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Study Guide for Exam 2

by: Bailey Anderson

Study Guide for Exam 2 PSY 266

Marketplace > Indiana State University > Psychology > PSY 266 > Study Guide for Exam 2
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About this Document

This covers everything starting after Exam 1 up until Wed (10/5).
Development Psy
Dr. Caitlin C. Brez
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Anderson on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 266 at Indiana State University taught by Dr. Caitlin C. Brez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Development Psy in Psychology at Indiana State University.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
Developmental Psychology Exam 2 study guide Early childhood Piaget’s theory of cognitive development  Jean Piaget: constructivist (knowledge is built up from experience) o Published a paper at age 11  Borrowed from biology  Principles of:  o Organization (in nature things are organized) o Adaptation ( as things change, you adapt)  Schemas: organized ways of putting things together  How children learn: o Assimilation­ process in which new information is pulled into your existing  schema  Ex: you have an understanding of what a dog is­ comes across a  hairless dog­ so you update schema to say dogs don’t need hair. Pb fish instead of jellyfish.  o Accommodation: change your schema  Ex: dog (4 legs, fur and tail) but deer, cat, and cow have those so  they have to change their schema­ say dogs bark, cows have spots,  cats meow. Walley with spork o Piaget’s stages of cognitive development: (see table on blackboard) o Sensorimotor stage: all about moving  Key milestones:  Object permanence­ an object is permanent, it doesn’t  disappear­ if you cover it up it is still there­ around 8  months they have this  A­not­B error: take an object, hide in spot A over and over  and they reach in A, put it in B and they still search in A­  around 12 months they reach for B. o Preoperational period:  Between 2 and 7 years  Chatacteristics/limitaions:  Egocentrism: idea that kids see their world from their  perspective but they think everyone has same perspective.  Don’t understand that others have a different view.­ 3  mountain task, kid with juice box full of ribbons( smarties  task)  False belief task: muffin video and sticker video  Centration: concentrate on one dimension(length) and  ignore transformation (spacing out more).­ dots task o Concrete operational:   Between 7 and 12 years  Characteristics  Infers reality beyond own perspective  Considers several dimensions  Focuses on states and transformations o Formal operational:  11 years and up  Adult like logic  Deductive reasoning (20 quesitons) o Marshmallow test: self­control, emotional intelligence o Those who waited: better attention and emotional skills, better verbal fluency,  planning, lower BMI, deal with frustration, higher SAT, higher self­esteem,  higher self­regulation, males­ less likely to use crack cocaine o Gender o Sex vs Gender  Sex­ biological (XX or XY), genitalia   Gender­ social construct: how you identify with yourself o Socialization and gender  Baby Storm­ parents didn’t tell anyone or shild what gender the baby was  so storm could choose for him or herself o Gender identity  Lawrence Kohlberg’s 3 stage sequence  Basic gender identity: 3 years  Gender stability: 4 yrs­ gender/sex stays stable  Gender consistency: 7 years­ your genitalia and sex stay same  despite changing outward appearances  Sandra Bem  Genitalia knowledge: 3­5 yo. took pics of genitalia and showed  other kids o Gender differences o Play preferences: 2 or 3 years o Gender role stereotypes:  Gender role inventory: “whose more likely to be caring or strong?”­ males are stricter with this o Sandra Bem (again)  Androgyny­ a lot of male typical traits and behaviors and a lot of female  College students:  33% follow stereotype  30% androgynous  37% lacked stereotyped traits or sex­reversed  Children: 25­30% androgynous o Parenting o Nature of the relationship o Parents vs peers: who has more influence in development?  