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Exam 2 Review

by: Janice Prieto

Exam 2 Review Bio 230

Janice Prieto
La Salle
GPA 2.65

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About this Document

I took the study guide the professor posted and added all of the info that we needed to know both from the power points and my note for any information that wasn't on the power point.
James O. Church
Study Guide
Biology: Ecology and Evolution
50 ?





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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Janice Prieto on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 230 at La Salle University taught by James O. Church in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see EVOLUTION & ECOLOGY in Biology at La Salle University.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
Study Guide: Exam 2, BIO 230, Spring 2016. Protists  Symbiosis: interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both  Endosymbiosis: symbiosis in which one of the symbiotic organisms lives inside the other  4 supergroups of Eukarya o Excavata (Heterotrophic, photosynthetic autotrophs)  Diplomonads  Lack plastids  Reduced mitochondria  Anaerobic environment  2 nuclei and multiple flagella  Parabasalids  Reduced mitochondria, hydrogenesomes  Sexually transmitted parasite  Many live in the gut of bacteria  Euglenozoans  Diverse clades including: predatory heterotroph, photosynthetic autotroph, mixotroph, and parasites  Spiral or crystalline rod inside their flagella  Kinetoplastids  Large mitochondrion  Consumers of prokaryotes in freshwater, marine water, and moist terrestrial  Some are parasitic  Trypasoma  Evades immune system by switching surface proteins  A cell produces millions of copies of a protein, each new generation produces copies of a different protein  Prevents host from developing immunity  Euglenids  1-2 flagella that emerge from a pocket at the end of the cell  Some can be both autotrophs and heterotrophic o SAR Clade (Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizarians)  Diatoms  Unicellular algae (photosynthetic)  Glass like wall of silicon dioxide (herbivore deterant)  Major part of phytoplankton and highly diverse  Produces a lot of oxygen  Golden Algae  Named for their color (yellow and brown carotenoids)  Cells are biflagellated with both flagella together (big and small)  All are photosynthetic but some are moxotrophs  Most are unicellular and some are colonial  Brown Algae  Largest most complex algae  Multicellular, most are marine  Includes many species commonly called seaweed  Used as food thickeners (salad dressing)  Analogous with plants (same characteristics and different ancestors)  Giant seaweed have rootlike holdfast, stemlike stipe, and leaflike blades  Dinoflagellates  2 flagella  Reinforced cell by cellulose plates  Abundant components of both marine and freshwater phytoplankton  Diverse group of aquatic phototrophs, mixotrophs, and heterotrophs  Toxic “red tides” caused by blooming (neurotoxin)  Apicomplexans  Parasites for animals and can cause serious human diseases  Spread through host as infectious cells called sporozoites  The apex (the end) contains organelles specialized for penetrating the host cell/tissue  Sexual and asexual stages that require 2+ different host species to complete  Ciliates  Named after use of cilia (locomotion and feeding)  They eat bacteria and small protists  Large macronuclei and small micronuclei  Genetic variation through conjugation (sexual process)  Forams  Many have symbiotic algae  Makes shells  Live in ocean/freshwater  Used in climate study  Cercozoans  Include most amoeboid and flagellated protists with threadlike pseudopodia  Common in soil, marine, freshwater  Most are heterotrophs  Radiolarans  Threadlike pseudopodia  Symmetrical  Contains symbiotic algea o Archaeaplastida  Red Algae  Red due to pigment called phycoerythrin (PE)  Green/re in shallow water and dark red/black in deep water  Usually multicellular  Most abundant large algae in tropics  Chlorophytes  Most live in freshwater  Unicellular, colonial, multicellular  Charophytes  Most closely related to plants o Unikonta  Slime Molds  Resemble fungi due to convergent evolution  2 lineages  Plasmodial  Brightly pigmented (yellow or orange)  Multinucleated cells (plasmodium)  Cellular  Multicellular but cells are separated by their membrane  Can reproduce asexually and sexually  Tubulinids  Diverse group of amoebozoans with lobe or tube shaped pseudopodia  Common unicellular protists in marine, freshwater, and soil  Most are heterotrophic and actively seek/consume bacteria and protists  Entamoebas  Parasites of vertebrates and some invertebrates  Cause amebic dysentery  Nucleariids  Sister group of the fungi kingdom  Threadlike pseudopodia  Unknown kingdom and phylum, eukarya domain  Choanoflagellates  Sister group to Animalia kingdom  If I list the characteristics of a protist, you should be able to identify which it is. These questions may be multiple choice or fill-in-the-blank.  