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what is Gerrymandering?

what is Gerrymandering?

Description

School: California State University Long Beach
Department: Political Science
Course: Intro to American Government
Professor: L. ringel
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Posc, posc100, posc 100, Government, American Government, and csulb
Cost: 50
Name: STUDY GUIDE FOR MIDTERM #2
Description: REVISED STUDY GUIDE!! If you are having trouble viewing it please use Google Chrome(:
Uploaded: 10/10/2016
12 Pages 13 Views 14 Unlocks
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Political Science 100 Fall 2016 MIDTERM #2 REVIEW SHEET


what is Gerrymandering?



Differences between CA Constitution and US Constitution

CA constitution is MUCH longer than that of the US. The President is a unitary executive and  people are appointed and fired from the executive branches at his/her discretion. In CA we elect  a governor but they can’t appoint many key positions in their branch. The people of the state vote and elect most of the executive branch in CA. These people can easily be of another party  affiliation.

Line item veto

Governor can strike out parts of a bill without vetoing the entire thing, unlike the President.  Example: the governor says he wants to spend $8 billion on education instead of the proposed  $10 billion. The President would have to have an entire new bill written.  If you want to learn more check out kayla villarreal

Other notes: Governor is more powerful in terms of legislature. Governor is director of finance,  preps and presents the budget. Appoints certain people within the exec branch. Presisdent is  commander in chief of country and governor is commander and chief of national guard.


what is Bill of attainder?



We also discuss several other topics like servius tulius

Plural executive

The President and Vice President are the only executives of the US. CA however has a governor, lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, state controller, state treasurer, insurance commissioner, and superintendent of public education. Obviously way more than America as a  whole and this is because a plural executive has a more disbursed and weakened power than a  sole chief executive which discourages corruption but makes it hard to have common goals.

Gerrymandering

Each 10 years country/state does a census. Legislature used to draw up the districts according  to population. This can be cheated as districts can be drawn in such a way that more  republicans or democrats reside there. How you draw the map changes who wins the district.  This is called gerrymandering. Drawing districts in such a way that your party wins. Pre­2010 99% of people in office already would win because of gerrymandering. No single seat  changed parties between 2004­2010. 


what is Right to privacy?



Proposition 11 (2008)

Post 2010­ Prop 11 Proposed the citizens redistricting commission who were given the power to draw the districts. Non­partisan commission of normal citizens trusted to redistrict. * Shows how much CA has tinkered with legislature by direct democracy via voting on props.

Referendum in California (mandatory and optional)

“The State Legislature may pass an act that proposes a state constitutional amendment. After it  is signed by the governor, it's submitted to the voters as a referendum at the next statewide  election. If more than 50% of the voters approve the referendum, the constitutional amendment  is approved and goes into effect. Other legislative bills that may require mandatory referenda We also discuss several other topics like bank on it anth

include bond measures and amendments to previously approved voter initiatives.” Optional referendum: people can get signatures to overturn a law

Recall elections

Firing an elected official mid­term

Example 2003:

Man who invented car alarms got 800000 signatures and tried to recall Gray Davis (governor at  the time) An election was held to decide if he should be fired and who would replace him. In a  reelection all you need is 65 signatures from your party to run as governor and $3500 fee. 55% voted to fire Gray Davis. This is how Arnold Schwarzeneggar became governor.

Proposition 98 (1988)

Proposition 13 (1978)

Prop 13 started the tax revolt.

Showed voters were tired of paying high taxes.

Constitutional amendment.

CA used to be a cheap place to live in the 50s and 60s

Prior to 1978 every couple years CA would asses property value of homes and then you'd have  to pay taxes based on the value. 

People kept moving to CA and the 20000 house goes up to 300000. Then property taxes  People were losing their homes because the taxes got so high which led to prop 13 to deal with  property taxes.

Property taxes are now 1% of assessed value in 1975 or last sale of the house. *Made it almost impossible to pass tax increases in legislature

Proposition 30 (2012)

Asked voters to increase personal income taxes to give more money to close deficits Created new income brackets and increase taxes within those brackets. If you want to learn more check out ________ refers to the subdivision of work into separate jobs assigned to different people.

