Study Guide for Exam 2
Study Guide for Exam 2 PSY 266
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Anderson on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 266 at Indiana State University taught by Dr. Caitlin C. Brez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Development Psy in Psychology at Indiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Developmental Psychology Exam 2 study guide Early childhood Piaget’s theory of cognitive development Jean Piaget: constructivist (knowledge is built up from experience) o Published a paper at age 11 Borrowed from biology Principles of: o Organization (in nature things are organized) o Adaptation ( as things change, you adapt) Schemas: organized ways of putting things together How children learn: o Assimilation process in which new information is pulled into your existing schema Ex: you have an understanding of what a dog is comes across a hairless dog so you update schema to say dogs don’t need hair. Pb fish instead of jellyfish. o Accommodation: change your schema Ex: dog (4 legs, fur and tail) but deer, cat, and cow have those so they have to change their schema say dogs bark, cows have spots, cats meow. Walley with spork o Piaget’s stages of cognitive development: (see table on blackboard) o Sensorimotor stage: all about moving Key milestones: Object permanence an object is permanent, it doesn’t disappear if you cover it up it is still there around 8 months they have this AnotB error: take an object, hide in spot A over and over and they reach in A, put it in B and they still search in A around 12 months they reach for B. o Preoperational period: Between 2 and 7 years Chatacteristics/limitaions: Egocentrism: idea that kids see their world from their perspective but they think everyone has same perspective. Don’t understand that others have a different view. 3 mountain task, kid with juice box full of ribbons( smarties task) False belief task: muffin video and sticker video Centration: concentrate on one dimension(length) and ignore transformation (spacing out more). dots task o Concrete operational: Between 7 and 12 years Characteristics Infers reality beyond own perspective Considers several dimensions Focuses on states and transformations o Formal operational: 11 years and up Adult like logic Deductive reasoning (20 quesitons) o Marshmallow test: selfcontrol, emotional intelligence o Those who waited: better attention and emotional skills, better verbal fluency, planning, lower BMI, deal with frustration, higher SAT, higher selfesteem, higher selfregulation, males less likely to use crack cocaine o Gender o Sex vs Gender Sex biological (XX or XY), genitalia Gender social construct: how you identify with yourself o Socialization and gender Baby Storm parents didn’t tell anyone or shild what gender the baby was so storm could choose for him or herself o Gender identity Lawrence Kohlberg’s 3 stage sequence Basic gender identity: 3 years Gender stability: 4 yrs gender/sex stays stable Gender consistency: 7 years your genitalia and sex stay same despite changing outward appearances Sandra Bem Genitalia knowledge: 35 yo. took pics of genitalia and showed other kids o Gender differences o Play preferences: 2 or 3 years o Gender role stereotypes: Gender role inventory: “whose more likely to be caring or strong?” males are stricter with this o Sandra Bem (again) Androgyny a lot of male typical traits and behaviors and a lot of female College students: 33% follow stereotype 30% androgynous 37% lacked stereotyped traits or sexreversed Children: 2530% androgynous o Parenting o Nature of the relationship o Parents vs peers: who has more influence in development? Peers around peers all day every day in school Parents there from beginning and parents have influence on who peers are o Parenting styles: Diana Baumrind 4 groups Authoritative caring but high expectations Permissive spoil children Neglectful rare, not involved Authoritarian strict, high demands Chart on blackboard of styles and characteristics o Child behavior: Neglectful parents: kids don’t end up good, delinquency Permissive: very dependent on others, impulsive, poor peer relationships Authoritarian: lack goals, initiation, poor communication skills Authoritative: selfreliant, good selfcontrol, good relationships with peers, independent best outcome o Discipline Moral behavior Disciplinary techniques Love withdrawal will not give attention or affection to child Power assertion asserting power, showing your in charge Induction reasoning approach ( what you did wrong and why it was wrong) –leads to more moral behavior o Corporal punishment Hitting, spanking, whipping, paddling, slapping, biting o Negative outcomes (correlated, no causation) Aggression Delinquency Criminality Antisocial behavior Mental health problems Poor parentchild relationships Increased risk for physical abuse o Ways to not discipline Create a supportive environment Positive forms of discipline Time out Removing privileges Focus on praise and reward Ignore bad behavior (nonsafety situations) Monday (10/3/16) we watched a movie dealing with bullying the movie is on course reserves in the library Middle childhood: Peers: o Judith Rich Harris Group socialization theory of development it's all about peers, parents have very little influence on development. o Peer relationships: ~30% of childs interaction is with peer group When does friendship start? ~18m(more preferences)2yrs (because of language) o Best friends Sources of support and validation Quality not quantity o Popularity: 5 categories Popular liked by a lot, disliked by few Rejected disliked by a lot, liked by few Aggressive rejected: not nice Nonaggressive rejected: poor social skills, “weird” Neglected don’t really show up on anyone's list Controversial liked by a lot but disliked by a lot (mean girls) Average 1/3 of kids fall in the middle Benefits of popularity: Social skills Less depression Ego development good sense of self Secure attachment Positive relations with mother and best friend Risks of popularity: Sexual activity Minor delinquency Substance abuse (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana) Rejected vs Neglected? neglected because with rejected people are more harsh to you Factors that influence where kids fall on popularity scale: Attractiveness Body type (athlete) Cognitive development (intellect) Emotional skills General behavior Parenting style Birth order not first born AE Activity #2 o The presence of the father is very important to the development of the child, even while in the womb. o During pregnancy: absence of fathers has shown to result in more premature babies. And these babies are four times as likely to die within the first year. Along with this, mothers health issues heighten when the father is absent. o During birth: the mothers experience less pain and requests for medication lessen when the father is present. When fathers are there, they report more attachment to infant and they are more involved in care. o Toddlerhood: when father has remote relationship with toddler, the child has higher rates of aggressive behavior later on. Fathers that were involved had children with less behavioral problems and lower likelihood of delinquency as adolescents. o Early childhood: if fathers are present, the child tends to have a wider, more advanced vocabulary o Teen years: girls with absent fathers reach sexual maturation earlier, and have higher rates of teen pregnancy. AE Activity #3 o This article is all about early puberty. o Children are said to be starting puberty earlier and earlier o One reason for this could be xenoestrogens from the environment these are sources of estrogen that are found in the environment such as: processed foods, pesticides, toothpaste, certain drinks o PBB cattle were accidentally fed grain with the flame retardant PBB. Daughters born to the pregnant women who drank the milk from these cows or ate their meat showed early menstruation. o BPA found in dental sealants and cash registers. An estrogen mimic o “Stressful childhood inclines a body toward early reproduction; if like is hard, best to mature young.” o Lustig believes that these girls are not in puberty because puberty begins with the brain producing gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH). The estrogen is initially causing this and not GnRH, so it is not puberty. o Those who are early bloomers face many challenges: Hormonal and mood changes Feeling out of place and not fitting in with other class mates Being treated like they are much older than they are Bullying Depression
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