Peers­ around peers all day every day in school  Parents­ there from beginning and parents have influence on who peers are o Parenting styles:  Diana Baumrind­ 4 groups  Authoritative­ caring but high expectations  Permissive­ spoil children  Neglectful­ rare, not involved  Authoritarian­ strict, high demands  Chart on blackboard of styles and characteristics o Child behavior:  Neglectful parents: kids don’t end up good, delinquency  Permissive: very dependent on others, impulsive, poor peer relationships  Authoritarian: lack goals, initiation, poor communication skills  Authoritative: self­reliant, good self­control, good relationships with  peers, independent­ best outcome o Discipline  Moral behavior  Disciplinary techniques  Love withdrawal­ will not give attention or affection to child  Power assertion­ asserting power, showing your in charge  Induction­ reasoning approach ( what you did wrong and why it  was wrong) –leads to more moral behavior o Corporal punishment  Hitting, spanking, whipping, paddling, slapping, biting o Negative outcomes (correlated, no causation)  Aggression  Delinquency  Criminality  Antisocial behavior  Mental health problems  Poor parent­child relationships  Increased risk for physical abuse o Ways to not discipline  Create a supportive environment  Positive forms of discipline  Time out  Removing privileges  Focus on praise and reward  Ignore bad behavior (non­safety situations)  Monday (10/3/16) we watched a movie dealing with bullying­ the movie is on course  reserves in the library  Middle childhood:  Peers: o Judith Rich Harris  Group socialization theory of development­ it's all about peers, parents  have very little influence on development.  o Peer relationships:  ~30% of childs interaction is with peer group  When does friendship start?­ ~18m(more preferences)­2yrs (because of  language) o Best friends  Sources of support and validation  Quality not quantity o Popularity:   5 categories  Popular­ liked by a lot, disliked by few  Rejected­ disliked by a lot, liked by few ­ Aggressive rejected: not nice ­ Nonaggressive rejected: poor social skills, “weird”  Neglected­ don’t really show up on anyone's list  Controversial­ liked by a lot but disliked by a lot (mean girls)  Average­ 1/3 of kids­ fall in the middle  Benefits of popularity:  Social skills  Less depression  Ego development­ good sense of self  Secure attachment  Positive relations with mother and best friend  Risks of popularity:  Sexual activity  Minor delinquency  Substance abuse (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana)   Rejected vs Neglected?­ neglected because with rejected people are more  harsh to you  Factors that influence where kids fall on popularity scale:  Attractiveness  Body type (athlete)  Cognitive development (intellect)  Emotional skills  General behavior  Parenting style  Birth order­ not first born  AE Activity #2 o The presence of the father is very important to the development of the child, even  while in the womb.  o During pregnancy: absence of fathers has shown to result in more premature  babies. And these babies are four times as likely to die within the first year. Along with this, mothers health issues heighten when the father is absent.  o During birth: the mothers experience less pain and requests for medication lessen  when the father is present. When fathers are there, they report more attachment to  infant and they are more involved in care.  o Toddlerhood: when father has remote relationship with toddler, the child has  higher rates of aggressive behavior later on. Fathers that were involved had  children with less behavioral problems and lower likelihood of delinquency as  adolescents. o Early childhood: if fathers are present, the child tends to have a wider, more  advanced vocabulary o Teen years: girls with absent fathers reach sexual maturation earlier, and have  higher rates of teen pregnancy.  AE Activity #3 o This article is all about early puberty.  o Children are said to be starting puberty earlier and earlier o One reason for this could be xeno­estrogens from the environment­ these are  sources of estrogen that are found in the environment such as: processed foods,  pesticides, toothpaste, certain drinks o PBB­ cattle were accidentally fed grain with the flame retardant PBB. Daughters  born to the pregnant women who drank the milk from these cows or ate their meat showed early menstruation.  o BPA­ found in dental sealants and cash registers. An estrogen mimic  o “Stressful childhood inclines a body toward early reproduction; if like is hard,  best to mature young.” o Lustig believes that these girls are not in puberty because puberty begins with the  brain producing gonadotropin­releasing hormone (GnRH). The estrogen is  initially causing this and not GnRH, so it is not puberty. o Those who are early bloomers face many challenges:  Hormonal and mood changes  Feeling out of place and not fitting in with other class mates  Being treated like they are much older than they are  Bullying   Depression 


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