Tech & Civ Exam 2 Study Guide
Tech & Civ Exam 2 Study Guide History 1210-001
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by John Stephens on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 1210-001 at Auburn University taught by Dr. James R. Hanson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Technology and Civilization in History at Auburn University.
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T ech & Civ Exam 2 Study Guide: Ancient Mediterranean Societies: 1. What is our best explanation for the fall of civilizations in the Aegean region that was followed by a descent into a centuries-long "Dark Age"? The most likely explanation for the fall of Aegean civilizations is the competition for limited resources may have led to internal unrest and, ultimately, political collapse. The political collapse meant the end of the ruling class, and thus, things like writing were forgotten. There was destruction of major trade route 2. How did Neo-Assyrians maintain control over their empire? The Assyrians employed terror tactics against rebellious peoples, and instated provincial officials who oversaw taxes, the raising of troops, and the maintenance of law and order. 3. What Phoenician colony do we know most about and what made it distinct? The colony of Carthage is the most well-known. This is due to Greek and Roman reports of their wars with other Phoenician city-states. It was an ethnically diverse, impenetrable society. 4. How was the geography of the Aegean different from that of Mesopotamia and Egypt? Unlike Egypt, the Aegean terrain was much more arid and less hot. Farmers depended on rainfall for their crops as opposed to a river. And deposits of metal were much less than that of Egypt. Contained very mountainous terrain. 5. What was a "polis" and what political forms could it take? A polis was just another term for city-state. It consisted of an urban center and the rural territory it controlled, ranging from several thousand to several hundred thousand people. Also a democracy or Oligarchy. 6. How did changes in Greece during the Archaic period affect the way Greeks thought about the world? These changes put new emphasis on the uniqueness and rights of the people, and caused some thinkers to reject traditional religious concepts in favor of rational explanations. Herodotus was believed to be the first Historian. 7. What were some characteristics of Sparta that made it different from Athens? Unlike Athens, Sparta was a strictly militarized society. Citizens lived to work and train for the military, and commerce, unlike in Athens, was totally banned in Sparta to help ensure equality among its citizens. In addition, Sparta evolved politically as a military oligarchy rather than a democracy. 8. How was Athens’ democratic system connected to its rise as a navy power? In Athens, each male citizen had equal share, so every male member of society provided their own military weapons. And because these citizens were the source of Athens power, they could demand equal rights. Most rowers came from lower classes 9. What are some distinguishing characteristics of Classical Greek society? Classical Greek society was a period of great intellectual learning, thinking, and was the first time traditional values were to be questioned. Greek society was also characterized by the emergence of comedy and tragedy, as well as distribution of wealth by certain leaders. Gods had human-like attributes. 10. Oral societies and societies that rely on writing both have advantages and disadvantages. What are they? Written accounts of society help preserve values and beliefs over long periods of time. However, writing can be open to multiple interpretations and distortions. Oral societies were generally more progressive in intellect and though, such as Athens and the period of Aristotle and Socrates. But, orally transmitted societies must ensure that information and tradition is rigorously and accurately passed on in order to survive in the smallest of details. The Minoans lived in Crete, the Myceneans in Greece. Phoenicians spread out along the coast. Oral societies could create methods of remembrance. Short Answer Question: Question: What is the traditional view of Greek technology and what is it based on? The Traditional consensus on Greek technology is that it was profoundly uncreative. During the time of the ancient Greeks, slave labor became a disturbingly massive industry, spreading all the way to skilled laborers and artisans. The Greeks feared the exploitation of a world filled with demons and other divine beings that posed a threat. So, innovation was not at the forefront of their list of things to do. Actually, slavery was so abundant throughout ancient Greece that the need for labor-saving machines simply did not exist. Therefore, Greek technology remained in the bonds of a cultural bias that worked against the technological realm (Beckwith, 103). Hellenism and Ancient Rome: 1. Why is Alexandria in Egypt considered the greatest city of the "Hellenistic Age”? With a population of almost 500,000, it was one of the largest and most advanced cities of its time. It had a massive library which allowed for the advancement of science and mathematics, a first of its kind lighthouse to help guide ships, and two harbors that linked trade between the Mediterranean, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean. 2. In what ways did the Hellenistic Age different from Greece’s Classical Era? Unlike Classical Greece, the Hellenistic age was characterized by large kingdoms, great cities, powerful rulers, and a large wealth gap. 3. How did ancient astronomers explain and use what they saw in the sky? Ancient astronomers observed the ways certain groups of stars would move at different times of the year to help form a basic calendar. 4. What was the structure of society and government in the Roman Republic? The Roman Republic was less of a modern democracy and more of a plutocracy, with the majority of power residing within wealthy male citizens. Society was characterized by a strict family structure, patron/client relationships, and little public roles by women. 