Increased the sales tax from 7.25% to 7.5% and increased the taxes on the wealthy from 9% to  11% which generated roughly $8­$12 billion in revenue for the state per year.  Prop 30 is set to expire, this is how they sold it. We’re going to have $10 bil left to spend per  year. Prop 55 essentially extends prop 30.

Proposition 55 (2016)

Extends prop 30 by 12 years personal income tax increase for people who earn more than  250000 a year. Revenues go to K­12 years, community colleges and healthcare in certain  years. 

Does not extend the sales tax increase portion of prop 30.

Fiscal Impact: Increased state revenues—$4 bill to $9 bill annually from 2019­2030 depending  on economy and stock market

Major areas of expenditure in the California budget

Budget: 53% on education, 29% on health/human services, 10% on corrections, 4% on interest  for debt

Structural causes of California budget deficits

Inflexible spending­ programs can’t be cut. K­14 cant be cut. Cant cut health and human  services because fed govt would cut our spending. Over 80% of the budget cant be reduced. Uncertain revenue­ Highly unpredictable because 95% of revenue depends on the economy  doing well. Sales, income, and corporate taxes make up 95% of revenue. If any one goes down, most likely they will all go down. If you want to learn more check out bio 340 asu exam 1
We also discuss several other topics like What are Employment Practices?

Ballot box budgeting

When citizens try to shape budgets through initiatives and voting. The legislature generally  given the power to do this. In CA we are frequently engaging in ballot box budgeting.

Example: prop 55 seeks to increase tax revenue by keeping in place (prop 30) taxes on the  wealthy. Because the legislature cant solve the problems, voters have to solve them. 

Budget question on the midterm. The state of California frequently finds itself facing major  budget deficits. Discuss the structural causes of these deficits and why legislative solutions  have been difficult. In addition discuss the role that ballot box budgeting plays in the state’s  fiscal woes.

Civil liberties

Freedoms guaranteed to the individual. Negative rights limit what the government can do

Habeas corpus

Innocent before proven guilty

Article I, Section 9, paragraph 3 ­No ex post facto or bill of attainder laws shall be passed Ex post facto laws

A law that makes illegal an act that was legal when committed, increases the penalties for an  infraction after it has been committed, or changes the rules of evidence to make conviction  easier.

Bill of attainder

A legislative act that singles out an individual or group for punishment without a trial.

Selective incorporation

“is the process by which American courts have applied portions of the U.S. Bill of Rights to the  states. Prior to 1925, the Bill of Rights was held only to apply to the federal government. Under 

the incorporation doctrine, most provisions of the Bill of Rights now also apply to the state and  local governments.”

Fourteenth Amendment

“nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”

Due process clause

Prohibits a state from depriving "any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of  law."

Basically the 14th and 5th amendments which state that all citizens will have equal treatment  under the law. 

Strict scrutiny

“Strict scrutiny is a form of judicial review that courts use to determine the constitutionality of  certain laws. To pass strict scrutiny, the legislature must have passed the law to further a  "compelling governmental interest," and must have narrowly tailored the law to achieve that  interest.”

Gitlow v. New York

Gitlow published a highly controversial “Left Wing Manifesto” and was arrested under the NY  Criminal Anarchy law of 1902. His conviction was upheld but the case led to the incorporation  of free speech in states.

Schenck v. US (Clear and present danger test)

Scheneck was a Philadelphia Socialist Party member who wanted to hand out propaganda  encouraging draft dodging. Supreme court ruled that it was not protected under the First  Amendment because he presented a clear and present danger to national security.  Example of clear and present danger test: cant yell FIRE in a crowded airport.

Brandenburg v. Ohio (Imminent and likelihood test)

Brandenburg was a KKK leader who invited the press to a rally. He was then arrested for  violating Ohios criminal syndicalism. Supreme court ruled that the law in Ohio violated the 1st amendment for being too broad. This created the imminent and likelihood test.

