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Nutrition 101 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Felicity Clark

Nutrition 101 Exam 1 Study Guide nutr101

Marketplace > Whatcom Community College > Nutrition > nutr101 > Nutrition 101 Exam 1 Study Guide
Felicity Clark


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completed study guide for exam 1
Laurie Gill
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Felicity Clark on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to nutr101 at Whatcom Community College taught by Laurie Gill in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see nutrition in Nutrition at Whatcom Community College.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
Nutrition 101 Exam 1 Study Guide 1. Identify reasons people eat or factors that influence food choices. 1.1. Factors that influence food choices are preferences, habit, social interactions, values, emotions, ethnic heritage/regional cuisine, availability/convenience/economy, positive/negative associations, body weight/image, and nutritional/health benefits. 2. What is a nutrient? What does essential mean? 2.1. A nutrient is a chemical substance that we get from food that our body uses to provide energy and regulates agents that support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body’s tissues. 2.2. Essential means that you need it, it is something that is very important to the body. 3. What are the six types of nutrients, which ones are organic nutrients, which ones are energy yielding nutrients and the calories per gram they yield, and which are macronutrients? Nutrient Organic? Energy Cal/gram Macronutrie Type (y/n) Yielding? nt? (y/n) (y/n) Carbohydra Yes Yes 4 Cal/gram Yes tes Lipids Yes Yes 9 Cal/gram Yes (Fats) Proteins Yes Yes 4 Cal/gram Yes Vitamins Yes No 0 No Minerals No No 0 No Water No No 0 Yes 4. Be able to calculate calories when given the grams of macronutrients. 4.1. Ex: something has 16gm of carbohydrates, 7gm of proteins and 9gm of fat. 4.2. Multiply: 16x4=64kCal, 7x4=28kCal, and 9x9=81kCal 4.3. Add: 64+28+81=173kCal 4.4. To find percentage of each nutrient ex: (81/173)x100=0.47 or 47% of fat 5. Know the purpose of the Dietary Reference Intake and what each of the following refers to: EAR, RDA, AI, UL. 5.1. The purpose of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is to give a set of standards that define the recommended amount of energy, nutrients and other dietary components and physical activity that is said to best support health. 5.2. Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) is an assumption of how much of a nutrient is needed to maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function for almost all healthy people. 5.3. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the average daily intake of a nutrient that is considered adequate to meet the average requirement for almost all healthy people. 5.4. Adequate Intakes (AI) is a daily amount of sufficient nutrients that is used as a guide when RDA cannot be determined. 5.5. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) is the amount of maximum daily nutrients that is safe for almost all healthy people after which amounts would increase the risk of health effects. 6. What is digestion? What is absorption? 6.1. Digestion us the process by which food is broken down into absorbable units. 6.2. Absorption is the body taking the molecules derived from carbohydrates, proteins, and fat digestion along with vitamins and mineral molecules. 7. Describe the digestive system 7.1. Food enters the mouth and moves through the GI tract which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. The liver, gallbladder and pancreas all help play a role in digestion also. 8. Identify the following features, what role they play in digestion and what happens in each location: 8.1. Mouth 8.1.1.Chews and mixes food with saliva. 8.2. Lips 8.2.1.Temperature regulator, keeps food in the mouth. 8.3. Teeth 8.3.1.Chewing (mastication) of the food. 8.4. Tongue 8.4.1.Food placement, taste, aids in the act of swallowing. 8.5. Salivary Glands 8.5.1.Secrete saliva to help moisten food. 8.6. Bolus 8.6.1.A swallow of food that leaves the mouth and travels though the esophagus to stomach. 8.7. Epiglottis 8.7.1.Protects airway during swallowing. 8.8. Pharynx 8.8.1.Passageway that directs food from mouth to esophagus. 8.9. Esophagus 8.9.1.Passes food from mouth to stomach. 8.10. Upper Esophageal Sphincter 8.10.1. Opens to allow passage from mouth into esophagus and closes to prevent backflow from esophagus into mouth. 8.11. Lower Esophageal (Cardiac) Sphincter 8.11.1. Opens to allow passage of food from esophagus into stomach and closes to prevent backflow from stomach into esophagus. 8.12. Stomach 8.12.1. Churns, mixes, and grinds food to a liquid mass. Adds acid, enzymes and fluid. 8.13. Gastric Juice 8.13.1. Created when the bolus drops into the stomach. Made of gastrin, mucus, enzymes and intrinsic factors. 8.14. Chyme 8.14.1. Semi liquid mass, mix of food and secretions, very acidic, little digestion into stomach. 8.15. Pyloric Sphincter 8.15.1. Opens to allow passage from stomach into small intestine and closes to prevent backflow. 8.16. Small Intestine 8.16.1. Secretes enzymes that digest all energy-yielding nutrients to smaller nutrient particles. Cells of the wall absorb nutrients into blood and lymph. 8.17. Duodenum 8.17.1. The top portion of the small intestine where most digestion/absorption occurs. 