5. Why did the Roman Republic eventually fail? With the extended conquest of new lands came new wealth, but this wealth often fell into the hands of the upper-class. Tired farmers had their land taken away while at war which led to in- fighting and betrayal among leaders. Between 88 and 31 B.C.E., a string of rulers use of Roman troops led to bloody civil wars and that taking of Rome by force on several occasions. 6. Why was the Roman empire also called the “urban” empire and what did people’s lives look like? Because the empire was administered through a network of towns and cities, and the urban populace benefited most. In the cities, the wealthy lived in fashionable town homes, while the poor lived in crowded slums in the low-lying parts of the city. 7. What do we know about Roman glass? Romans favored clear glass which mimicked that of rock crystal. They also developed many different techniques for decorating glass objects and using them for different purposes, such as mosaics, dishware and flat window glass. 8. Why did Augustus reorganize the Roman army? The army was reorganized because the cost of protecting such a vast empire was often not less than the revenue of conquered lands. So the arm was re-stationed to strategic defensive locations, such as the Danube rivers and the stretches of the empire in Britain and North Africa. 9. What caused the collapse of the Roman empire? The frequent change of rulers, who were often killed or overthrown combined with attacks from the Germanic tribes threw the empire into frequent civil wars and periods of anarchy. These continued crises drained the treasury and devastated the roman economy. 10.Why is the rule of Constantine often viewed as the beginning of a new epoch? Because the Roman Empire under Constantine was fundamentally from the earlier empire. Short Answer Question: Question: In what areas of technology did the Greeks and Romans make more progress, and in what areas less? Unlike our current, mechanical-based society, classical civilization was often oriented around other forms of technology. The areas that the Greeks in Romans made progress in was the advance of coinage, alphabetization, stenography and geometry. These achievements were important to the non- physical, information-processing sphere. When technological advancements were made in the physical sphere, they were mostly in construction and architecture. The Greeks and Romans did not make as much progress in the advancement of mechanical technology as they did with the celebrated triumphs of literature, science, mathematics, medicine, and political organization. All such things are vital to the modern society which we enjoy today (Mokyr 20). Ancient India: 1. What is the relationship between varna and jati? Varna was the complex system of classes that was developed to regulate relations between different groups, such of which were birther groups called jati. 2. What elements of Indian culture have helped promote unity in the face of enormous diversity and political fragmentation? The religions, trade, location, and even the caste system promoted unity. Even the food was tied to caste and religion, as well as the Aspect of Karma helped create unity. 3. Why did Jainism and Buddhism constitute a serious threat to Vedic religion? Unlike the strict social structures that characterized vedic religion, Jainism and Buddhism were non-exclusionary and promised enlightenment and liberation. 4. What are the roots of Hinduism? The roots of Hinduism can be found in the Vedic religion of the Arya peoples of northern India. 5. What makes the Mauryan Empire stand out in Indian history? The Mauryan empire was India’s first centralized empire. 6. Why did Indian economy, culture, and intellectual life prosper despite political fragmentation after the collapse of the Mauryan empire? The existing infrastructure from the empire allowed for the continued expansion of national and international commerce and fostered the expansion of urban centers. 7. What period in Indian history is considered “classical, “ and why? The Gupta period, due to its emphasis on the arts, Mathematics, and science. 8. What were some distinguishing features of the Gupta Empire? It was a theatre-state, and the Gupta monarchs supported mathematicians, scientists, poets, and dramatists. However, women were seen as less important during the empire and lost a considerable amount of status. 9. Why was the mathematical notation system we use today developed in India? The system of mathematics developed had a range and versatility that corresponded with the elements of Indian cosmology. 10.Was Southeast Asia “Indianized”? Explain. Because of its location, southeast Asia was influenced by the cultures of not only ancient china, nut ancient India as well. Such evidence can be found in the Buddhist architecture of many temples and urban centers, and the theatre-style government Time calendars are essentially the same due to its broad worldwide acceptance. Hinduism is the dominant religion in present-day India. Short Answer Questions: Question: Besides coins, what other artifacts show us the Greek influence on India? The largest example of Greek influence in India was not necessarily an artifact, but an entire Greek city which contained many examples of Greek culture. The city of Ai Khanum is Bactria was unearthed and was a superb example of the vitality of Greek culture in India. Even though the city had some oriental features, it contained a gymnasium, Greek language inscriptions, a theatre, and evidence of a Greek-based education system (Sedlar 486). This city was also strategically located along a trade route at the confluence of a major river. This allowed for the city to grow in power and influence, and becomes a dominant center of authority in Bactria. Most information about Empires has been passed on orally. All the things we know about civilizations is what the scholars focused on from that time period, generally left out info about the common people. Rice cultivation allowed for the expanse of Empires, due to increase in population, workforce and stability. Question: Why did Greek culture remain so long after the Greeks had left