Psychology Study Guide 3
Psychology Study Guide 3 Psyc 1101
Popular in Elementary Psycology
Popular in Psychology
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle H. on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psycology in Psychology at University of Georgia.
Reviews for Psychology Study Guide 3
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/09/16
Chapter 5 5.1: Introduction to Learning Vocabulary from Textbook ● Learning: A lasting change in thinking or behavior that results from experiences ● Habituation: The most basic form of learning in which an organism does not respond as strongly or as often to a particular event after being exposed to it repeatedly. Types of Learning ● Classical Condition: Two different stimuli are associated. ● Operant Conditioning: Connections are made between voluntary actions and their consequences, such as either a reward or punishment. ● Observational Learning: Learning occurs by watching and imitation others. 5.2: Classical Conditioning Process of Classical Conditioning ● An unconditioned stimulus provides they begin to salivate. ● Neutral stimulus does not provide an unconditioned response ○ Dogs will not begin to salivate when only presented with a ticking metronome ● An unconditioned stimulus is then paired with a neutral stimulus ○ When the dogs are given food, a metronome is also presented. ○ This is called t cquisition phase ● After the completion ● conditioned stimulus- conditioned response two are always paired together, so an association is formed Generalization: Once an association is formed, similar stimuli may cause the same response. Discrimination Extinction: The relation between the two stimuli eventually goes away. Spontaneous Recovery: The relationship between the two stimuli can reappear even after extinction has occurred. Higher Order Conditioning ● Once the conditioned stimuli and conditioned response are strong, the conditioned stimuli can be used to create new conditional responses. 5.3: Operant Conditioning The Law of Effect: A principle created by Edward Thorndike stating that behaviors are more likely to be repeated when followed by pleasurable outcomes. Additionally, events that are followed ● Thorndyke’s Puzzle Box ○ Early psychologist Edward Thorndike conducted his well-known cat experiments using “puzzle boxes” like the one shown above. At the start of the experiment, Thorndike’s cats pawed around haphazardly until they managed to unlatch the cage and then eat the fish treats outside the door. As the trials wore on, the felines learned to free themselves more quickly. After several trials, the amount of time needed to escape the box dropped significantly (see graph below). Thorndike attributed this phenomenon to the l aw of effect, which states that behaviors are more likely to reoccur if they are followed by pleasurable outcomes B.F. Skinner ● American psychologist that taught rats new skills through operant conditioning ● He was considered to be a radical behaviorist ● His experiments made him one of the most influential psychologists of all time. ● Shaping ● Successive Approximations: As a behavior gets closer to a desired behavior, a reward is presented. ● Reinforcement: Anything that increases the chances that the behavior will be repeated ○ Positive Reinforcer: Adding a reward ○ Negative Reinforcer: Taking away something negative Categories of Reinforcers ● Primary Reinforcers: Satisfies a biological need ○ Eg. Giving food or shelter ● Secondary Reinforcers: Indirectly satisfies a biological need ○ Eg. providing money. Reinforcement Schedules ● Continuous Reinforcement: A reward is given every time a target behavior reinforced ● Partial Reinforcement: A behavior is only rewarded intermittently, not continuously ○ Makes a behavior more likely to continue Types of Partial Reinforcement ● Number of repetitions ○ Fixed-Ratio: A reinforcer is given after a fixed number of desired responses. ○ Variable-Ratio: A reinforcer is given after a certain number of desired responses, and the number of responses that give a reinforcer are changed each trial. ● Amount of time ○ Fixed-Interval: A reinforcer is given if the desired response occurs after a fixed period of lime ○ Variable-Interval: A reinforcer is given if the desired response occurs after a certain period of time, and the amount of time varies between trials. Punishment: Anything that makes a certain behavior less likely to occur. ● Positive Punishment: Add something negative ○ Giving a ticket for speeding ● Negative Punishment: Take away something good. ○ License is taken away for speeding. Classical Condition Operant Conditioning ● Involuntary ● Voluntary ● Learn to link different stimuli ● Learning to link a behavior with a ● Repeated pairing of stimuli consequence ● Repeated pairing of stimuli 5.4: Observational Learning and Conditioning Observational Learning: Learning that results from watching the behavior of others. Model: The individual