Texas v. Johnson

Johnson burnt the flag in protest of Reagan’s policies and was arrested under Texas’ anti desecration law. Supreme court ruled that the “Government may not prohibit the expression of  an idea simply because society finds the idea itself offensive or disagreeable.”

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission

A conservative non­profit wanted to show Hillary: The Movie. FEC said it violated the campaign law BCRA then Supreme Court ruled that BCRA is unconstitutional.

Right to privacy

Freedom of speech civil liberty applies only to the government, personal situations are not  required to respect freedom of speech laws.

MIDTERM REVIEW CONTINUED! I HAD WRONG INFORMATION, THIS WILL BE ON THE TEST!

Roe v. Wade 1973

TX prohibited abortion unless the mother’s life was at risk. Roe wanted to  have an abortion and went to court.

Ruling: Fetal viability is about whether or not a fetus can survive outside of  the womb. During the first 3 months of pregnancy the government cant  prevent someone from getting an abortion. During the 2nd trimester state  governments can regulate and limit but can’t stop it.

Casey v. Planned Parenthood

States didn’t like abortion at this time. The Pennsylvania Abortion Control Act of 1982 required women to get consent from their husbands, go through  scary informational appointments with their doctor, you had to wait 24 hours  before the procedure and minors had to get written permission from their  parents.

Ruling: Undue burden "the purpose or effect of placing a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus." Was ruled  unconstitutional but states can still limit and regulate.

Griswold v. Connecticut

Birth control was banned and you needed a prescription to get condoms in  the 1960’s. This showed how Connecticut used its police power to pass a law  that said providing "any drug, medicinal article or instrument for the purpose of preventing conception" to a married couple is prohibited. Griswold (head  of planned parenthood) challenged this by purposefully getting arrested and  fighting the case.  

Ruling: because of the 1st, 4th, and 9th amendments this law was  unconstitutional but this ruling gave the power to get birth control and  condoms only to married people. It wasn’t until later with the case of  Eisensadt v. Baird that single people were covered under the law.

Lawrence v. Texas 2003

Texas had a sodomy law that Lawrence saw as an overreach of power. The  supreme court struck down the sodomy law in Texas and with it invalidated  the sodomy laws in many other states which made same-sex sexual acts  legal in every part of the US

Bowers v. Hardwick 1986

United States Supreme Court decision that upheld a Georgia sodomy law  criminalizing oral and anal sex in private between consenting adults, in this  case with respect to homosexual sodomy, though the law did not  differentiate between homosexual sodomy and heterosexual sodomy. This  was overturned by the 2003 decision mentioned earlier.

Prior restraint

“judicial suppression of material that would be published or broadcast, on the grounds that it is libelous or harmful. In US law, the First Amendment  severely limits the ability of the government to do this.”

Free exercise clause

“Congress shall make no law prohibiting the free exercise of religion.” This is  a clause in the first amendment that limits congress’ right to prohibit certain  religious practices.

Establishment clause

“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or  prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or  of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to  petition the government for a redress of grievances.”

Basically states that congress cant interfere with one’s religion as well as  cant support any religion.

Lemon test

Lemon v. Kurtzman was the case from which the lemon test was formulated.  The purpose of this test is to determine whether or not a law has the effect  of establishing religion. Essentially does a law support a religious agenda?

Miranda rule

The result of the 1966 Miranda v. Arizona supreme court ruling is the  necessity to be read Miranda rights before being arrested in which police  officers inform the suspect of their 5th and 6th amendment rights PRIOR to  interrogation.

Gideon v. Wainwright

Gideon was charged with breaking and entering which is a felony in FL. He  showed up to court without an attourney and asked the judge to appoint him  one. He was denied. Gideon, a man of an 8th grade education, represented  himself in court. “he made an opening statement to the jury, cross-examined the prosecution’s witnesses, presented witnesses in his own defense,  declined to testify himself, and made arguments emphasizing his innocence.  Despite his efforts, the jury found Gideon guilty and he was sentenced to five years imprisonment.”

