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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by megan Notetaker on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to des113 at Independence University taught by Instructor Julie Luke in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see typography in typography1 at Independence University.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Week 4 Readings Des 113 typography • Grids- Pages: 153- Alphabetic writing is like: ⇒ Most writing systems ⇒ Organized into columns ⇒ And rows of characters Handwriting is like: ⇒ Flows into connected lines ⇒ Mechanics of metal type impose as a stricter order ⇒ Each letter occupies its own block ⇒ The letters congregate in orderly rectangles ⇒ The are stored in gridded cases ⇒ The characters become an archive of elements ⇒ Matrix of existing forms from which each page is composed. Up until the 20 century grids served as frames for fields of text. The margins of a classical book page create a pristine barrier around a flush, solid block of text. *Polyglot- (multilingual) books that are display a text in several different languages simultaneously, demanding complex divisions of the surfaces. * Typography is by large an art of framing a form designed to melt away as it yields itself to content. Designer’s focus on: 1.) Margins 2.) Edges 3.) Empty spaces 4.) Elements that oscillate between present and absent 5.) Visible and invisible Then with print came: 1.) Page numbers 2.) Running heads 3.) Commentary 4.) Notes 5.) Ornaments These became the user interface of the book Week 4 readings Data tables page 204 (thinking with type) The design of charts and graphs is a rich area of typographic practice. In a data table the grid acquires semantic significance. Columns and rows contain different types of content that readers can scan and quickly compare. Designers and (software defaults) often over emphasize the linear grid of a table rather than allowing the typography to command the page and stake out its own territory. As columns of text align visually they create implied grid lines on the page or screen. Des113 typography week 4 notes for reading (thinking with type) Letter/ typefaces on screen page 72 In the early years of the World Wide Web designers were forced to work within the narrow range of typefaces commonly installed on the computers of their users. In approach specially formatted fonts are hosted on a third- party server and then downloaded by users. Verdana- designed by the legendary typographer Matthew Carter in 1996 it was designed to be used for digital display. Verdana Has: 1.) Large x-height 2.) Simple curves 3.) Open forms 4.) Loose spacing Georgia- was designed by Matthew carter as well in 1996 its use was for Microsoft and it is widely used on the web the features of Georgia are: 1.) Sturdy strokes 2.) Simple curves 3.) Open counters 4.) Generous spacing Anti-aliasing- creates the appearance of smooth curves on screen by changing the brightness of the pixels or the sub pixels along the edges of each letterform. Photoshop and other software packages allow designers to: -Strong -Weak Anti-aliasing. • If this is displayed at very small sizes strongly anti-aliasing type can look extremely blurry. It also increases the number of colors in an image files. Bitmap typefaces page 74 • Bitmap typefaces are built out of pixels (picture elements) that structure a screen display or other output device. • True bitmap character contains the following: - A fixed number of rectilinear units displayed either on or off - Used on devises such as 1.) Cash registers 2.) Signboard displays 3.) Various small screens Bitmap typeface page 74 thinking with type Most contemporary bitmap typefaces are not true bitmaps 1.) They are drawn as outlines on a grid and then output as - Postscript - Open type fonts - True type Type face design page 76 thinking with type Font lab and other applications allow designers to create functional fonts that work endlessly with standard software programs such as: - InDesign - Photoshop Designing a typeface: Step 1: Define a basic concept. - Will the letters be serif or sans serif? - Will they be modular or organ? - Will you construct the geometrically or base them on handwriting? - Will you use them for display or for text? - Will you work with historic source material or invent the characters more or less from scratch? Step 2: Create drawings: - Start with pencil before working with digital. - Others decide with font design software instead of pencil and paper. - Begin with drawing a few core letters such as o, u, h and n. building: - Curves - Lines - And shapes that will reappear through out the font. The letters in a typeface are distinct from each other. They share many attributes with each other that include: - X-height - Line weight - Stress - Common vocabulary of forms and proportions You can control the spacing of the typeface by adding blank areas next to each character as well as creating Kerning pairs- determine the distance between particular characters of a letter or sentence. Font formats page 80 thinking with type Where do fonts come from? Why are there so many formats? 1.) Fonts come loaded with your computers operating system. 2.) Other fonts are bundled with software packages Most of these fonts are widely distributed typefaces are of the highest quality such as: -Adobe Garamond Pro -Hoofer text Other fonts that are included are: -Comic sans -Papyrus -Apple chancery Design snobs everywhere revile these. In order to purchase more fonts you will have to purchase them from digital type foundries. -Adobe -Font shop The different font formats reflect technical innovations and business arrangements developed overtime. Older font formats are still generally useable on modern operating systems. Font licensing page 82 Who is the user of a typeface? -The user of the typeface is the reader - Before a set of letters can find their way onto the cover of a book or the back of a cereal box they must pass through the hands of another user: which is the designer. Digital fonts are easy to: -Copy -Alter -And distribute When you purchase a font you accept and agree to the user license agreement (EULA) that limits you to how you can use it. It is illegal to open a font file in font lab and add new glyphs or alter some of its characters. Most EULAS do allow you to alter the outlines of a font for use in a logo or headline however as long as you do not alter the software itself. A broadly usable typeface includes numerous weights, styles, and characters as well as a strong underlying design. Fonts are expensive because they are carefully crafted products. Text: thinking with type page 87 -Letters gather into words, words build into sentences. In typography “text” is defind as an on going sequence of words distinct from shorter headlines or captions. -The main block is of text is called the body which comprising the principle mas of content. -This is also known as running text it can flow from one page, column, or box to another box. Text can also be viewed as a thing—sound and sturdy object. Text Page 80: Pictures Captions Page numbers Banners Buttons Menus are some of the things that surround type. Designers generally treat a body of text consistently letting it appear as a coherent substance that is distributed across the spaces of a document. Digital media- Broken down text into chunks can accessed by search engines and hyperlinks Designers provide ways into and out of the flood of words they break: -Text into pieces and offerings shortcuts and alternate routes through masses of information. -From simple indent (signaling the entrance to a new idea -Highlighted link (announcing a jump to another location) Typography helps readers navigate the flow of content. Vertical Text pages 120-124 Roman letters are designed to sit side by side, not on top of one another stacks of lower case letters are especially awkward because the ascenders and descenders make the vertical spacing appear uneven and the varied width of the characters makes the stacks looks precarious. (The letter I is a perennial problem.) 