whose behavior is being watched and learned from. Albert Bandura and the Bobo Doll Experiment Albert Bandura created a set of criterion as to when the behavior is more likely to occur. ● Learner need to be paying attention ● Must be able to remember what the individual did. ● Must be physically or mentally capable of performing the action ● Learner needs to be motivated to learn the behavior. The most famous experiment conducted by Bandura was the Bobo doll experiment in 1961. The Bobo Doll Experiment ● Groups of preschool children watched an adult either attack using their hands or mallets, verbally harass, or play peacefully with a Bobo doll. ● When the children were given the Bobo doll, they were more likely imitated the behavior that they observed. Other Findings ● Boys had a higher tendency to be aggressive ● Females were more likely to imitate verbal aggression if they were exposed to an adult female exhibiting the same behavior. ● Overall, boys were more likely to imitate physical aggression and girls were more likely to imitate verbal aggression. Application to TV and Other Media ● Negatives ○ Children could develop nightmares or a fear of being harmed. ○ Repeated exposure to violence can result in children becoming desensitized to violence ● Positives ○ Children will also imitate positive behaviors such as sharing and respect if characters in the show exhibit similar behavior. ○ Helps the development of prosocial behaviors which are actions that are kind, generous, or beneficial to others. Latent Learning: Learning that occurs naturally without reinforcement. ● No reinforcement is needed ● May not be evident until the behavior is required. Cognitive Map: The mental representation of the layout of a physical space. Tolman and Honzik Experiment ● Three groups of rats were put through a maze. One group received no reinforcement upon completion, another received continuous reinforcement, and the final group was only given reinforcement after the 11th day of the experiment. Chapter 6 6.1: Introduction Memory: Information that the brain receives, stores, and may retrieve for later use. ● Representation of information that is no longer physically present. Steps of Memory Encoding: The process in which information enters our memory system. ● Stimuli are converted into neural activity in the brain Storage: Information is preserved for later use. ● Storage is what allows us to retain information over a long period of time, such as names or dates. ● This is done in the hippocampus Retrieval: ccessing information encoded and stored in your memory. ● Sometimes, information can be properly encoded and stored, but can’t be properly retrieved, such as when something is on “the tip of your tongue" Case Study A case study was done on Clive Wearing, a man whose brain was damaged and cannot sore any information. ● He does not remember his interactions with anyone, every second of his life is the first for him. ○ He can still play the piano and has a strong love for his wife. ● The temporal lobe of his brain is inflamed, which causes his memory problems. Information Processing Model of Memory Sensory Memory Sensory Memory: A stage of memory that captures near-exact copies of sensory stimuli for a very brief period of time. ● Lasts less that 1 second ● Period between perception and memory. Experiments of Sensory Memory An array of letters, as shown below was shown to participants for a very short period of time. J H R V I Z P V K D S A Whole Report: Report as many as could be seen ● Average of 4.5 out of 12 letters (27.5%) could be reported on Partial Report: Heard tone immediate after army disappeared which told the participants which row of letters they should ● Averaged 3 out of 4 letters (75%) could be reported on. Chunking: Grouping numbers, letters, or other items into meaningful groups to help improve the amount of information that can be held in your short-term memory. Short Term and Working Memory Short-Term Memory: A stage of memory that maintains and processes information. ● Lasts about 15 to 30 seconds ● Can contain 5-9 items Working Memory: The active maintenance and manipulation of information in short-term memory ● For example, solving a math problem in your head uses your working memory. Parts of Working Memory ● Central Executive: Determines what information is important in the current situation and directs mental processes,such as attention, to The central executive then directs your attention to one of three subsystems. ● Visuospatial Sketchpad: Manipulates and stores visual and spatial data. ● Phonological Loop: Evaluates and uses verbal information. Long Term Memory Long-term memory is divided into two main categories: explicit and implicit memory. Explicit Memory: Memories you are aware of and can consciously express into words, such as personal experiences and facts. ● Semantic Memory: Stores general facts about the world, such as dates or facts, that generally anyone