and how did its impact change over time? Greek culture that started in ancient times has made its way around the world and has managed to stay prevalent in today’s society. The Greeks accomplished this by inhabiting many different places and sharing their way of life. Part of Alexander’s empire was ancient India, he set up satrapies along the territory to keep control of the area (Sedlar, 485). Trade would have also contributed to the spread of Greek culture. Greek culture remained even after they left because many other societies learned more about their world from it and built upon it. For example, Buddha statues dressed in togas were modeled after Greek gods (Sedlar, 488). Greek culture has impacted almost everyone today whether it be their architecture, astrology, or artwork. Question: What type of evidence allows us to determine whether a city’s culture was Greek? Hellenistic and Indian style was very different. It’s easy to tell if a city’s culture was Greek by the characteristics it had. Evidence of the symmetrical layout of the city Sirkap, points to Greek influence, rather than Indian culture where cities were laid out in an “irregular fashion” (Sedlar, 4). Greek coinage use and the style and shape of buildings also are indicators of Greek cultural influence. While some buildings, like those at Surkh Kotal, aren’t necessarily Greek influenced, their ornamentation is heavily Hellenistic styled. Small artwork found in Indian cultures among other things also point back to the Greeks. Ancient China: 1. Why did civilization develop in the north of China first? Because the floodplain of the Yellow river allowed ample access to water needed for irrigation and rice farming. 2. In what ways was the Shang dynasty similar to other civilizations we have studied so far? Much of the written history of the Shang dynasty concerns the King, warfare against enemies, and life of the wealthy ruling class. Not much is known about the other aspects of Shang society. 3. Why are the Book of Documents, the Book of Songs, and the Book of Changes important to understanding Ancient Chinese society? The Book of Documents and Book of Songs are a collection of important documents, decrees and poems that highlight the lives of Nobles, Rulers and peasants. The Book of Changes was important due to its highlight of ancient Chinese religious practices and their strong belief in the use of symbols. 4. What are the main characteristics of Confucianism and Daoism and what was their relationship to each other? Confucianism emphasized social engagement and Daoism urged withdrawal from the formalities, rigid hierarchy, and distractions of Chinese society. 5. Why is the Qin Empire important to the history of China? The Qin dynasty was the most innovative of all the states during the Warring states period. The Qin mobilized a state of farmers into a strong army to help protect the state. Unlike the dynasties before the, the Qin rejected philosophical thinking in favor of Legalism. Set a lot of standards. 6. What does the opening of a university on the outskirts of Chang’an during the Han dynasty signify? It signifies an acceptance of modernized confucianist ideals and a desire for higher education in ancient china. The Chinese govt. depended on the advice of scholar-officials based off their knowledge of Confucian texts. 7. What technologies are representative of the Han Era and later the Song Era? Fractions in mathematics, a seafaring compass, a precise calendar, and the Junk. Horse Breeding, Canals. 8. Why did Buddhism come under attack during the Tang Empire? The Tang elites viewed Buddhism as undermining the Confucian idea of the family as the model for the state. 9. How did a new development in printing technology affect Chinese society? The Song dynasty used the development of movable type to promote its ideological goals. In the country, the availability of printed books gave landlord access to expert advice on planting and irrigation techniques. 10.What philosophies did Korea, Japan, and Vietnam adopt from China? Kore, Japan, and Vietnam all had centralized power under ruling houses, and their state ideologies continues to resemble that of the Tang, when Buddhism and Confucianism seemed compatible. The ruling elite generally sought to instill Confucian ideals of hierarchy and harmony among the general population. Short Answer Question: Question: What is Lynda Norene Shaffer’s thesis and how does she argue it? Lynda Shaffer’s thesis states that “comparisons between China and Europe have been too facile. Once we begin to look closely at China’s history, we find that the oft-cited revolutionary inventions, printing, gunpowder, the compass, did have an impact: China was changed fundamentally by these inventions” (Shaffer 191). Shaffer and her colleagues unearthed evidence that showed China went through an Industrial-like Revolution during the middle ages. Printing introduced a Renaissance of Confucian learning and an aristocracy of learning, making China the closest example of a democratic system for centuries to come. In addition, China had the world’s largest merchant and marine navy, making China the most advanced society in the world for a very long time. Maps: Study major cities, regions, and rivers. Scroll down further for labeled maps of Ancient Rome, India and China. Locations of Importance: Rome. Carthage. Macedonia. Sparta. Athens. Byzantium (Constantinople). Cyprus. Phoenicia (locates in between present day Judea and Syria). Tyre (Phoenician city located on an Island just off the coast). Locations of Importance: New Delhi. Bombay. Calcutta. Himalayas. Ganges and Indus Rivers. Patilaputra (Gupta and Mauryan capital located south of Kathmandu, on Ganges river). Locations of Importance: Yellow River (Huang He on most maps). Yangtze (Chang Jiang on this map). Mongolia. Tibet (oval shaped territory bordering Nepal and India, city of Lhasa is in Tibet). Beijing. Xi’an (major ancient Chinese capital and location of terra-cotta soldiers). Manchuria (entore portion of China north of Beijing where the city of Harbin is located. Korean peninsula. Taiwan.
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