New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BIO 1406, Exam 2 (CH 4-8) Study Guide

by: Kristen Johnson

BIO 1406, Exam 2 (CH 4-8) Study Guide 1406

Marketplace > Midland College > Biology > 1406 > BIO 1406 Exam 2 CH 4 8 Study Guide
Kristen Johnson


Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This will cover what will be on the next exam and answers review questions from the professor.
Dr. Mangum
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Biology

Popular in Biology

This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Johnson on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1406 at Midland College taught by Dr. Mangum in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Midland College.


Reviews for BIO 1406, Exam 2 (CH 4-8) Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/09/16
Biology 1406 Exam 2 Review: CH. 4­8 CHAPTER 4: Cell Theory of Life: 1. All living things are made of cells 2. The cell is the smallest unit of life 3. New cells arise only from pre­existing cells Prokaryotic cells:  No nucleus   DNA is concentrated in nucleoid (region unbounded by membrane)  No membrane­bound organelles  Smaller  Plasma membrane   Cytosol   Chromosomes (DNA)  Ribosomes (protein synthesis) Eukaryotic cells: Nucleus bound by membrane Mitochondria Golgi apparatus  Larger  Plasma membrane   Cytosol   Chromosomes (DNA)  Ribosomes (protein synthesis) Prokaryotic: Bacteria & Archaea Structure Description and Function Nucleoid Region where cell’s DNA is located but not enclosed by membrane Ribosome Complexes of RNA and protein molecules that function as site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm  Plasma Found at the boundary of every cell; it functions as a selective barrier that Membrane allows the passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to serve the entire cell. Cell Wall Located outside the plasma membrane; provides the cell with structural support & shape. Capsule  The outer jelly­like coating of the cell; protects the cell, retains moisture, and helps the cell adhere to surfaces and nutrients. Flagella Locomotion organelles of some bacteria Fimbriae Surface adherence or to other cells Eukaryotic: Plant and Animal Cells Structure Description and Function Nucleus  The core of an atom that contains the genetic material in form of chromosomes, made up of chromatin. Nucleolus Specialized structure in nucleus; site of rRNA synthesis  Network of membranous sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis.  Endoplasmic Rough ER: attached ribosomes; secretes glycoproteins                        Reticulum Smooth ER: free of ribosomes; synthesize lipids, metabolize carbs,        detoxify poison, store calcium Ribosomes Free in cytosol or in rough ER; complexes that make proteins Golgi Bodies Active in synthesis, modification, sorting, and secretion of cell products Vesicles Transports substances and nutrients to carious places in the cell Lysosome Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes used to digest macromolecules Vacuole Large vesicles derived from endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies; holds organic compounds & water, maintenance of cell membrane Mitochondria Organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated Chloroplasts Site of photosynthesis; converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules.  Reinforces cell’s shape; made of protein (thinnest to Cytoskeleton thickest=microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules); interacts with motor proteins to produce mobility   Flagella & Cilia Microtubule­containing extensions that project from some cells; responsible for locomotion in the cell.  Centrosome Structure in cytoplasm of cell; functions as a microtubule­organizing center and is important in cell division Cell Wall Outer layer made of cellulose, other polysaccharides, & protein; maintains cell’s shape and protects cell from mechanical damage  Cell Junctions: 1. Plasmodesmata: (found only in plant cells) Membrane­lined channels filled with  cytosol; joins adjacent cells and unifies most of a plant into one living continuum  2. Tight junctions: the plasma membranes of neighboring cells are tightly compressed,  bound by specific proteins; tight junctions prevent leakage of extracellular fluid across a  layer of epithelial cells. 3. Desmosomes: fasten cells together like rivets; desmosomes attach muscle cells to each  other in a muscle.  4. Gap junctions: provide a cytoplasmic channel from one cell to an adjacent cell; gap  junctions are necessary for communications between cells in many types of tissues and in animal embryos.  CHAPTER 5: Fluid Mosaic Model of Cellular Membranes: The membrane has several proteins floating in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids. In some  places, there seem to be more proteins packed together while in in other areas the proteins and lipids are more spread out.  Membrane Proteins and their functions: 1. Integral Proteins: penetrate the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer 2. Peripheral Proteins: attachments loosely bound to surface of the membrane a. Transport: some proteins provide a hydrophilic channel that is selective for  the right solute; other transport proteins shuttle substances from one side to  the other by changing shape. b. Enzymatic activity: a protein built into the membrane may be an enzyme with  its active site exposed to substances in adjacent solution.  c. Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM): certain  elements of the cytoskeleton may be bound noncovalently to membrane  proteins which helps maintain the cell shape and stabilize the location of  specific membrane proteins. d. Cell­Cell recognition: some glycoproteins serve as ID tags that are specifically recognized by membrane proteins of other cells; short­lasting. e. Intercellular joining: membrane proteins of adjacent cells may link together  through junctions (i.e. gap junctions or tight junctions); long­lasting. f. Signal transduction: a membrane protein (receptor) may have a binding site  with a specific shape that fits a chemical messenger. The signaling molecule  may cause the protein to change shape so the message can be relayed to the  inside of the cell.  