could also remember. ● Episodic Memory: A record of memorable experiences, or “episodes”, that occur in your life. Implicit Memory: Memories you cannot consciously express or bring to awareness, such as how to drive a car or play an instrument. ● Procedural Memory: The unconscious memories that allow us to perform actions, can also be known as “muscle memory" ● There are other forms of implicit memory that don’t fall into procedural memory, such as forms of lassical conditioning. Improving on Long-Term Memory Recalling Details ● Mnemonics: Translating information into a more easily remembered form ○ Acronyms and first-letter technique ○ Chunking: Breaking a long string of information into smaller groups, or “chunks”, to make them easier to remember. ○ Method of Loci: Linking information to locations along a familiar route. ● Hierarchical Structures: Arranging information into a system of meaningful categories and subcategories. ● Elaborative Rehearsal: Connecting new information to previous knowledge held in your long-term memory. ● Distributed Practice: Spreading out study sessions over time while taking breaks in between each session. ● Masses Practice: Studying for long periods of time without taking breaks, also known as cramming. This is not a good method of remembering information for a long period of time. Recall and Forgetting ● Recall: The retrieval of information held in long-term memory without the help of explicit cues ○ A fill-in-the-blank exam tests recall ● Recognition: The process of matching incoming data to information stored in long-term memory ○ A multiple choice exam tests the ability of recognition Retrieval of Information ● Retrieval Cues: Stimuli that help in the retrieval of stored information that can be difficult for you to otherwise access. ○ An example of this is helping someone to remember your name by giving them the letter it starts with. ● Priming: The stimulation of memories as a result of retrieval cues found within the environment. ○ Remembering the information on a test when you enter the room in which the class is held. ● Serial Position Effect: The likelihood of having the ability to recall items in a list depends on where they are located in the list. ○ Primacy Effect: The tendency to remember items located at the beginning of a list ○ Recency Effect: The tendency to remember items at the end of a list. Encoding Specificity ● Encoding Specificity Principle: Memories are more easily recalled when the context and cues present at the time the information was encoded are similar to those present during the retrieval process ○ State Dependent Memory: Retrieval of a memory is easier when your current mental state is similar to the mental state you were in when the memory was learned. ■ If you learned something while tired, it’s easier to remember when you’re tired. ○ Context Dependent Memory: Memories are easier to access when the encoding and retrieval of that memory occur in similar contexts. Cognition: Mental activity involved in obtaining, converting, and using knowledge. ● Perception ● Attention ● Memory ● Representation of knowledge ● Language ● Problem-solving ● Reasoning and decision-making Thinking: Mental activity associated with coming to a decision, reaching a solution, or forming a belief. The Study of Cognition ● Early psychologists: Introspection ○ Introspection The examining of one’s own conscious activities ● Rise of Behaviorism: A shift from studying internal processes to the study of behavior ● Cognitive Revolution: Focus is now on cognition and thinking. ○ WWII and the research done on human performance ○ Computer science and AI ○ Linguistics The study of the structure of language. Knowledge Concepts: Mental representation of categories of objects, situations, and ideas the belong together based on their central features or characteristics. Categorization: Process by which things are placed into groups. ● Helps us to understand new individual cases ● Provides general information about an item. Hierarchies of Concepts Superordinate Level: Broadest category that includes all objects that belong to a concept ● All types of furniture. ● Three common features Midlevel: A general grouping of more closely related objects. ● Beds and couches are types of furniture. ● Nine common features Subordinate Level: Specific types or instances of midlevel objects ● A loveseat a specific type of couch. ● Ten or more common features Formation of Categories Formal Concepts: Created through rigid and logical rules or features ● Odd numbers Natural Concepts: Created from experiences in daily life ● Varies from person to person Prototype: Helps to categories or identify specific members of a concept. ● An average representation of all members of a category you’ve encountered. Exemplar: A specific example of an object in a category Typicality Effect: Prototypical objects are precessed faster and easier
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'