Loss of synchrony of germination/flowering/harvesting across the entire mountainside cropping system - this could be okay though, if you know how this may make it easier to extent crop across whole year and have enough storage - Potato Park ● 4 tribes came together to preserve varieties and protect their own rights, get some compensation for potatoes growing in those areas - Chuno potatoes - freeze dried potatoes that are the favorite way to prepare potatoes in Peru/Bolivia - Potatoes didn’t get popular in Europe until mid-late 1700s because people avoided them for various reasons: ● Resemblance to other deadly plants (nightshades) ● They were lumpy - associated with leprosy ● They were not mentioned in the bible ● They were from the Americas - heathens - Advantages of potatoes to the European economy ● More productive than other crops - whole family could be supported on single acre ● Highly nutritious - nutritionally complete when combined with dairy products ● Very cheap to produce ● Stored well ● Resisted destruction during conflicts - armies would sometimes burn/trample crops - Potato culture in Ireland ● Replaced grains ● Lumper Potato - monoculture catastrophe ○ Grew really well so everyone grew it ○ No resistance to a specific water mold - spread rapidly in 1845 Bananas - 16.5 million metric tons of global banana exports (2012) - Only one type of banana sold all over the place - One of the most commonly consumed fruits in the US - Banana biology (Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana) ● Not trees, giant herb plants ○ Main stem that seems like trunk is called a pseudostem - just a bunch of leaves ○ Fruit produced from an inflorescence (banana heart) forms large hanging cluster ● After fruiting, the mother plant dies ○ Needs 14 month of warmth ○ In the wild they are able to reproduce by seed, but commercial bananas don’t have seeds in them ● Edible bananas result from parthenocarpic fruit ○ Parthenocarpy is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules ○ These are seedless female fruits, no fertilization ● Wild bananas produce by seed ○ Occasionally they will produce a seedless banana, but it can’t reproduce on their own - can be maintained by humans through vegetative reproduction ● Vegetative propagation ○ Take the little sucker plant off the mother plant, that is genetically identical, and plant it elsewhere ● Although seedless bananas are sterile female plants, they may produce some viable pollen ○ Wild varieties can use this pollen and create interesting variations ○ Sometimes this results in triploid bananas - completely sterile (male and female) ● Usually AA and AAB types are sweet, dessert bananas ● AB and BB are the savory ones referred to as plantains - In 1871 Minor Keith’s family signed a contract with Costa Rica to compete a nearly 100 mile railway linking the mountains to the coast ● Lack of financing ● Tropical diseases ● Torrential rain ● 4000 people died including some of Minor Keith’s brothers ● Brought in workers from other places ● Took about 19 years to compete ● Costa Rica government couldn’t pay Keith back ○ He renegotiated the loan, and so they granted him tax free land and extensive rights along the railway ○ In 1899, Keith’s railway merged with the Boston Fruit company and became the United Fruit Company ○ He just had so much power ○ Reliable shipping - charged people to go on a cruise and used their money to pay for the shipping of bananas down in the hold ○ Vertical integration - merger of companies at different stages of production and/or distribution in the same industry ■ Monopoly almost ○ Term “banana republic” ● Until the 1950s a single banana cultivar, Big Mike, had the yield, shipping and eating qualities that United Fruit wanted ○ Panama disease got it ● Search for a replacement - Cavendish - resistant to Panama disease ○ 99% of banana exports now ○ Tropical Race 4 is now attacking Cavendish Apples - There are a lot more apple cultivars in production than some other popular crops (like potatoes) - A lot of them originated in America - The cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) belongs to the family Rosaceae. It is a member of the subfamily Pomoideae. This subfamily also includes: ● Pyrus (pears) ● Cydonia (quince) Apple Economics - Most widely grown fruit in the world - Most apples require cross pollination ● Pollination service industry - need bee boxes in apple orchards ● Makes it really hard to have an apple monoculture Apple Biology - Each apple contains 5 ovaries or cells (the core) ● 1-2 seeds in each - The fleshy fruit (receptacle) grows around the core ● Accessory fruit - flesh is derived from the adjacent tissue and not the ovary - Seedling apples (small apples without very much flesh, not that good for eating) ● Extreme heterozygotes - new baby tree’s apples are radically different from parent’s trees apples ○ Apple seeds are spread very far by birds, so having extremely different offspring gives them a better chance of surviving in the environment they are dropped in - Domestica apples are propagated aesexually by grafting ● Tissues of one plant are encouraged to fuse with those of another ● Scion - part being grafted on, selected for stems, leaves, flowers, or fruit ● Stock or rootstock - plant that scion is grafted onto, selected for its roots ● Grafting - method of aesexual propagation ○ Tissues of one plant are encouraged to fuse with another ● Cleft grafting - most common type of grafting - Average apple tree has approximately 3,000 blossoms - Yield about 18,000 individual flowers, which would be way too many apples for a tree to support, so that is part of why the flowers abort if they are touched by their own pollen Apple Origins - The domestic apple is thought to have originated in the Caucasus Mountains of Central Asia - Apple is naturally adapted to temperate zones 30-45 degrees north and south of the equator Apples and Health - Boosts immune system - Low in calories - Prevent tooth decay - Reduce cholesterol - Lower respiratory problems - Prevent brain disease (phytonutrients) - Prevent heart disease (flavonoids) - Cancer prevention (phytonutrients and others) - Seeds contain high amounts of Vitamin B17 ● People thought that if you swallowed a few apple seeds the cyanide in them would kill you ● Nitrilosides - cyanide content bound to sugars, so they don’t release in your body readily ○ Would have to eat thousands of them to have a high enough level to be harmful ○ Some researchers used this chemical to make a drug to target cancer, but it was quack medicine - It’s true that apples have health benefits, but the slogan “An apple a day keeps the doctor away” was invented to try to get people to eat apples instead of drinking them because of prohibition Apples in America - No edible apples in America before arrival of europeans ● Seed planting did much better than “old world” cuttings ● Seed - sexual reproduction - new genotypes - new varieties ● Good varieties were then propagated aesexually (grafted) - John Chapman (1774-1845) ● Traveled the then frontier northwest territory of the US (western PA, ● Brought alcohol to the frontier ● Spread apple seeds and influenced settlement location ● Unwittingly drove forward the evolution of the apple - Apples on the frontier ● Desired for two reasons (Pollan) ○ Sugar/sweetness - prototype for all desire? ○ Alcohol ■ Apples planted by seed didn’t taste good to eat ■ Mostly used in hard cider ● Northwest territory and land grants ○ Required to plant at least 50 apple or pear trees ○ Encouraged homesteaders to “put down roots” ■ Suppress real estate speculation ■ Takes about 10 years for seeds to produce fruit ● John Chapman ○ Brought alcohol to the frontier ○ Influenced settlement locations ○ Unwittingly drove forward the evolution of the apple History of Spice Obsession - Rule of the Pharaohs (1350-31 BC) ● Egyptians used a lot of spices - for cooking and for their mummies ○ Cumin, anise, marjoram, cassia, myrrh, frankincense, etc. ● Egyptian aristocrats burned cinnamon in their homes ○ Show their wealth - the smell of someone showed how powerful or poor they were ○ Hide stench from the crowds outside ● Doctors during plague wore masks that looked like scary beaks, were filled with spices/flowers to cover stench from bodies rotting ● Egyptians were trading with people from India (for spices, fibers, etc.) at least since 1500 BCE - Arabs created a monopoly on the spice trade moving toward Europe (around 950 AD) ● Came up with myths about where spices came from to keep Europeans in the dark ○ Pepper came from under waterfalls guarded by dragons - fire spiciness of pepper ○ Cinnamon came from mythical garden with giant cliffs with huge carnivorous birds living on them and their nests were made of cinnamon sticks - Spices initially only attainable by ruling class ● Emblems of power - the more sharply peppercorns seared guests’ mouths, the more they respected the hosts ● Presented as gifts of state ● Bequeathed as heirlooms ● Used as currency - Medieval Ruling Class ● Higher the rank of household, the greater its use of spices - Pepper was worth its weight in gold ● Used as currency ● Pepper was one of the first spices to be plagued by counterfeiting ○ Spice traders cut spices with dried juniper berries etc. ○ Grains of paradise Spice Obsession Theories 1. Using spice as a food preservative - Pepper along with salt was the main means of meat preservation - Other spices made spoiled meat edible again - Not much evidence to support this ● Salt worked fine to preserve things on its own ● Local spices and herbs were plentiful ● Those that could afford meat would eat it fresh 2. Spices used as medicine - Stimulate appetite/aid digestion - Philters (Philtres) ● Against plague - Aphrodisiacs - Love potions - Cures for impotence 3. The “Paradise” Theory - Medieval palate was dull/numb before spices ● The taste of spices was paradise - “Emissaries from a fabled world” ● Spices came from paradise - Some theological beliefs ● Garden of eden lay in Asia - source of spices? 4. Trade Route Inflation - Spices were moved from China and India to Europe ● Great silk road - the overland trade route stretched over 7,000 miles from Constantinople, Antioch and Tyre to China ● Each person that the spices are traded to along the silk road charges a little bit more because they have to pay mercenaries to protect them etc. The End of the Obsession - Spice prices declined in the 17th century ● A case of botanical ignorance? ○ Did not realize until the 18th century that trees and plants could be grown successfully in places other than where they were native ○ This theory doesn’t seem likely ● Markets were saturated ● More moderate use of spices ● New group of flavorings or “luxury foods” appeared ○ Chili’s, coffee, tea, sugar Black Pepper - The world’s most important spice - America is the biggest importer of black pepper - Piper nigrum - a woody, perennial, tropical climbing vine ● Perennial - lasts 3 seasons or more ● Annual - Completes its entire life cycle within the space of a season ● Heat ○ Cause by alkaloid irritants ○ Inner core ● Aroma ○ Comes from essential oils ● All pepper comes from same species, just depends on how they are processed ○ Green - before they are ripe, least hot ○ Black - also before they are ripe, dried in the sun which allows the alkaloid irritants to really develop and get hot, most hot ○ White - ripe red berries soaked in water to remove skin, leaving the hot white berries Cinnamon - Cinnamomum verum - small evergreen tree in the laurel family ● Native to Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and India ● Ceylon cinnamon = true cinnamon ● Two year old branches are cut off tree in 3 foot sections ○ Branches are fermented for 24 hours, the bark (2 layers) is peeled off. The outer layer is removed (sometimes used tlater to make cinnamon oil) ○ The inner bark dries to form cinnamon quills ● Cassia cinnamon = imposter cinnamon ○ Evergreen tree native to southern China, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Vietnam ○ Closely related to cinnamon ○ In other parts of the world this is not synonymous with cinnamon, it is a separate spice ● Coumarin - secondary plant metabolite found in many plants including cassia and ceylon cinnamon ○ Has appetite suppressing properties ○ FDA - on list of “substances generally prohibited from direct addition or use as human food” ○ “Dose makes the poison” - safe at low doses used in food ● Cassia vs. authentic cinnamon (Ceylon) ○ Cinnamon ■ Harvested from small branches, many thin pieces rolled together ■ Light taste and texture ■ Contains very little Coumarin ■ Preferred form of spice used in Europe in Mexico ○ Cassia ■ Whole branches or entire tree harvested, sold as thick pieces of bark ■ Heavy flavor and coarse texture ■ May contain high amounts of Coumarin ■ Preferred form of spice un US and Canada - Current uses ● Food ● Medicine/research ○ Antioxidant ○ Antimicrobial ○ Type II diabetes (Cassia) ■ Insulin resistance Saffron - World’s most expensive saffron ● Derived from the dried stigma of the Saffron Crocus - Major exporter ● Iran (94% of world total) ● Spain, Kashmir, Greece, Azerbaijan, Morocco, and Italy ● Current price - $3000-$7,500/lb, market fluctuates ● Around 75,000 