Cellular Transport: 1. Diffusion: the random thermal movement of particles where in the presence of a  concentration diffusion results in the net movement of a substance from high  concentrated area to lower concentrated area. 2. Osmosis: diffusion of free water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane 3. Facilitated Diffusion: the passage of molecules or ions down their electrochemical  gradient across a biological membrane with the help of certain transport proteins; requires no energy expenditure.  4. Active transport: some transport proteins move a substance through the membrane  against its concentration or electrochemical gradient; requires energy expenditure.  5. Endocytosis: the cell takes in molecules and particles by forming new vesicles from the  plasma membrane.  6. Exocytosis: the fusing of vesicles with the plasma membrane to secrete certain  molecules. 7. Phagocytosis: cell engulfs a particle by wrapping pseudopodia (plasma membrane)  around it and packaging it with a membranous sac, food vacuole. The particle is digested  after the food vacuole is fuses with a lysosome containing hydrolytic enzymes. Cellular Response to Osmotic Solutions:  Isotonic (iso means “same”) environment results in no net movement of water across a  plasma membrane; volume is stable.   Hypertonic environment for a cell means the cell will lose water, shrivel, and probably  die.   Hypotonic environment for a cell results in water entering the cell faster than it leaves  and the cell will swell and burst.  CHAPTER 6: Term:  Definition: 1. Energy  1. The capacity to cause change 2. Metabolism  2. All chemical reactions occurring in cells 3. Catabolism               3. The breaking down of complex molecules into               simpler ones, resulting in the release of energy. 4. Anabolism  4. The consumption of energy to synthesize simple       molecules into complex molecules  5. Kinetic Energy:  5. Energy in motion  6. Potential Energy:  6. Energy in position; stored energy Thermodynamics: Law #1: Energy can be transformed and transferred BUT it cannot be created or destroyed. Law #2: Every energy transfer/transformation increases the entropy (disorder) of the universe. ATP (adenosine triphosphate): Structure: ATP contains the sugar ribose, with the nitrogenous base, adenosine, and a           chain of three phosphate groups bonded to it.   Function: ATP is responsible for mediating most energy coupling, the use of an  exergonic (release of energy) process to drive an endergonic (absorption of energy) one. Chemical Catalysts:  A catalyst increases the speed of a reaction by creating pathways that lower activation energy,  without itself being consumed by the reaction.  Environmental factors affecting enzyme activity:  Temperature: optimal temperature is the point where the enzyme is most active; the  enzymatic reactions drops sharply after a certain temperature.   pH Levels: optimal pH is where the enzyme is most active Enzyme Function: 1. Denaturation: the process by which a protein loses shape and its function because of  changes in pH, temperature, or salt concentration that affects the weak chemical bonds  and interactions. 2. Competitive Inhibitors: bind to the active site of an enzyme competing with the substrate 3. Noncompetitive Inhibitors: bind to another part of the enzyme causing the enzyme to          change shape.  4. Allosteric Regulation: when a protein’s function at one site is affected by the binding of a                 regulatory molecule to a separate site, resulting in  CHAPTER 7: Cellular Respiration: Organic Compounds + Oxygen          Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy C6H 12 +66 O   2          6 CO 2+ 6 H 2 + Energy Aerobic Respiration: Mitochondria are the organelles responsible for Aerobic Respiration. Their inner membrane is  folded inside to form Cristae, which are folded in the Matrix ­ the central part of a  Mitochondrion. During Aerobic Respiration, ATP is produced in the Mitochondria. “Aerobic” = process that uses oxygen  “Anaerobic” = process that DOES NOT use oxygen  Steps of Cellular Respiration: 1. Glycolysis a. Occurs in cytoplasm of cell + b. Chemical requirements: Glucose + 2 Pyruvates + 2 NAD  + 2 ADP c. Net Results: net 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvate  2. Kreb’s Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) a. Occurs in matrix of mitochondria b. Chemical requirements: Acetyl Coenzyme A c. Net Results: 2 ATP, 8 NADH, 2 FADH 4 CO 2,  2 3. Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron Transport + Chemiosmosis a. Occurs in cristae of mitochondria + b. Chemical Requirements: NADH + FADH (electron tr2 sport) create a H   gradient across the membrane  i. NOTE: electron transport generates no ATP directly c. Net results: 28 ATP Chemiosmosis: ATP synthase, an enzyme that actually makes ADP to ATP and inorganic  Phosphate (P).i Fermentation Types:  1. Alcohol fermentation­ pyruvate is converted to ethanol. A) carbon dioxide is released from  the pyruvate and converted to the two­carbon compound acetaldehyde. B) acetaldehyde is  +  reduced by NADH to ethanol; this regenerates the supply of NAD needed for glycolysis.  2. Lactic Acid fermentation­ pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH to form lactate as an end  product, with no release of CO 2  CHAPTER 8: Photosynthesis: 6CO  2 12 H O +2light energy              C H O6+ 12  6 6H O 2 2 Chloroplasts: site of photosynthesis  Found in mesophyll (interior of leaf). Envelope of two membranes surrounding dense fluid,  stroma. Inside the stroma are thylakoids, sacs that separate the stroma from the thylakoid space  inside the sacs. Chlorophyll is the green pigment giving leaves their color and it is stored in the  thylakoids.  Chlorophyll: pigment responsible for capturing light Photosynthesis: 1. Light Reactions a. Occurs in thylakoid membrane  b. Chemical requirements: light energy c. Chemical products: ATP and NADH 2. Calvin Cycle a. Occurs in stroma  b. Chemical requirements: uses ATP and NADH from light reactions c. Chemical products: CO  to2G P (3ugar)


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.