8.18. Jejunum 8.18.1. The first two-fifths of the small intestine after the duodenum. Aids in digestion/absorption. 8.19. Ileum 8.19.1. The last segment of the small intestine. Aids in digestion/absorption. 8.20. Common Bile Duct 8.20.1. Drips fluid into the duodenum from the gallbladder and pancreas. 8.21. Bicarbonate 8.21.1. Fluid that is released from the pancreas into the duodenum through the common bile duct. Raises pH levels. 8.22. Digestive Enzymes 8.22.1. Released from pancreas into the duodenum through the common bile duct to help aid in chemical digestion. 8.23. Bile 8.23.1. Made in the liver, stored in the gallbladder, released into duodenum through the common bile duct to help emulsify (break up) fat. 8.24. Folds of Small Intestine 8.24.1. All along small intestine, house villi, microvilli, goblet cells and crypts. Helps aid in absorption. 8.25. Villi 8.25.1. Finger-like projections from the folds of the small intestine that help aid absorption. 8.26. Microvilli 8.26.1. Tiny, hair-like projections on each cell of every villus that can trap nutrient particles and transport them into cells. 8.27. Goblet Cells 8.27.1. Cells of the GI that secrete mucus. 8.28. Crypts 8.28.1. Tubular glands that lie between the intestinal villi and secrete intestinal juices into the small intestine. 8.29. Lymph System 8.29.1. A one-way route from the tissue space for fluid to enter the blood. Has no pump, circulates between cells. 8.30. Ileocecal Valve 8.30.1. The sphincter separating the small intestine from the large intestine. 8.31. Large Intestine 8.31.1. Absorbs water and minerals. Passes waste (fiber, bacteria, and unabsorbed nutrients) along with water to rectum. 8.32. Appendix 8.32.1. Finger-like projection that hangs off the large intestine. Houses bacteria and lymph cells. 8.33. Ascending Colon 8.33.1. First part of the large intestine going upwards in the body. 8.34. Transverse Colon 8.34.1. Second part of the large intestine that crosses the body. 8.35. Descending Colon 8.35.1. Third part of the large intestine heading downwards in the body. 8.36. Sigmoid Colon 8.36.1. Fourth part of the large intestine. Between the sigmoid and the rectum. 8.37. Rectum 8.37.1. Towards the end of the large intestine. Acts as a storage unit until body is ready to get rid of waste. 8.38. Anus 8.38.1. At the end of the large intestine. Contains the internal anal sphincter (involuntary) and the external anal sphincter (voluntary). 9. Know and describe the following and know when and where they occur in the digestive tract. 9.1. Peristalsis 9.1.1.Occurs when the rings that line the GI tract tighten and the longitudinal muscles relax causing the tube to become constricted or when the rings relax and the other muscles tighten causing the tube to bulge. This occurs continuously to push the intestinal contents along. 9.2. Segmentation 9.2.1.In the small intestine, circular muscles contract and squeeze the contents, slowing down peristalsis, maximizing contact between nutrients in the lumen and the lining of the small intestine. Gives time to digest and absorb. 9.3. Sphincter 9.3.1.A circular muscle surrounding, and able to close, bodily openings. They are found at specific points along the GI tract to regulate the passage of food particles from one place to another. 9.4. Mastication 9.4.1.Chewing of food, which occurs in the mouth, by the teeth. 9.5. Reflux 9.5.1.A backwards flow of stomach content that is prevented by sphincter contractions. 9.6. Heartburn 9.6.1.A painful sensation a person feels behind their breastbone that usually occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter allows stomach content to reflux into the esophagus. 9.7. Reversal of Peristaltic Movement 9.7.1.When local irritation occurs causing the smooth muscle contractions to reverse causing food to move in the opposite direction from the duodenum into the stomach. 10. Know these organs and their function in the digestive system. 10.1. Liver 10.1.1. Manufactures bile salts to help digest fats. 10.2. Pancreas 10.2.1. Manufactures enzymes to digest all energy-yielding nutrients and releases bicarbonate to neutralize acid chyme that enters the small intestine. 10.3. Gallbladder 10.3.1. Stores bile until needed. Receives signal that fat is present in the duodenum and releases the bile. 11. Know the following terms and their role in digestion. 11.1. Enzymes 11.1.1. Proteins that facilitate chemical reactions by increasing the rate of reaction and decreasing the activation energy required. 11.2. Carbohydrates 11.2.1. An enzyme that hydrolizes carbohydrates. 11.3. Lipase 11.3.1. An enzyme that hydrolizes lipids. 11.4. Protease 11.4.1. An enzyme that hydrolizes proteins. 11.5. Hormones 11.5.1. Chemical messengers secreted by a variety of glands in response to altered conditions in the body. 11.6. Gastrin 11.6.1. A hormone secreted by cells in the stomach wall. 11.7. Secretin 11.7.1. A hormone produced by cells in the duodenum wall. 11.8. Cholecystokinin 11.8.1. A hormone produced by cells of the intestinal wall. 11.9. Glands 11.9.1. Exocrine glands secrete to the exterior of the body, to a duct or to hollow organs. 11.9.2. Endocrine glands secrete into the blood. 12. Know the difference between Anabolic or Dehydration Synthesis reactions and Catabolic or Hydrolysis reactions. 12.1. Anabolic synthesis usually requires energy while catabolic reactions release energy that is used to drive chemical reactions.


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