Ruling: Confirmed the rights of the defendant to request counsel for trial and  appeal. This is where we get our system of court appointed attorneys.

Political Science 100 Fall 2016 MIDTERM #2 REVIEW SHEET

Differences between CA Constitution and US Constitution

CA constitution is MUCH longer than that of the US. The President is a unitary executive and  people are appointed and fired from the executive branches at his/her discretion. In CA we elect  a governor but they can’t appoint many key positions in their branch. The people of the state vote and elect most of the executive branch in CA. These people can easily be of another party  affiliation.

Line item veto

Governor can strike out parts of a bill without vetoing the entire thing, unlike the President.  Example: the governor says he wants to spend $8 billion on education instead of the proposed  $10 billion. The President would have to have an entire new bill written. 

Other notes: Governor is more powerful in terms of legislature. Governor is director of finance,  preps and presents the budget. Appoints certain people within the exec branch. Presisdent is  commander in chief of country and governor is commander and chief of national guard.

Plural executive

The President and Vice President are the only executives of the US. CA however has a governor, lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, state controller, state treasurer, insurance commissioner, and superintendent of public education. Obviously way more than America as a  whole and this is because a plural executive has a more disbursed and weakened power than a  sole chief executive which discourages corruption but makes it hard to have common goals.

Gerrymandering

Each 10 years country/state does a census. Legislature used to draw up the districts according  to population. This can be cheated as districts can be drawn in such a way that more  republicans or democrats reside there. How you draw the map changes who wins the district.  This is called gerrymandering. Drawing districts in such a way that your party wins. Pre­2010 99% of people in office already would win because of gerrymandering. No single seat  changed parties between 2004­2010. 

Proposition 11 (2008)

Post 2010­ Prop 11 Proposed the citizens redistricting commission who were given the power to draw the districts. Non­partisan commission of normal citizens trusted to redistrict. * Shows how much CA has tinkered with legislature by direct democracy via voting on props.

Referendum in California (mandatory and optional)

“The State Legislature may pass an act that proposes a state constitutional amendment. After it  is signed by the governor, it's submitted to the voters as a referendum at the next statewide  election. If more than 50% of the voters approve the referendum, the constitutional amendment  is approved and goes into effect. Other legislative bills that may require mandatory referenda 

include bond measures and amendments to previously approved voter initiatives.” Optional referendum: people can get signatures to overturn a law

Recall elections

Firing an elected official mid­term

Example 2003:

Man who invented car alarms got 800000 signatures and tried to recall Gray Davis (governor at  the time) An election was held to decide if he should be fired and who would replace him. In a  reelection all you need is 65 signatures from your party to run as governor and $3500 fee. 55% voted to fire Gray Davis. This is how Arnold Schwarzeneggar became governor.

Proposition 98 (1988)

Proposition 13 (1978)

Prop 13 started the tax revolt.

Showed voters were tired of paying high taxes.

Constitutional amendment.

CA used to be a cheap place to live in the 50s and 60s

Prior to 1978 every couple years CA would asses property value of homes and then you'd have  to pay taxes based on the value. 

People kept moving to CA and the 20000 house goes up to 300000. Then property taxes  People were losing their homes because the taxes got so high which led to prop 13 to deal with  property taxes.

Property taxes are now 1% of assessed value in 1975 or last sale of the house. *Made it almost impossible to pass tax increases in legislature

Proposition 30 (2012)

Asked voters to increase personal income taxes to give more money to close deficits Created new income brackets and increase taxes within those brackets.

Increased the sales tax from 7.25% to 7.5% and increased the taxes on the wealthy from 9% to  11% which generated roughly $8­$12 billion in revenue for the state per year.  Prop 30 is set to expire, this is how they sold it. We’re going to have $10 bil left to spend per  year. Prop 55 essentially extends prop 30.