flowers are grown and harvested to produce a single pound of saffron - Originally Crocus cartwrightianus ● Now it is crocus sativus ○ A perennial bulb - flowers in the fall, usually with 2 flowers per bulb ○ Has been selected for longer stigmas ○ Completely domesticated - does not reproduce on own ■ Corms (reproductive organs) ○ Three stigmas (Saffron) ● Manual harvest of stigmas makes it so expensive - Egypt (about 100 BC) ● Cleopatra used it in her baths, thought it was an aphrodisiac ● Healers ○ Used to stop internal hemorrhaging ■ Too high of doses can induce vomiting and internal bleeding ○ Urinary infections ■ Too high of doses can cause urinary bleeding and sometimes abortion ○ Anti-poisoning ■ Too high of doses can act as a poison - Middle Ages ● Fall of Roman Empire ● Doctrine of Signatures ○ Said that gods marked plants with their uses - sinces saffron was yellow it should be used to cure jaundice ● Plague remedy ○ Demand and price sky rocketed ○ Counterfeiting ● “Saffron War” ○ 14 week war between declining noble classes and wealthy merchants in Europe ○ Nobles stole 800 lb of saffron shipment - Current uses ● Food ● Dye ● Medicine ○ Antioxidant ○ Anticarcinogen ○ Anti-mutagenic ○ Carcinoma, sarcoma, and leukemia - Poppy vs. Saffron in Afghanistan ● Poppy production controlled by the Taliban/Warlords ○ Encouraged to grow Saffron instead of opium ● Problems with the switch ○ Saturated saffron market - decrease in prices ○ Switch back to poppies for more money ○ Taliban/”Insurgent” repercussions on farmers, couldn’t get saffron that was produced out of the country Botanophila Orchidelirium - “Victorian age” - refers to the reign of Queen Victoria ● Advocates sexual repression, low tolerance of crime and a strong social ethic ● Middle class assumed Queen Victoria’s puritanical values ● The US was also greatly influenced by the social values, customs, furniture, clothing, decorations, etc. ● Darwin was very fond of orchids in genus Catasetum ○ Orchids in the genus had a bunch of weird ways of being fertilized by insects ● Women weren’t supposed to learn about sex, so they took needlework classes instead of botany ○ Almira Lincoln wrote a botany textbook substituting the “offensive” words like ovary to things like “germ” ○ Women would learn a lot about plants in secret because they weren’t really supposed to ● In the 1800s growing orchids became a very popular hobby in Victorian England ○ Millions upon millions were spent in search of rare orchids ○ Man-made extinction of orchids - removing orchids from their environments caused them to die off because they had really particular relationships in their ecosystems - Types of Orchids ● Terrestrial orchids - grow on ground ● Epiphytic orchids - grow on trees (not parasitic) ○ Derives water and nutrients from the air (not host plant) ○ Roots develop to hold onto the host plant, but do not invade the host plant’s functioning ○ Pod with tons of tiny seeds in it explodes open and spreads seeds - Biology of orchids ● Biggest flowering plant family (25,000+ species) ● Considered to be the most highly evolved flowering plant ● Native species found on every continent except antarctica ● Almost always cross-pollinated ● Grow slowly - 7 years or more to mature into flowering plant ● Long lived- can live 50+ years in some cases Tulipomania - Tulipomania - Holland 1633-1637 - Extreme heterozygote - plants from seeds are very different from parents - Takes 7-12 years for seeds to turn into bulbs - Tulip breaking Potyvirus ● Suppresses anthocyanin - makes it white and color streaked ○ Anthocyanin - odorless group of flavonoids pigments, add red blue, or purple color to many plants ● Virus also causes weakened plants, symptoms increase with successive generations ● Aphids are the main vector of the disease ● They were paying tons of money for sickened tulips that were killing themselves ○ Now illegal to sell diseased tulips ○ There are still broken tulips that broke in other ways (Rembrandt) - Reasons for popularity: ● Mutability ● Rich people liked tulips ● Bubonic Plague - people were taking a lot of risks because they didn’t know when they might die ● Scarcity/demand - 1635 a shift occurred ● Trade in actual bulbs changed to trading promissory notes ● “Greater fool theory” - guilder for more money than was in circulation ○ “Greater fool” was nowhere to be found to pay more
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