1.) Capital letters form more stable stacks than lower case letters. 2.) Centering the columns helps to even out the differences in width. Asian writing systems including Chinese are traditionally written vertically; the square shape of the characters supports this orientation. Captions pages 130- 131 The placement and styling of captions affect the readers experience as well as the visual economy and impact page layouts. Some of the audience is primarily attracted to -Pictures -Captions While other members of the audience prefer to follow a dominant: -Written narrative -Illustrations (in place of text) With a readers perspective close proximity of captions and images is a welcome convenience placing captions adjacent to pictures is not always and efficient use of space designers should approach such problems editorially Keep captions essential to understanding keep them close to images. Editing pages 212-217 The onslaught of desktop publishing back in the dark days of the mid-1980s graphic designers have taken on roles formerly occupied by distinct trades such as: -Typesetting -Mechanical paste-up Designers are often expected to be editors as well. If a project team includes no properly trained editor, try to find one. Make sure someone is responsible for this crucial role; failure to edit carefully is the source of costly and embarrassing errors. Editing text has three basic phases: 1.) Developmental editing- addresses broad issues of the content and the structure of a work or project. 2.) Copy editing- (also called line editing or manuscript editing) seeks these • Redundancies • Grammatical errors • Other flaws that appear in the work. The copy editor who must study every word and sentence is not expected to question the overall meaning of the project. The editor checks the following: • Correctness • Consistency • Flow of design • Typeset pages Many design teams go through these very steps several times before submission of a project. Anatomy of an error- After a document has been written • Written • Proofread • Edited • Designed The printer from the digital files supplied by the designer creates a printer’s proof. Lecture Video Sunday October 5, 2016 The function of a grid: • Breaks space into regular balanced units (different column options) • Establishments a system for arranging content within a space • Grids are about you having control! • Skeletal structure that –“ melts away” A graphic design grid organizes text, graphic elements and images across the layout area of your screen. A grid can consist of a signal of columns. You will want to determine a grid structure at the beginning of a project, and adhere to it when placing your design elements. Its better to go with a two or three columns grid than a single column. Always start your design project with a grid. Grids • Are your friends as a designer Types of different grids: *One column grid *Multi column grid * Modular grid Fludidity of content • Makes the text flow from letter to letter> word to word> line to line> paragraph to paragraph> column to column> page to page. • Consistency is key! Fonts and alignment • Consider font size, tracking, leading/line spacing “color” of the text • Paragraph divisons Rule # 14 Make sure to clearly indicate paragraphs but be careful not to upset the intergrity and visual consistency of the text. The two most common ways of indicating paragraphs are indenting or inserting additional spacing between the lines. Pull quotes • Something interesting from the text to catch the audience attention. • Use contrast techniques to “pull out” color, size, font style and placement. • Make sure to have plenty of space around the pull quote and not to interrupt the text in an uncomfortable way. Captions • Captions are low on the hierarchy • Explains content of an image or graphic • Connects its relevance to the text • Give credit to a contributor –photographer artist ect. • Be sure that the text is easily distinguishable as a separate information form from the text and that it connects visually with the image it is describing. • Alignment suitable to position. Composition: • In the visual arts composition is the placement arrangement or putting together of visual elements in a work of art, arranged using conscious thought. • It can also be thought of as the organization of the elements of art according to the principles of desing Design principles for text use: -Unity, variety, balance, rhythm, emphasis, contrast, space, proportion and scale. Basic Rules: 1.) Stay out of dead center ( only) rule of third 2.) Stay of corners (only)- distracting. 3.) Keep balanced space between the objects. 4.) Use cropping for interest 5.) Fill the space evenly 6.) Have a center of interest-Hierarchy 7.) Use odd numbers, rather than even. Intrgration C.R.A.P * Contrast/ emphasis * Reptition/ Unity *Alignment/ Balance *Proximity/ Grouping Contrast/ Emphasis • creates a visually interesting design • Leads and directs the eye of the reader through your intended path • Create hierarchy through contrast in size, color, shape, placement. Repetion/ Unity • Creates a visually cohesive design • Creates a continuity in text and concept for the reader • Creates unity through repetition by repeating similar shapes colors and fonts making sure elements have a friend. Alignment/Balance • Symmetrical balance: static stability, formality, restful -achived by making all elements visually equal on all sides. * Asymmetrical balance- dynamic activity, informal, eye catching -achived by making an odd number of elements or where the elements are off center incorporating the white space in the design * Note- visual center of a page: slightly higher than the actual center. Proximity/Grouping: • Creates logical and visual connections by grouping text/objects that belong together in closer promixity to each other • Creates visual focus by leaving adequate space around individual and a group of objects even and generous margins enough space to separate text and images • Proximity rules: Keep things from moving off the page, or being split by space.
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