Proposition 55 (2016)

Extends prop 30 by 12 years personal income tax increase for people who earn more than  250000 a year. Revenues go to K­12 years, community colleges and healthcare in certain  years. 

Does not extend the sales tax increase portion of prop 30.

Fiscal Impact: Increased state revenues—$4 bill to $9 bill annually from 2019­2030 depending  on economy and stock market

Major areas of expenditure in the California budget

Budget: 53% on education, 29% on health/human services, 10% on corrections, 4% on interest  for debt

Structural causes of California budget deficits

Inflexible spending­ programs can’t be cut. K­14 cant be cut. Cant cut health and human  services because fed govt would cut our spending. Over 80% of the budget cant be reduced. Uncertain revenue­ Highly unpredictable because 95% of revenue depends on the economy  doing well. Sales, income, and corporate taxes make up 95% of revenue. If any one goes down, most likely they will all go down.

Ballot box budgeting

When citizens try to shape budgets through initiatives and voting. The legislature generally  given the power to do this. In CA we are frequently engaging in ballot box budgeting.

Example: prop 55 seeks to increase tax revenue by keeping in place (prop 30) taxes on the  wealthy. Because the legislature cant solve the problems, voters have to solve them. 

Budget question on the midterm. The state of California frequently finds itself facing major  budget deficits. Discuss the structural causes of these deficits and why legislative solutions  have been difficult. In addition discuss the role that ballot box budgeting plays in the state’s  fiscal woes.

Civil liberties

Freedoms guaranteed to the individual. Negative rights limit what the government can do

Habeas corpus

Innocent before proven guilty

Article I, Section 9, paragraph 3 ­No ex post facto or bill of attainder laws shall be passed Ex post facto laws

A law that makes illegal an act that was legal when committed, increases the penalties for an  infraction after it has been committed, or changes the rules of evidence to make conviction  easier.

Bill of attainder

A legislative act that singles out an individual or group for punishment without a trial.

Selective incorporation

“is the process by which American courts have applied portions of the U.S. Bill of Rights to the  states. Prior to 1925, the Bill of Rights was held only to apply to the federal government. Under 

the incorporation doctrine, most provisions of the Bill of Rights now also apply to the state and  local governments.”

Fourteenth Amendment

“nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”

Due process clause

Prohibits a state from depriving "any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of  law."

Basically the 14th and 5th amendments which state that all citizens will have equal treatment  under the law. 

Strict scrutiny

“Strict scrutiny is a form of judicial review that courts use to determine the constitutionality of  certain laws. To pass strict scrutiny, the legislature must have passed the law to further a  "compelling governmental interest," and must have narrowly tailored the law to achieve that  interest.”

Gitlow v. New York

Gitlow published a highly controversial “Left Wing Manifesto” and was arrested under the NY  Criminal Anarchy law of 1902. His conviction was upheld but the case led to the incorporation  of free speech in states.

Schenck v. US (Clear and present danger test)

Scheneck was a Philadelphia Socialist Party member who wanted to hand out propaganda  encouraging draft dodging. Supreme court ruled that it was not protected under the First  Amendment because he presented a clear and present danger to national security.  Example of clear and present danger test: cant yell FIRE in a crowded airport.

Brandenburg v. Ohio (Imminent and likelihood test)

Brandenburg was a KKK leader who invited the press to a rally. He was then arrested for  violating Ohios criminal syndicalism. Supreme court ruled that the law in Ohio violated the 1st amendment for being too broad. This created the imminent and likelihood test.

Texas v. Johnson

Johnson burnt the flag in protest of Reagan’s policies and was arrested under Texas’ anti desecration law. Supreme court ruled that the “Government may not prohibit the expression of  an idea simply because society finds the idea itself offensive or disagreeable.”

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission

A conservative non­profit wanted to show Hillary: The Movie. FEC said it violated the campaign law BCRA then Supreme Court ruled that BCRA is unconstitutional.

Right to privacy

Freedom of speech civil liberty applies only to the government, personal situations are not  required to respect freedom of speech laws.

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