Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide SOC 100
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Rusnak on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 100 at Ball State University taught by Fang Gong in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Principles of Sociology in Sociology at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
SOC 100:001 Exam 2 Study Guide Culture. 1. What is the definition of culture? a. A set of beliefs, traditions, and practices; the sum total of social categories and concepts we embrace. 2. The Components of culture? a. What are the definitions of the following concepts (with examples of each): i. Symbols- anything that carries a particular meaning. ii. Language- a system of symbols strung together to communicate throughout. Culture is shared because it is communicated through language. iii. Values- moral beliefs. 1. Ex: concept of equal opportunity. iv. Norms- how values tell us to behave. 1. Ex: we value hygiene in our society, so it is a norm that you wash your hands after going to the bathroom. v. Taboos- the strong norms. vi. Mores- norms that most people believe are essential for the survival of their group or society. vii. Folkways- the least important norm. 3. Types of culture (with examples of each): a. High culture- culture consumed mainly by upper classes. b. Low (pop) culture- culture consumed by all classes. c. Subculture- a group united by sets of concepts, values, traits and/or behavioral patterns that distinguish it from others within the same culture or society. i. Ex: Music has subcultures affiliated with hip-hop, hardcore, punk, Christian rock, country, etc. d. Counterculture- a people’s way of life that directly challenges or conflicts with the dominant culture. e. Material culture- everything that is part of our constructed environment. f. Non-material culture- encompasses values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms. 4. Different views of culture: a. Culture shock- disorientation caused by coming into contact with new surroundings. b. Ethnocentrism- the belief that one’s own culture or group is superior to others, and the tendency to all other cultures from the perspective of one’s own. c. Relativism- take into the account the differences across cultures without passing judgement or an assigning value. Socialization. 1. What is the definition of socialization? a. A combination of biology and social interactions make us who we are. b. The process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society. 1 SOC 100:001 Exam 2 Study Guide c. The process by which individuals learn to function as members of that society. 2. What is the nature versus nurture debate? a. Do we learn behavior through nature or nurture or both? i. We learn behavior through nature by heredity/ biological forces with the capacity we have to learn. ii. We learn behavior through nurture by social forces learning and helping to realize our potential. 3. Psychological view of self: a. According to Freud, what are: i. Id- the part of the self the demands immediate gratification. ii. Superego- repository of cultural standards (a personal conscious). iii. Ego- a sense of self; balances the conflicting needs of the id and superego. 4. Sociological view of self: a. According to Cooley, what is: i. Looking-glass self- the “self” emerges from our ability to assume the point of view of others evaluate us. b. According to Mead, what are: i. I- (like id) a subjective and impulsive aspect of the self-present from birth. ii. Me- (like superego) and objective, social component of the self. iii. Other-(life ego) someone or something outside oneself. iv. Significant other- example of a mother. v. Reference groups- example of college students. vi. Generalized other- internalized sense of the total expectations of others in a variety of settings, regardless of whether we’ve encountered those people or places before. Generalized Other (Americans) Reference Group (College Students) Significant Other (Mother) I/Me (Self) 2 SOC 100:001 Exam 2 Study Guide 5. What are the main agents of socialization? a. Family. b. School. c. Peer groups. d. Media. 6. What is resocialization? a. A change in the values, beliefs, or norms through an intense social process. 7. What is total institution? a. An institution in which one is totally immersed that controls all the basics of day-to-day life. Social Interaction. 1. What is social interaction? a. Structures around statuses and roles. 2. Please define the following concepts and give examples for each: a. Status- a recognizable social position one occupies. b. Status set- all the statuses one holds simultaneously. c. Master status- a status that seems to override all others and affects all other statuses that one possesses. d. Ascribed status- involuntary status; something you are born with. e. Achieved status- voluntary status, something you create for yourself. f. Roles- set of expected behaviors. g. Role set- a cluster of roles attached to a single status. h. Role conflict- two or more statuses held at the same time place contradictory role demands. i. Role strain- incompatible role demands are placed on a person in a single status. 3. How do you understand social interaction from the following main theoretical perspectives? a. Dramaturgical theory (impression management)- social life is essentially a theoretical performance, in which we are all actors on metaphorical stages, with roles, scripts, costumes and sets. b. Ethnomethodology- influences of pre-existing norms. c. Conflict theory-statuses are arranged in hierarchies during social interaction. 3
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