Giardia intestinalis (parasite that causes giardiasis, found on/in food, soil, or water that was contaminated with feces)  Trichomonas vaginalis (sexually transmitted infection caused by a protozoan)  Trichomonas termopsidis (protest parasite of vertebrates)  Trypanosoma (group of unicellularparasitic flagellated protozoa)  If I were to show a diagram of a Brown Algae, you should be able to identify the Blade, Stipe, and Holdfast o Also know that these structures are analogous to similar structures in land plants  Alternation of generations o What is it? Be able to describe this concept. Know the ploidy-level of gametophytes, sporophytes, gametes, spores.  Sporophytes are diploid  Spores are haploid (produced via meiosis)  Gametophyte is haploid  Gametes are haploid (produced via mitosis)  Plasmodium causes malaria  Ciliates exchange genetic material through conjugation  Ciliates reproduce through binary fission  Phycoerythrin (PE if it is a fill in the blank) this is the pigment that gives red algae its color  What is a lichen? A symbiotic relationship between photosynthetic microorganisms and fungi  Be able to give an example of ______________ protists o Symbiotic (Entamoeba) o Parasitic (trypasoma) Fungus  ~How many species are there? 1.5+ million species  Chitin (strong flexible polysaccharide in fungal walls)  Hyphae (tiny filaments)  Mycelium (networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption)  Septate  Coenocytic ( multinucleate cell)  Haustoria (specialized hyphae to penetrate the tissue of their host)  Mycorrhizae (mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots) o Ecto- Mycorrhizae form sheaths of hyphae over a root o Arbuscular Mycorrhizae extent hyphae through the cell walls of root cells  Lichens o Most often from the Phylum Ascomycota o 3 forms of lichen (fruticose, folios, and crustose)  Pneumocystus  Phylum Chytridiomycota o Be able to recognize this phylum if I list the characteristics o Flagellated zoospores (Chytrids) o Ecological roles  Decomposers  Parasites  mutualist o Batrachytrium dendrobatidis  “BD”  1,000 species  Some form colonies with hyphae  Some are unicellular  Aquatic, marine  Parasites (has killed 100 species of amphibians) and mutualist  Phylum Zygomycota o Know the characterisitics  Life cycle is sexual and asexual  Hyphae are coenocytic (no cepta between nuclei)  Fast growing molds, parasites, and commensal symbionts (one is benefited the other is not affected) o Be able to describe the life cycle  Which parts are  Haploid  Diploid  Heterokaryotic  Phylum Basidiomycota o Know the characteristics  Mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi  Some form mycorrhizae, others are plant parasites  Clublike structure called basidium (diploid stage in life cycle)  “club fungi” are decomposers of wood o How are “fairy rings” formed?  Spore or hyphal fragment and grow outward, forming a thick mycelium where mushrooms grow in a circle o Be able to describe the life cycle  Haploid basidiospores germinate (2 mating types)  The life cycle of a basidiomycete usually includes a long-lived dikaryotic mycelium (2 haploid nuclei per cell)  After environmental stimuli the mycelium reproduces sexually by producing elaborate fruiting bodies (basidiocarps)  Mitosis (still dikaryotic) produces mushrooms  Karyogamy (nuclei fuses), forming a diploid basidiocarps  Once the nuclei fuse meiosis produces a basidium (4 haploid nuclei)  Cell division produces 4 haploid basidiospores  Phylum Glomeromycota o 150+ Species o Obligate Symbiont (can’t grow without plant host) o Penetrate roots of plants  Phylum Ascomycota (“sac fungi”) o Sexual and Asexual Reproduction  Contain spores in saclike asci contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps  Reproduce asexually through asexual spores called conidia (produced in tips of specialized hyphae called conidiophores) o Yeasts are in this phylum o Conidia (asexual spores) o Conidiophores (specialized hyphae that produce conidia) o Ascus (sac containing 8 ascospores) o Ascospores (a fungal spore produced sexually inside a membranous spore case ascus) o Which phases are haploid, dikaryotic, diploid?  Ecological functions of fungi o Decomposers o parasites  Human uses of fungi o Food o Medicine o harvesting


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